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benefactors to their age and country. funds now selfishly locked up. As it But, in reality, they did either too was, they did little more than awaken much or too little. They touched, the alarm-cry of the Church in danger, instead of grasping, the nettles. They without winning much, after all, of the meddled with what they should either confidence of the other bodies; and have let altogether alone, or dealt with the result was the paralysing of their far more thoroughly and decidedly than own power for effecting real good, by they did. They "observed the wind" too any movement, ecclesiastical or educaanxiously, and too narrowly watched tional, on any scale of extent and and "regarded the clouds ;” and hence energy at all adequate to the emergency. it was their fate neither “ to sow," to It would seem that the party have much purpose, nor yet " to reap.' learned wisdom by experience. Not They went just far enough in their in- a whisper is there now, on their return terference with the Establishments, to to power, of interference with any exdo harm; and not far enough to have isting establishment; nó appropriathe satisfaction even of defeat in doing tion clause : no inquiry into sinecures : real good.
They saw the popular no reform of any sort: and no reparty in the Church of Scotland be- trenchment. The policy is changed. ginning the career of improvement, “ Let sleeping dogs lie," is now to be and set no bounds to their approba- the motto. Even the Scotch Establishtion and applause. But when the ment is to be treated as if nothing had very course they had at first encour- happened: and neither bishoprics, nor aged, led to the difficulties and embar- pluralities, nor colleges, nor cathedrals, rassments which ultimately broke up are to be looked into. The understandthat Church, the Liberal Government ing would seem to be, that these things looked on unmoved, and handed down are to be all let alone. As to what is to their successors the unsettled and done with the public endowments at vexatious question of jurisdiction, home, and the public grants abroad, which, had there been a very little devoted to pious uses, no question is to: timely foresight and courage on their be asked. But the nation is to be set, part, need never have been raised. full cry, on the equalizing of the whole So, as to the English and Irish Esta- system, by new votes, promiscuously, to blishments, they approached the really any, or to all, opinions. tender parts with so delicate a hand, There may be worldly wisdom in all while, at the same time, they raised this, and our Liberal statesmen may. so loud a cry of sacrilege, by their at- reap the reward of it. But a calm tempt to regulate the purse, that the observer can scarcely fail to wonder enormous abuses of these Churches re- at the readiness with which, on all mained entire, and the only effect of sides, the sop seems to be taken. How the m tated reform was to create the feeble and unreal, now, is the demand reaction of which Puseyism is the fruit. for a redress of the grievances of exThe truth is, they had too many mas- isting establishments, whether educaters, and too many parties to please. tional or ecclesiastical, in any other They were not Churchmen: bat they way than by endowing Popery, and had church-interests and church-pre- supporting all sects alike. Only give judices to consult for. They were not grants to Rome and educate liberally, Voluntaries: but they stood in awe of without respect to creed; and we will voluntary influence. Had they been ask no questions as to the institutions less afraid of the Dissenters, they that we used to canvass and condemn. might have done more for Church re- Foremost in applauding this liberal form, and for making existing endow- style of policy, are Conservative Statėsments really more available, in educa- men and Churchmen, from the highest tion as well as in religion. Had they to the lowest. Churchmen like Dr been less wedded to Church patronage, Hook, and Statesmen like the Quarthey might have done more towards the terly Review, vie with one another in retrenchment of needless waste, and to- making concessions to the spirit of Liwards setting free for national purposes beralism. Not a whisper now of the
exclusive right of the Church to educate, community thus marshalled in two and the special duty of the State to as- classes. We do not dwell on the happy sist the Church, alone. Fair play is scene that would be presented in the now all the vogue; a fair field and no Dissenting apartment, during the favour; all to be on equal terms; the hours of separate religious instruction, public money to be divided indiscri- with a Babel of creeds and catechisms minately among schools of all sorts, making confusion worse confounded. in which religion may be taught by It would be quite too much to ask that all sorts of men; Episcopalians, Con- Mother Church should condescend to gregationalists, Methodists, Papists, be placed on a level, in point of acSocinians, Socialists, just as the case commodation and authority, with any
