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gin to hear of the natural and total “ have been rendered the mere tool of depravity of the bee tribe ; there the employing class, and plaeed at the would be attempts to prevent any bees mercy of a terrible influence.” And, from gathering honey unless they had again, in another place, “England, a sectarian mark painted on their proud England, rich England, mighty wings; and what with this interfer- and free England, grinding its children ence, and proscribing them from cer- to death in mines and mills, in subtertain fields and flowers, or only allow- ranean darkness and nakedness." ing them a previously defined range Such statements as these can have according to the convenience of others, no other effect than to irritate and ingreat would be the starvation and suf- flame the minds of working people ference of the insect tribe itself; and against their employers. It would have manifold would be the injury to human been unspeakably more to the purpose beings who now reap profit and enjoy- to have indicated to both parties the ment from letting the truths and pre- precise practical evils which admit of a cepts of nature take their course with remedy, and which prevail in their exinsects, though they strive against isting relations, and to have shown them in human nature.” Popery, we what remedies they propose.
On both apprehend, would not be unwilling to of these subjects, however, if they are avail itself of the inference deducible not altogether silent, their teaching is from this passage. For what is it? in the last degree vague. The condiPlainly that there should be no education tion, would appear, which is to be at all. If the foundation truth of edu- achieved for the working man, is that cation be that men gather knowledge which the common people of England as the bees gather honey, where is the are supposed to have enjoyed long ago use of schools and schoolmasters? The a condition, if not of entire idleness, bees have no teachers, because they at least one on which he could amuse have an unerring instinct; and, as crea- himself on all the Popish holidays. tures of instinct, are incapable of educa- Now we do not object to any working tion-of improvement of progress. man, or the whole class together, If it be so with men, let us shut up our achieving as much relaxation from laschools, and get back again to barbar- bour as they possibly can, though we ism. Surely such a view as this is an would strive to have them spend their outrage upon the common sense of leisure time more profitably than in mankind. And yet something like it dancing round a May-pole, or playing must be adopted by those who hold at foot-ball on Easter Monday. But that there is nothing in human nature how is such a result to be brought that requires to be checked and coun- about? How are our workmen to be teracted. But if, on the other hand, freed from oppressive labour ? Not, human nature be such a thing as to re- certainly, by heaping abuse upon their quire both checks and stimulants, it employers. They must achieve this will be very difficult to avoid the in- freedom for themselves. And here, for ference in favour of a religious educa- once, these writers and we are agreed. tion. For if these are to be employed But the question still is, how ? Our at all, why not bring early and habitu- answer is that of Dr Chalmers by a ally into operation that which has prov. Christian education, and the exercise of ed itself to be the only effective check Christian graces. The answer of the and counteraction, and best stimulant People's Journal is different. to humanity-the Christian religion. confess our inability to gather precisely
3. What are the social views of the what that answer is. Sometimes we People's Journal?
are led to infer that combination is to do It is painful to contemplate them. it. sometimes, again, that the reTheir object seems to be, to infuse a sources of the rich are to do it. Per.. deadly hostility into one class against haps they contemplate both-a pooranother. The people against the aris- law providing for the comfortable maintocracy- the employed against the em- tenance of all who are unwilling to ployers! The work-people, they say, work, or unable to obtain employment,
and a union of all, restricting them not of the profits of a good and ready to work below a fixed rate of wages.
market. This, or something very like Their views are not all alike hope- it, is practically the history of such less and vicious. They trust too much, schemes hitherto tried in Scotland. however, to the principle of co-opera
Our limits forbid us to deal with this tion. Benefit societies are recommend- subject of our social relations and ecoed as better than savings banks for this nomics more at length. We greatly
A more hopeful scheme, in fear that the writers of the People's every way, is the formation of exten- Journal have not practical information sive associations, to enable working enough to enable them to counsel wisely, men to become proprietors of the houses even on such subjects as these. How they live in. We view this scheme much less on subjects' touching our more favourably, not because we think the general relations, as classes and members object an important one, but because its of a community! They seem, when existence and operation tend to foster speaking of them, as men looking into habits of economy, fore-thought, and unfathomable depths of darkness. They self-denial, which, to the working man, fear quiescence ; every movement is to and indeed to all men, are extremely them pregnant with hope. valuable. We are not quite so sure of
We have finished our review of this another scheme, which is a special fa
volume with feelings of mingled pain vourite with the People's Journal.
