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THE POPE AND THE ITALIAN QUESTION.
Two months have elapsed since we up the prisons, condemned for having wrote a few words under the same title fired on the armed force at the time which we place at the head of this of the attempt at insurrection ; that is article. The day of the Possesso, on to say, those who having taken part which a complete statement of the re- in the insurrection with the same informs meditated by Pius IX. was pro- tentions as the rest, had the misformised to be given, has passed. And tune to be first exposed to the attacks we say frankly at the commencement, of the government soldiers, probably that we do not think it our duty to re- foreigners. That is all. No seculacal or to modify the doubts we ex- risation of offices; no political constitupressed respecting the tendency of the tion; no laws respecting the press ; measures, and the extent of the in- no representative principle. The high tentions of the Pope. There are men functionaries of Gregory XVI. almost who, looking on the popular manifes- all retain their offices; the Swiss contations of the Roman states as mere dottieri still parade before their doors. expressions of gratitude, conclude that At Bologna—at Bologna only, and the Pope must have done prodigious with a view to temporary circumthings. But we, who think we have stances, the increase of robberies by good grounds to see in them the mani- the armed bands, and the inability of festations of the popular wishes, and a the Government to insure the safety means adopted to bind the Pope, if of the citizens by night—a few patrols possible, to walk in the new path-we of an urban guard have been authoare forced to reject these easy hypo- rized ; authorized after repeated retheses, and confine ourselves to a calm fusals, and when, in spite of these reand rigorous appreciation of the facts. fusals, the citizens were beginning to Now hitherto the facts show us in arm themselves. Besides, those urban him, to whom the crown of regenera- guards exist in the kingdom of Naples ; ting Pope is somewhat too hastily ad- they were authorized in the Roman judged, neither a great and holy states for special purposes by Gregory thought, nor à plan fixed on for its XVI.; and those who see in them the realization, nor the energy necessary germ of a national guard, for the whole to attain the aim. His bearing ap- country know nothing either of what pears to us rather fated than chosen; the country demands, or of what Pius his vacillating uncertain step, that of IX. has been forced to concede. a man beaten about between fascina- Of all these acts, and of those which tion and terror, rather than that of the we indicated in our former article, the just advancing with firm step to the only one capable of producing real accomplishment of his mission under benefit, is the establishment of railthe motto, Do thy duty, let what may roads. We do not say this with rehappen. There is much in him of the ference to material interests ; internal Louis XVI., nothing of the Charle- commercial activity in the Roman magne.
States there is scarcely any, and a few Three commissions have been form- fragments of lines will not be sufficient ed: one is to occupy itself with the to revive it. When we hear it said civil and criminal codes; a second that the enormous taxes, which now to inquire into the improvements directly or indirectly weigh the peathat may be introduced into the orga- sant to the earth, have disappearednization of the municipalities; and when industry has been emancipated a third, whose business is to draw up from exclusive privileges, from giving regulations respecting mendicity. Some caution money, from the vexations of commutations have taken place of the the customhouse, and from the coalisentences of those who, notwithstand- tions formed at Rome with the particiing the general amnesty, still choke pation of public functionaries against
every provincial manufactory that there, in the non-execution of any laws rivals with the metropolis—when the whatever. In every country ruled by employment of capital is guaranteed an absolute and all-powerful will, you by the permanent tranquillity of the may at least point to every good procountry-when, above all, the whole ject which that will forins as a posigreat Italian market is open to the tive progress ; in the Roman States producers of the State, and the lines the best designs may remain sterile can extend unbroken from one end of the best laws become a dead letter. the Peninsula to the other;* then, but The Pope orders, and nothing is done. only then, we shall begin to have faith “ His electors, the Cardinals”-let us in the effects of railroads on the ma- be permitted to cite what we have terial wellbeing of the population of written elsewhere, for we might change Italy. At the present day it is the the words, but not the things—“ each moral result we look at; the more eligible after him, and feeling themrapid circulation of ideas, the fusion of selves his equals, substitute their pleathe provinces with each other, and of sure for his, every one in his sphere. all with the capital, the unification, as The Bishops, also partaking in this far as may be, of a country whose ever divine character, and in irresponsible open wound is anarehy;-this, we authority, exercise a wide and almost repeat, will be the real immediate ad- entirely independent power.