one or more of the other religious Is there nothing under this sudden bodies, severally and distinctively confriendship struck up between the ex- sidered,—though she may consent to treme of High Church Conservatism on slump them all together, and say to the one hand, and the most Ultra-liber- them, in the mass, you and I shall alism, in politics and religion, on the have separate rooms to ourselves. But other? We have no wish to impute we venture to hint a more serious draw. motives, or to suspect plots. We be- back upon this fine-seeming scheme of lieve Dr Hook to be perfectly honest equality. We take leave to whisper in his educational zeal; and we give that there is a small preliminary matter the Quarterly Reviewer all credit for to be adjusted. If we are to have a wishing well to the people of England; fair fight, let us both strip for it. All though we think, considering all things, very well for you, Dr Hook, and your he need not have been so vehement in friends of the Establishment, to make abusing those who still have some lin- a flourish about coming down to an gering remains of his own old scruples equal field. But be good enough, and misgivings, on the subject of an first, to dismiss your State retinue, and irreligious education. (See the Num- put off your State accoutrements, and ber of the Quarterly Review just then, if you please, let us have a published.) We are willing also friendly tussle for it. The scheme, in to regard the enthusiastic compli- truth, of this learned divine is a very ments paid to the Vicar of Leeds, by ingenious one, and marvellously wise. the Messrs Chambers of Edinburgh, The State invites equally all the as a pure tribute to the Doctor's pa- Churches in the land to come and give triotism, irrespective of any “ vesti- religious instruction in its schools. ges” these shrewd observers may Well. The Churches hasten to obey trace in his plan, of what is probably the call. But mark the difference. more congenial to them than Trac- The Dissenting Churches have their tarianism. (See Chambers' Journal.) hands full of other work; the EstabBut we cannot help offering a sug- lishment has its hands comparatively gestion to those who are so apt to free. Take away the advantage which be carried away by the apparent fair- the Establishment has in being supness and equality of this new levelling ported by endowments and grants of proposal of Dr Hook. That it is public money, and then there may plausible, in this view, we admit. It be some propriety in bidding the Dishas a show of liberality. What could senters compete with it on equal terms. possibly be more impartial ?
Can any one of common discernment ligious bodies are to be on the same fail to see how the thing would work ? footing. Two rooms are to be pro- Take the town of Leeds. Suppose vided in every school-one for Dis- some fifty schools set up there, on Dr senters as well as one for Churchmen Hook's
's plan. Each has its two rooms for to impart religious instruction; and the separate religious instruction. The promoney of the State is to be given in- per hours on the proper days are sacredly discriminately to both. Now, we do set apart. Teachers of all opinions are not stay to remark upon the obvious made welcome to come and gather absurdity of having the whole religious classes among the children. What
next? A strong body of Tractarian But the getting up of this fragmentary clergy are instantly ready and on the appendix, or small supplement, of realert. No more of that begging for ligion, to be pinned on, like a purple school funds, which Dr Hook tells us, rag, to the texture of secular training now occupies their time so much, and which the State undertakes to furnish, tries their temper still more. Every- is a very different matter indeed. We thing is provided for them in the have no hesitation in predicting that, schools; and they are themselves pro- if the plan of Dr Hook, or anything vided for the schools; and at once they like it, be ever carried out, he and his begin. Meanwhile, where are the dis- Tractarian friends will make their own senting agents? The ordinary teach- of it. Even the Evangelical party in the ers of the schools, we must suppose, English Church would, in a great deare, on the average, neutral, The gree, be placed at a disadvantage under Dissenting Churches are no longer led it. They are, like the godly Dissenters, to train religious teachers for them- too busy with the more spiritual duties selves. Their ministers are few and of their calling, and, alas, too divided overwrought already. Any efforts and disorganized among themselves, to they could make would be but desul- be able to give much time and attention tory and feeble. The Dissenting-room
and united action to this scholastic might be occupied by a succession of work, however important. It is the visitors of different denominations, High Church section, with its swarms each returning at a long interval to of cathedral dignitaries and Oxford his labour of love. Sometimes it might priests—all animated by a new-born be the scene of a unitarian or infidel zeal, that could really furnish the men harangue; and often it might stand and the means for putting a goodly empty altogether. The Church-room, and glowing apostolic selvage round all the while, is well filled with chil- the mantles of neutral tint with which dren, and duly supplied with clerical the wise men of our day would fain drilling in the mysteries of godfather clothe the shoulders of the rising geneand godmother--the charm of baptism, ration. and the merit of hating dissent. Is The policy of High Church, therethere any doubt where all this would fore, is clear; and old Toryism sees end? Is not Dr Hook shrewd enough the way also to a revival. It hated to see to what it is tending?
