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tention of all interested in the social ame- of the baptism of two youths of that tribe, lioration of the population.

May 1839, with Supplemental and Illustra-,

tive Documents. By John Wilson, D.D., The Mosaic Creation viewed in the Light E.R.S., &c. Fcp. 8vo, pp. 156. Edin. 1846. of Modern Geology. By George Wight. -We are glad to see that this able and Fcp. 8vo, pp. 276. Glasgow, 1846. interesting little work has reached a third This is another of the many able and edition. It will derive additional interest well-directed efforts now making to re

from the recent ordination to the work establish a distinct and well-defined con- of the holy ministry amongst his counnection and harmony betwixt the facts of trymen, of Dhanjíbháí, one of the connatural science and the truths of theology. verts, on the occasion of whose baptism The author is the pastor of the Congrega- it was preached, and will, we hope, bo tional Church at Doune, and the volume instrumental in deepening the interest is the substance of a series of popular which is felt in the fate of the few and lectures, delivered to his own people in the scattered remnants of one of the greatestcourse of last winter, on the first chapter nations of antiquity. of Genesis, with the view of showing that the statements of the Mosaic narrative

Vital Christianity: Essays and Disare not contradicted by the established courses on the Religions of Man and the phenomena of physical science, especially Religion of God. By Alexander Vinet, geology.

The first four chapters are D D., Professor of Theology in Lausanne, properly introductory, and comprise an Switzerland. Translated with an Introillustration of the relations of the Bible duction by Robert Tur ull, Pastor of to philosophical facts and theories, an the Haward Street Church, Boston. examination of the construction of the

12mo, pp:

356.

Glasgow. 1846. Mosaic narrative, of the import of the This reprint forms one of Mr Collins' terms employed, and of Professor Powell's excellent series of cheap Standard theory, in his article on “Creation”in Kit Works. Dr Vinet's eminence as a Theo« to's Biblical Cyclopædia, in which, treat- logian is well known, and his reputation ing of the Mosaic narrative of the crea- will not suffer from the present work.. tion, he affirms that "it cannot be history The divisions of his subject are the fol-it may be poetry.” This the author lowing-Religions of man and the Relivery properly rejects as untenable. The gion of God the mysteries of Chrisnext eight chapters are devoted to an ex- tianity-- the Gospel comprehended by amination of the age of the earth, as in- the heart—Folly of the Truth-the genius dicated by the older, middle, and newer of the GospelNatural Faith—Christian Palaeozoic periods; the older, middle, Faith-Atheism of the Ephesians-Grace. and newer secondary periods; and the and Law-Man deprived of all glorytertiary period; with general remarks the principle of Christian Morality upon the different formations. He then Necessity of becoining children-Claims proceeds to consider the state of the earth of heaven and earth adjusted—the purat the opening of the historic period, and suit of human glory- the power of the to determine the question whether the Feeble — the intolerance of the Gospel creative days of the Mosaic narrative are the tolerance of the Gospel — the to be regarded as indefinite periods or work of God - Christian joy - Peace not; and subsequently to examine sepa- in Heaven-the Box of Ointment-the. rately the work of each day, and its agree- Samaritan. High and far-reaching ment with the facts and revelations of themes these, and profoundly and eloscience. In a concluding chapter, he quently treated. reviews the general order in creation, the theory of development, the harmony be

The Obligations of the World to the twixt the Bible and science-the cause of Bible. A series of Lectures to Young its rejection by men-the obligation upon Men. By Gardiner Spring, D.D., New christians to cultivate an acquaintance with the sciences, &c. The volume is -Another of Mr Collins' cheap reprints,

York. 12mo. pp. 320. Glasgow, 1846. introduced by a Recommendatory Note and not the least attractive or valuable by the Rev. Dr Alexander of Edinburgh, of the excellent works it includes. The in which be expresses an opinion that style is eloquent, forcible, and impressive, more sound, sensible, instructive, and safe

well adapted to tell powerfully upon the book upon the subject of which it treats, young ardent; and the reasoning is' could not be circulated among the in- worthy of the style, though not devoid of quiring and reading community of this occasional blemishes. The following are country ;" and in this opinion, so far as

the topics discussed in the various Lecwe have yot beez .1110 eximino the tures -The use of oral and written lanwork, we concur.

guage to be ascribed to a supernatural

revelation - The literary merit of the The Doctrine o; Jehovah addressed to the Scriptures—The obligations of LegislaParsis, a Sermo.: preachea on the occasion tive Science to the Bible- The Bible