The vantage of railways in the Roman same, too, with the cbiefs of the Holy States, but it will be a very great one. Inquisition. The Ecclesiastics, holdThere, as in all other parts of Italy, it ers of the principal offices, incompetent is only faith that is wanting, faith in a from past habits and studies to undercollective effort-the mutual esteem take their administration, discharge which is its foundation. Every inter- their duties by the aid of inferior emnal increase of contaet must powerfully ployés, who in turn, feeling their poassist in creating it.
sition as uncertain, as dependent on a We do not attach much importanee necessarily short-lived patronage, are to the formation of the commissions guilty of every possible malversation, mentioned above. Such commissions and aim solely at self-enrichment. Bewere formed by Gregory XVI., after neath all, the weary people, borné the insurrection of 1831, and by other down by all, reacting against all, are Popes at their accession; they produced initiated into a corruption, the examno results. There exists an element of ple of which is set by their superiors, dissolution in the Roman States, capa- or avenge themselves as they may, by ble of rendering all written reforms revolt or the poignard. Such, abridginefficient—this is the administration. ed, is the normal state of Papal Italy. It is, perhaps, the only country in And in such a system, there is not, Europe where a change of men is more there cannot be, any place for social important than a change of measures. interests, but place for the interests Every foreigner who wishes to form a of self alone. The priests, who gocorrect estimate of the value of the vern, have nothing in common with events which take place there, should the governed ; they may have misbegin by well understanding the spe. tresses, they cannot have wives ; their eial position we speak of.
children, if they have any, are not leIt has been said, and it must be re- gitimate, and have nothing to hope peated, what constitutes the misfor- for but from intrigue and favouritism. tune of the other States of Italy, of The love of glory—the ambition of dothe nations subject to Austria, and of ing good—the last stimulant left to inPoland, is despotism : what consti- dividuals where every other is wanting tutes the misfortune of the Roman -exist not for them.
How States is anarchy. Elsewhere, the should men devote themselves to evil consists in the want of good laws; amendments, that can be in force only
* At the present time, Naples is hostile and stands aloof. And the Austrian journals, as the Trieste Lloyds, and others, but lately announced on occasion of a controversy about a book by the counsellor Petite of Turin, that the Piedmontese lines would never obtain their junction with the Lombardo Austrian railways.
a few years—that must pass away un- brand by trial and public condemnader each new Pope, ere they can bear tion all those priests who use and abuse, fruit? How should the auditors, as- ---your religion would suffer. A priest sessors, or secretaries, through whom in the pillory! a priest at the gallies! the Ecclesiastics are driven, by their What would the people think? What want of political aptitude to govern, would be said by his penitents, whose labour for good, when the glory would agitated conscience the sacred word of all go to their chiefs? Why should that man, of that robber, calmed but a they not labour for evil, when the dis- few days since ? honour will fall there also ? Fear For this state of things, for this has no hold on the subalterns, for, school of corruption, which has been not acting in their own name, they teaching for ages, and whose doctrines have nothing to dread save from their have filtered from the clergy into the patrons. Fear has no hold on the laity, there is but one remedy-the heads, for, as to some, their power, secularisation of all offices, the choice and the part taken in the election of of the employés by the country wherethe reigning Pope, as to others, the ever it is possible, their responsibility, apostolic constitutions, or the tradi- and the superintendence of society by tions of the Church, establish an irre
a free press.