the Reform Bill, but worked the regisIt is one thing, we observe, in pass- tration courts. It hated also the ending, for a Dissenting Church to provide less clamour about education ; but now, religious teachers for doing the whole when it cannot help it, it will work work of their schools; it is quite an- the schools. We most firmly believe, other thing to get up separate religi- that as matters now stand, public naous instruction for four hours a-week. tional support, on a large scale, and on The former is comparatively an easy the most liberal and latitudinarian task. The latter is one for which the footing, would very soon be seen to be Establishment, as such, possesses very the giving away of money for strengthobvious and very unfair advantages. ening the English and Irish establishThere are two ways of it. Let ments, promoting Puseyism, and
preChurch Establishments be abolished; paring the way for the endowment of and then religious bodies are on a very Popery; if that measure, indeed, be different footing for the trial of this not associated with the other. experiment. Or even, Church Esta- We are well aware that we expose blishments remaining, let the several ourselves to a vehement and indignant religious bodies be summoned to fur- outcry, when we presume to arraiga nish and equip teachers, not half- any of the new plans of national eduteachers, but whole-teachers, who will cation. We regard very little the regive a religious education in all the proach of the mere infidel portion of branches of school instruction; and we the press or of the community, who have no apprehension of the Dissent- are ready now, as it would seem, to coning Churches failing to do their duty. sent to almost any measure of policy and expenditure of public money, if only tholicity, without divesting them of a evangelical truth and righteousness be distinctively religious character, acnot put forward to trouble them. And cording to the one common creed and to others, we would say, that we trust catechism in which these Churches gewe are not insensible to the enormous nerally concur. At the same time, magnitude of the existing evil, in the there are difficulties, too, on which we prevailing popular ignorance among need not at present enlarge, but which us ; notwithstanding our honest con- will readily occur to those who consider viction that the Churches of Christ are the spirit of the age and the present better parties to deal with it, as mat- temper of men's minds; and it must ters now stand, than governments that be obvious that it might prove far have renounced their allegiance to easier to obtain a partial and precaGod's truth, and tell us plainly they rious concession, in the way of a relaxacannot discern it from Satan's lying tion of the tests now in force, than such delusions. If Government is to do real a thorough re-construction of the whole good to the cause of God just now, it is system, including the entire adjustment by withdrawing present endowments, of patronage, superintendence, and rather than by granting new ones. If other details, as alone ought to satisfy they want work, let them deal with ex- the ristian people of Scotland. isting establishments. If they have There is another subject, also, on money to spare, let them remit taxes. which we wish to be understood as reIt looks like a device certain parties serving ourselves for a fuller consideare now trying, to stop the just call for ration and discussion of it; we refer reform and retrenchment, by an ultra- to the questions that might arise, unliberal cry of endowment to Popery, der a Government scheme of indiscriand the latitudinarian watchword of minate endowment, as to the lawfuleducation without a creed.