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friendly to civil liberty—and the foun- benefit of such of our readers as may be dation of civil liberty and the rights of curious in Statistics, we have been at the conscience, the morality of the Bible, pains to make up from it the following:its influence upon social institutions

ANALYSIS OF THE COMPOSITION OF THE Slavery-and on the extent and certainty of Moral Science—the pre-emi. nence of the Bible in producing Holiness

1.-English Churches. and True Religion, and for the influences Wesleyan Methodists (Ministers and of the Holy Spirit—the Obligations of

Members)

143 the World to the Bible for the Sabbath, Congregationalists Indepenand its influence on human happiness.

dents,

do. 133

Established Church of England, do. 128 There are likewise Essays by the Author

Baptists,

do. 60 on the internal evidences of Revelation

Presbyterian Church of England do. 36 --the Church in the Wilderness - the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, do. 11 useful Christian-and moral gradations. Primitive Methodists,

5

Adherents of Scottish Establishmt. do.
Euclid's Elements of Plane Geometry.

Moravians,
“ Bible Christians,"

4 By the late Alexander Ingram, Leith;

Methodist New Connection, with the Elements of Plane Trigonometry,

“Evangelical Friends,"

1 and their Practical Application. 12mo, “ Church of God," pp. 232. Edin. 1846.-A new edition of No Denomination specified,

22 a well-known popular Class-book, careful- Total from English Churches,

555 ly revised and improved by Mr Trotter of

II.-Scottish Churches.. the Scottish Naval and Military Aca- Uuited Secession (including Engdemy.

Jish adherents),

43 Free Church of Scotland,

28 Nelson's British Library. Fcp. 8vo,

Reformed Presbyterians (including Edin. 1846.--The new volume of this use

Irish adherents),

15 Scotch Establishment,

10 ful series, containing much interesting

Relief,
and improving reading for little money. Independents,
The contents are :-Phenomena of the Church of England,
Seasons: Captivity of Captain Knox in the Baptists,
Island of Ceylon: Adaptation in Birds of Original Secession,
Prey: John Hooper, Bishop of Glouces-

No Denomination specified,

123 ter: Eustace. the Good Negro: Warren

Total from Scottish Churches, Hastings: South Africa and its Missions :

JI-Irish Churches. the Curate's Daughter: Sir David Lind- Presbyterian Church in Ireland, 18 say, the first Scottish Reformer: besides Established Church of Ireland, 14 sundry smaller pieces.

Wesleyan Methodists,

11 Congregationalists,

9

Primitive Methodists, Sectarianism the bane of Religion and Associate Presbytery,

1 the Church, and the necessity of an imme- Baptists, diate movement towards Unity. Fcp. 8vo, No Denomination specified, pp. 76. London, 1846.-A well-written Total from Irish Churches,

58 Tract, the object of which is sufficiently indicated by its title.

Do. from British Churches,

IV.-American Churches (includiny Canada.) My own A.B.C. of Quadrupeds. Edin. Presbyterians,

25 1846.-A very elegant little book for Episcopal Methodists,

15 Congregationalists,

11 very young folks. The illustrations are graphic, and well adapted to catch the

Baptists,

Lutherans and Evan. Lutherans, fancy, and win the attention of children.

Wesleyan Methodists,

Dutch Reformed Church, The Autographs of the Members of the Adventist Church,

5 Evangelical Alliance present at the Confer- No Denomination specified,

Total from American Churches,

76 ence Meeting in London in August last. London 1846.—This is a perfect treasure

-continental Churches. for the collectors and fanciers of auto

French Reformed Church,

14 graphs. What gives it more interest and Wesleyaus, value, too, is, that(with a few exceptions) Belgian Evangelical Churches, 3 there is attached each signature the

German Evangelical do.

do. Swiss Evangelical

10 place of residence of the party, and the denomination of Christians to which he

Swedish Lutheran Church,

No Denomination specified, belongs. It thus supplies the means for

Total from Continental Churches, 41 ascertaining the composition of the great Alliance meeting in London, and for the Total on Roll,

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736

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EDINBURGH MAGAZINE.

New SERIES.-No. IV.

FEBRUARY 1847.

Vol. I.

NATIONAL EDUCATION-HOW TO BE PROVIDED FOR IN PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES ?

BY CHURCH ? OR STATE ? QR CHURCH AND STATE ?