Without that nothing sponsibility in fact or in law. *" will be done. Illusions may last for
Such is the organization, or rather some time longer, but they will end by the disorganization of the States of the posting on the doors of the Papal paPope. And what can be done with lace, what the wits wrote over the door such an administration ? You may of the hall of the Parliament at Naples form the finest financial plans in the in 1820, Scusate le ciarle-excuse the world. How will you ensure their exe- chattering. cution with a Treasurer-General who Will the Pope do this ? renders no account, who may rob the Of this measure, there would be two country with impunity, and whom, if inevitable consequences. The first is, the robbery is discovered, you cannot, the introduction into office, into the diaccording to the apostolic constitutions, rection of the wheels of government, deprive of his office, but by the public of men devoted not only to the party scandal of raising him to the rank of of local reforms, but also to the NaCardinal ? You may issue the strict- TIONAL party. They form a majority est charge to the Governor of Rome to in the Roman States ; they would get be just and impartial, why should he the upper hand, and would give form obey? He can but gain by not exe- to the tendency of the country towards cuting your orders; he also can only that object. The second is the resistlose his office in exchange for a Cardi- ance of Austria, even by force of arms. nal's hat. You cannot take from these Already, if we are to believe well inmen whom you despise, whom you formed persons, an Austrian note, know to be vassals of the genius of founded solely on pre-visions of the fuevil, their position immediately beneath ture, has been handed to the Secretary yourself, except by placing them by of State, Gizzi, threatening this oppoyour side, introducing them into your sition, and insolently referring to the councils, by giving them a voice in the fate of Cracow. But, however that may election of the Pope who is to follow be, there is not the shadow of a doubt you with sovereign power to destroy that Austria would interfere by arms, your work, You cannot force your if ever such measures as we have enulegates to obedience; if they be at all merated were taken. A free press, in bold, they will answer you, quoting we whatever corner of Italy it may be esknow not what old texts, that you can- tablished, raises the question of life not remove them from the place of and death for Austria and her Italian their malversation before three com- possessione. She must put it down, plete years have elapsed. You cannot were it even at the price of a war.
Italy, Austria, and the Pope. London: Strange, Paternoster Row.
Now, in this war, the Pope would stand decide whether this is the man destined alone, opposed not only to Austria, but to accomplish a decisive step towards to:a coalition of the absolute powers the solution of the Italian question. with her. The politics of principles Is there, then, no hope for poor are represented at this time by none Italy, and has the accession of Pius of the governments of Europe ; and IX. done nothing for her ? the only existing politics, those of in- The fate of Italy does not depend terests, have terminated in this—that
upon any man, king, pore, or other. there is now in Europe an alliance to It depends upon the Italian people do ill, while there is none
it depends upon the virtues, upon the good. The only means, therefore, re- union, upon the firm and constant will maining to the Pope for his defence of the men who have devoted themwould be an appeal to the enthusiasm selves to the national cause. Neither of the populations of the Peninsula, a will the accession of Pius IX. be withsummons to an Italian crusade against out its use. When an opinion is well the foreign invader.
advanced, and the time approaches We need not even remark, that the for the national development of a direct consequence of a direct common country, one would say that nothing action of Italy would necessarily be a can be done intentionally or not, withfusion hostile to the local sovereignty out providentially turning to the adof the Roman States; but putting that vantage of that development. We on one side, is Pius IX. a man energetic could willingly compare the Guelphic enough to dare these necessities for the ebullitions by which Messrs Gioberti, sake of the public good ?
Balbo, and others, pretend to amalgaWe think he is not. All that we mate at this day the ideas of Papacy know betrays in him either the absence and national liberty, to those philosoof a fixed plan, or the want of energy phical essays which strove, in the face to carry it out. He proclaims the of nascent Christianity, to reconcile the blessing of forgiveness, and mutilates new spirit to the Pagan creeds; there it by irrational exceptions. He or- will not be more permanency in these ganizes, by his circular of 24th Au- than in those. But upon the masses the gust 1846, a school for the poor who well-meant but vacillating intentions of have no trade, and, as if alarmed at Pius IX. will have produced a double his own boldness, he concludes the cir- good. They have called forth a cular by a motiveless declaration of unanimous and imposing manifestation hostility to the modern theories tend- of opinion which has revealed Italy to ing to a secular and national govern- itself; they will cure the Italians, at no ment. He makes one step in a path very distant time, of their last illusion. diametrically opposite to that of