ness, the expediency, and the proprieWe have said nothing on the sub- ty, of a Christian Church accepting ject of reforming the existing educa- salaries, upon such a system, for the tional establishments. We purposely teachers of its schools. The questions reserve all questions respecting the to which we refer would require more kind of reform that ought to satisfy elaboration than we can now afford to reasonable and Christian men; as well give them ; especially as they become as in regard to the duty and propriety complicated and mixed up with various of attempting an agitation or popular aspects of its own peculiar position movement with that view the best and peculiar testimony, in the case of way of making the attempt, if it is to a body so situated as is the Free be made and the chances of success or Church of Scotland. Besides, we of safety with such governments and really cannot regard this as a very parliaments, as we are likely to have, urgent iuquiry—“ sufficient unto the in the present state of parties and opi- day is the evil thereof.” There will nions throughout the country. As to be time enough for us to determine the Scottish parochial schools, in par about receiving, while Government and ticular, we would desire to be under Parliament are deliberating about stood as by no means committed on any giving; and, for our own part, we of the questions we have indicated. cannot but believe, both that it will be The monstrous injustice of the present a harder thing than many anticipate to arrangement, by which these schools adjust the terms of the proposed neuare tied to the small sect in Scotland trality or amity, that, for ought we now recognized by law as the National know, is to embrace the extremes of Church, is as apparent and as intoler- Popery and Atheism—and also, that able as the continued establishment of while these preliminaries are in course that sect itself. There are peculiar fa- of being settled, the paying party, to cilities, also, in Scotland, if its various wit, the taxed and tolerant public, will Presbyterian communities could agree begin to rub the eye of re-awakening about the matter, for imparting to the economy, and gently ask, if there is no parish schools enough of practical ca- previous question about existing
funds, to be disposed of, before the in a situation to go on with the work purse is opened for the supply of of education, on her own high model,
and for her own holy ends, let her not Our chief fear, we confess, at pre- be misled by an ignis fatus, or dissent, i3-lest discussions as to what tracted by rumours of lo here-lo Government may do, or as to how, in there. Time is precious : and whatcertain hypothetical circumstances, a ever may be coming, it is a mighty Christian Church might or should act, thing to have the start. Let that -lead away attention from the dis- Church, then, whatever others may discharge of immediate duty. Some do, and whatever she might do in other parties, we are afraid, would rejoice in circumstances, make haste to realize this; and there might be satisfaction, her own ideal,-not of what is merely in certain quarters, if unity of council tolerable, but of what is right and of were broke, and instant energy of what is best. And she is on safe and action prevented, by such doubtful high ground, whatever may
betide. questions. But if there be a Church
RECORD OF PRESENT AND PASSING PERSECUTIONS.
We intend to devote regularly a godly man, it seems, may think himportion of our space to this dark sub- self very well off, if his own personal ject. We do so from a strong sense godliness is patiently endured. Should of duty. We have no pleasure in he venture out of his privacy, and narrating instances of cruelty. We speak to his neighbours about Christ, have no wish to depreciate the liber- it is at his own peril. He is responality of the age. We will not rake sible for any tumult that ensues; and up the horrors of former days: nor the notion of protecting either him or will we lay ourselves out to canvass his converts, is a wild dream. We look for fresh horrors now. The ordinary for more indications of the persecutchannels of intelligence will suffice for ing spirit, as evangelical religion rises our materials. We have no desire to in Missionary enthusiasm. We mean blacken the Greek or Roman Churches; to be on the watch, to note the pronor would we do injustice even to in- gress of events. fidelity itself. But we have a deep Three instances offer themselves for conviction that we are entering fast
our present number. We had deon an era of revived and aggravated signed to add a fourth-Tahiti-but hostility to the truth. We believe, also, we postpone that disastrous scene. that not only will bigotry resort to
I. Let the Greek Church and the measures of extremest violence against Greek mob have the precedence. Dr it, but these measures will be tolerated King, the devoted American Missionor applauded by all sorts of men. The
ary at Athens, had dared, it seems, to fact is, the Gospel is every where becoming troublesome ; and there will publish a book, some time ago, with
some reflections against the worship of be a general combination to put down, not perhaps the tame profession of it, stand his trial; and the following is
the Virgin. For this he is indicted to but any thing like zeal to extend it. Is it not an ominous symptom of the his situation. It is contained in a
his own simple and graphic account of state of public opinion, that even the
letter dated 24th July 1846, and admost ultra-liberal and latitudinarian
dressed to Dr Anderson, Boston, men of the world are beginning to have
U.S.A. the idea that all the toleration a re
I wrote to you on the 13th of June, informligious man is entitled to is just liberty ing you that the day fixed for my trial before to keep his religion to himself ? A the Criminal Court at Syra, was the 22d of