We approach this subject with a deep still prevent its full and legitimate apsense of responsibility on our part, and plication; and we love the theory too an earnest appeal to our readers of all more, the more we see that it is but too religious sects and opinions, craving a likely to be postponed till better times, calm and candid consideration of what and that the necessity of its postponewe write as a whole, and deprecating ment is a sore evil in the land. any judgment founded on partial or im- But we own we have a dread of what perfect extracts. We have two special seems to be a growing impression in reasons for our anxiety; the first found- some quarters, that this great principle ed generally on the vast practical im- is one which, if not in itself flexible portance of the questions that are raised ; and accommodating, may yet admit of and the second, on the tendencies of the being carried out in one direction, or in age, that must be mixed up more or one department, while it is systematiless in all discussions of the abstract and cally violated as a whole; and that it general principles on which the settle- is better to have it thus applied in some ment of these questions depends. fragmentary way, than to have no prac

There are obviously two opposite tical acknowledgment of it at all. А standing-points from which the proprie- vote of public approval, or a gift of pubty of a State provision for education lic money, for a good object, is surely a may be viewed. These, in brief technical good thing, so far as it goes, and is to phraseology, we may call the Establish- be commended as, in so far, an act of ment and the Voluntary principles. We homage to right principles; although must be allowed a preliminary remark there may be sundry other public votes or two on both of them.

and gifts in the very opposite direction, We hold, for ourselves, the former which we cannot but condemn. of these principles; and, paradoxical as vate party, having wealth and influence, it may seem, we hold it more and more is often praised for patronizing a philanfirmly every day, as we see it to be thropic or Christian enterprize ; and no more and more impracticable-imprac- scruple is felt as to the lawfulness of ticable, of course, we mean in a like such patronage being given or accepted, sense to that in which it is said of our although the same party, in his discreblessed Saviour on one occasion, that he tion, may be even more liberally-and did not many miracles among a certain in the most direct way too-ministerpeople because of their unbelief; and ing to the support of error and crime. on another, that he could do no miracle We blame that support, and we testify because of unbelief. Our impression of to him against it; but we do not on the vast value and indispensable impor- that account object to his spending tance of the Establishment principle is whatever portion of his means he greatly enhanced by a sense of the very pleases on behalf of a holy cause. Now evils in the present constitution of af- why, it is asked, may not this rule be fairs, which have prevented, and which' applied to public as well as private do

A pri

as

nations, to communities as well as indi- as taught in his word, and then to acviduals ?

knowledge and support it. As to alms Now here, we would desire to guard bestowed out of mere policy or pity, in against extreme views. And in refer- ignorance or disregard of the truth, wheence particularly to the sort of incidental ther for ecclesiastical or for educational and indirect responsibility under which purposes, we confess we think the EstaChristian men or Christian societies blishment principle more honoured in may lie, regarding the conduct of other the entire “ breach," than in such a parparties with whom they may have cer- tial " observance" of it. tain relations, we must beware of any For, in the first place, as citizens, such exaggerated representation we deny that the State has any such would either fetter Christian liberty, or discretion in giving alms out of the burden the Christian conscience. We public money, as a private party has in are not ordinarily accountable for the disposing of the contents of his purse. money cast into the treasury, any more As to the private party, we are not the than for the meat sold in the shambles. keepers either of his conscience or of The giving of money to be applied to a his cash ; and, therefore, when he lays good object is as lawful and right as the a gift on the altar of truth, we may be selling of meat to be eaten for food; approvers of the act, and parties to it, and, as a general rule, our immediate although it may be done by him with personal responsibility does not in either an unenlightened conscience, on the case go beyond the particular matter in principle of laying an equal gift bewhich we deal, with our butcher in the fore the shrine of falsehood or with one case, and our benefactor in the other. no conscience at all, on the principle of

But even when private parties are his being at liberty to do what he will the donors, it is sometimes necessary to with his own. But when the donor is raise a general preliminary question, the State, as such, in its corporate capot only as to whence their means have pacity, we must judge of the act as if come, but also as to whither they are we ourselves were the doers of it; and going; especially when any sort of per- as if we did it in the formal character manent connection, or in particular, a of public functionaries and civil rulers. standing pecuniary obligation, is in- Now, in that character, we cannot volved; and when the transaction is of spend the public money capriciously; such a nature that it cannot be isolated we must plead conscience, or necessity, from others of the same kind that may for spending it; and especially if we be doubtful or dangerous, but must be go beyond the mere function of protectviewed as part of a system, for which, ing private rights, and preserving pubas a whole, this application of it, in the lic peace or safety-which alone can be special instance at issue, must be held regarded as indispensable--if we asto be a precedent or warrant. And, at sume the function of benefactors, we all events, we cannot consider a nation, must have clear warrant for the worth or its rulers, as standing on the same and value of our benefactions. And footing with a private party. The prin- this we can only have, at least when ciple of a National Establishment of it is the minds of men that are to be religion is degraded when it is resolved influenced, by appealing to the word of into a mere matter of giving and receiv. God, and using alike as our authority ing. The infidel theory of Hume and and as our instrument, the truth which Adam Smith, which defends a State- that word contains. We may