Gre- There is a ballad by Goethe, in. gory XVI.; and he leaves in the go- which a sorcerer's pupil has overheard, vernment those satellites of the latter, by listening at the door, the formula who are the most violent partisans of by which his master obliges a stick to absolutism, Marini, Della Genga, Va- serve him as a lacquey, and to pour a nicelli, Freddi; Lambruschini is en- pail of water on the dirty floor. He trusted with the conduct of a politico- profits by his master's absence, and religious negotiation with the Czar; hastens, in thoughtless pride, to emand even that living scandal, the bar ploy the formula. The stick obeysber Gaetanini, preserves his place of it fills its pail, and hastes to pour out sotto cameriere in the Papal household. the contents. The scholar is in rapHe allows the learned of the States to tures—be glories in his feat, and repair to the scientific Congress; and thinks himself almost the equal of his he forbids the meeting to be held at master. But behold, the stick re-apBologna. We could multiply the in- pears at the door with the replenished stances of hesitation, of weakness, of pail, and continues its office. The inconsistency, in the conduct of Pius scholar becomes uneasy-the stick reIX.; but these will be sufficient for any turns—the floor is inundated. Enough, man who understands human nature to enough, cries the frightened adept; he
loads with reproaches and abuse the would be always ready to answer to an imperturbable stick. Of the two for appeal of Italy against the foreigner. mulas, which by turns command acti- In Tuscany a National subscription vity and repose, he, alas! knows only boldly opened to send a testimonial to the former-he has never even thought the Italian legion of Monte Video, was of learning the second. Seized with covered with thousands of signatures. rage, he grasps a hatchet, and cuts the We are spectators of the awakening of rebel stick into two-into three pieces. a nation. "God, who willed a quarter Oh woe! the fragments re-appear, of a century ago to deliver Greece from each bearing a pail; the evil is trebled the crescent, is now working out a new —the unhappy scholar is on the point destiny for her sister, Italy. In such of drowning, when the master returns spectacles there is always, for those who and saves him.
see the finger of God in the pages of The position of Pius IX. appears to the world's history, something solemn, us to be precisely that of the wizard's something sacred, which demands all pupil. The spirit whose manifestation our attention, and as far as possible all he has to a certain extent evoked, will our active sympathies. And in the innot stop where it shall, please him to dividual case we are dealing with, there check it: force itself, if ever he should is something especially important for come to use it, will redouble rather than Europe and for humanity. On that suppress its action.
This spirit is a classic Italian soil, where the ruins of national spirit; we must not mistake two worlds overlay each other, the reon that point. At Rome, at Ancona, ligious question is inseparable from the at Spoleto, at Bologna, cries of Italy, national; the cry of political liberty is of independence, of down with Austria, necessarily identical with that of liberty mingle with the applause given to the. of conscience. At Rome is tied the supposed intentions of the Pope. The Gordian knot which occupies us all; and scientific congress held at Genoa last should the Italian NATION awake, that September, assumed a decidedly po- knot will be, must be cut. That is the litical character from its very first sit- reason why, referring no more to Pius tings ; and Genoese professors were IX.-unless it be to confess that we beard proudly recalling to mind the have been mistaken-we shall always centenary commemoration of the ex- follow with love and hope in this peripulsion of the Austrians by the people odical, the progressive development of in 1746, and declaring that Genoa the Italian question.
THE MARTYR'S CHILD.*
Oh, the sunrise! the sunrise! hath wondrous power,
To gladden all living things,
Like a smile from the King of kings !
With the earnest of summer given,
With the breath and the beam of heaven!
: * The touching circumstances upon which the above ballad is founded, are well told in the interesting“ Life of James Guthrie," from the pen of the Rev. Thomas Thomson, contained in a recent volume of the issues of Cheap Publieations, by the Committee of the General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland. After narrating the martyr's last parting with his wife on the morning of his execution, it is stated, “ Another of those tond ties that hold the heart to the world had also to be loosed, for he bad a son named William, about four or five years old-so young, indeed, and therefore so ignorant of the dismal tragedy that was approaching, that James Cowie,” (Mr Guthrie's servant. precentor, and amanuensis)".could scarcely detain bim from playing in the streets on the day of his father's execution. Guthrie, whose soul yarned over his boy, so soon to become an orphan, took him upon his knee, and kase him such advices as were suited to his capacity. He bade him to become serious-to become re. ligious--and to he sure to devote himself to that honest and holy course in which his father had walken to the death. • Willie,' he said, they will tell you, and cast up to you, that your father was hanged; but think not shame of it, for it is upon a good cause."” After the execution," the head was set up on