have an endowment as a political expedient for easier task and a wider discretion when moderating and managing religious it is their material interests that are to zeal, is a thousand times more respect- be promoted ; and in such public and able. The principle for which alone national undertakings as the making of we care, and which alone we venerate, roads and bridges, the completing of is that which lays civil communities and public works, the rewarding of public civil governments, as such, under pre- merit, the encouraging of public imcisely the same obligation with indivi

provements, and the adopting of meadual men, first to know the truth of God

sures for the public health-we may

civil power

act on views of general expediency. a government may do for the " body But putting ourselves in the place of and outward estate," so to speak, of the supreme

in any commu- the nation, from what it does for “ the nity, and supposing the question to be, mind.” It is true, the line here may what is to be done by us in our official often seem to be dim, uncertain, and character for their mental, as distin- shadowy; and there may be debateable guished from their material, interests— ground at points along the borders, beor, in other words, for the benefit of the tween these two regions of the material people as having minds, and hearts, and and the mental interests of a people. souls ?--we feel that if we are to inter- Moreover, they overlap, as it were, one fere in any way, or to any extent, in this another. What is done by a governmost delicate duty, it must be expressly ment for the mere physical good of a and avowedly on a higher authority than people, will powerfully affect their our own wisdom-it must be because mental health and vigour ; and still God in his word has required it, and more decidedly, if rulers see their way precisely as God in his word has di- clear to a right method of mental culrected. And if the circumstances of tivation, the material prosperity of the the age, or of the country, be such as empire will be advanced. Still, for to make it impossible, or inexpedient, practical purposes, the distinction is thus to interfere, we confess we must tangible enough ; and it seems to us regard this as for the time an indica- sufficiently important to justify our tion of the Divine will that we ought dwelling upon it somewhat elaborately. not to interfere at all.

Our object, as we frankly acknowledge, It will be seen that we have here is to detach and isolate the entire tertouched the limits of some of the most ritory of mind, infant, juvenile, and difficult general inquiries that can be adult-the whole field, in short, which raised in the science of abstract or educational and ecclesiastical instrutheoretical politics, respecting the pro- ments have to cultivate ; and to set it per functions of civil government, as all apart as equally and pre-eminently such ; and upon points so abstruse we sacred; with an odi profanum" adare far from presuming to dogmatize. dressed to the whole “ vulgus” of mere It will be seen, also, that we have no secular politicians, and an earnest ensympathy with those who would res- treaty to one and all of them to extrict the province of political power to pend their philanthropic enthusiasm, the mere keeping of the public and and exhaust their philosophic wisdom private peace—thereby, as we think, in measures of sanatory reform; and if dishonouring the “ordinance of God," they cannot enter the region of mental by degrading it to the level of a mere training, with the Word of God in armed, or unarmed, police force. We their hands, to break up, with that take a much more comprehensive view Word, the whole the fallow-ground, of the designs of civil government, be- and to sow in every corner its blessed lieving it to be “the minister of God,” truth-rather, a hundred times rather, not only for the prevention of evil and to leave it all alone. the redress of wrong, but “ for good.” Let us not, however, be misunderBut we make a distinction between stood. We by no means intend to mainthese two functions: the former being tain that the civil magistrate is exempt indispensable, and, therefore, univer- from the obligation of consulting the sally imperative ; the latter, beneficial Divine word, and obeying the Divine only, and, therefore, to a considerable will, in those other departments of his extent, discretionary. It must always official work which we have sought be the duty of governments to put down to separate from the religious—using tumult, and to see that every one can that term, religious, in the wide exget and keep his own; but it is not tent now explained ;-nor do we deny always its duty to make roads and that in this last, which we have called bridges, or to undertake experiments the religious, there are many services in the arts, and send out voyages of that he may render, although he stop discovery. Again, we separate what short of any plan or measure of endow

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