and alarm. Its prevailing scope is to The great complaint they have against set man against man in fierce and incapitalists is, that they realize enor- terminable conflict, and all against mous profits at the expense of the God. We seem to be standing on the working man. Why might not the verge of a vast volcano, ready to exworking man become a capitalist him- plode, and overwhelm us with terrible self, and, in addition to his wages, reap
destruction, The existence of the all these profits? This he cannot do People's Journal—the countenance and singly. But co-operation might make support afforded to it, reveals an awful him a capitalist. The combination of state of things, which it is right should many small savings might supply funds be obtruded upon our notice, that we to erect a factory, and to work it. This may be aware of it in time, and, if is. I their scheme. It appears plau- possible, avoid its terrible consequences. sible," and there may be some pos- The fires will not always continue sibility of realizing it. But what smouldering-they are even now acthen ? If we are not very much mnisin- tively fed with most inflammable maformed, this very scheme was put in ope- terials, and we may expect an awful ration many years ago, both in Glas- conflagration. Wisely directed and gow and Paisley. The results were vigorous efforts might yet be made to not in favour of the working people. In quenchthem. Above all, immediate, and, a time of commercial prosperity, the if possible, united action, is necessary. plan may work well, but with the first Is it to be regarded as a fair deducstagnation in trade—the first glut in tion from the demerits we have noticed the market-comes ruin. The capital- that the People's Journal says much ist can for a period work short hours about the duty of love, which, to us, -he can work at a loss, and recover wears very much of a French dramahimself with the return of prosperity. tic aspect? The love which it inculThe co-operative factory becomes a cates, excepting in some few instances wreck. Its proprietors must work, for of the exhibition, and commendation, they cannot afford to be idle. Working of family affections, is a love limited to at a loss, they not only are without any class. The labourers are to love one return for their labour, but require an another, because love is essential to outlay, which obliges them either to combination, and combination is essenrelinquish their factory, or leaves them tial to, we shall not say what, but some helpless when the returning tide comes. faint glimpses of it may be obtained They have not wherewithal to purchase by what we have already said and the raw material, and avail themselves quoted.
THE POPE AND THE ITALIAN QUESTION.
Two months have elapsed since we up the prisons, condemned for having wrote a few words under the same title fired on the armed force at the time which we place at the head of this of the attempt at insurrection; that is article. The day of the Possesso, on to say, those who having taken part which a complete statement of the re- in the insurrection with the same informs meditated by Pius IX. was pro- tentions as the rest, had the misformised to be given, has passed. And tune to be first exposed to the attacks we say frankly at the commencement, of the government soldiers, probably that we do not think it our duty to re- foreigners. That is all. No seculacal or to modify the doubts we ex- risation of offices ; no political constitupressed respecting the tendency of the tion; no laws respecting the press ; measures, and the extent of the in- no representative principle. The high tentions of the Pope. There are men functionaries of Gregory XVI. almost who, looking on the popular manifes- all retain their offices; the Swiss contations of the Roman states as mere dottieri still parade before their doors. expressions of gratitude, conclude that At Bologna—at Bologna only, and the Pope must have done prodigious with a view to temporary circumthings. But we, who think we have stances, the increase of robberies by good grounds to see in them the mani- the armed bands, and the inability of festations of the popular wishes, and a the Government to insure the safety means adopted to bind the Pope, if of the citizens by night—a few patrols possible, to walk in the new path-we of an urban guard have been authoare forced to reject these easy hypo- rized ; authorized after repeated retheses, and confine ourselves to a calm fusals, and when, in spite of these reand rigorous appreciation of the facts. fusals, the citizens were beginning to Now hitherto the facts show us in arm themselves. Besides, those urban him, to whom the crown of regenera- guards exist in the kingdom of Naples ; ting Pope is somewhat too hastily ad- they were authorized in the Roman judged, neither a great and holy states for special purposes by Gregory thought, nor
a plan fixed on for its XVI.; and those who see in them the realization, nor the energy necessary germ of a national guard, for the whole to attain the aim. His bearing ap- country know nothing either of what pears to us rather fated than chosen; the country demands, or of what Pius his vacillating uncertain step, that of IX. has been forced to concede. a man beaten about between fascina- Of all these acts, and of those which tion and terror, rather than that of the we indicated in our former article, the just advancing with firm step to the only one capable of producing real accomplishment of his mission under benefit, is the establishment of railthe motto, Do thy duty, let what
We do not say this with rehappen. There is much in him of the ference to material interests ; internal Louis XVI., nothing of the Charle- commercial activity in the Roman magne.
States there is scarcely any, and a few Three commissions have been form- fragments of lines will not be sufficient ed: one is to occupy itself with the to revive it. When we hear it said civil and criminal codes; a second that the enormous taxes, which now to inquire into the improvements directly or indirectly weigh the peathat may be introduced into the orga- sant to the earth, have disappearednization of the municipalities; and when industry has been emancipated a third, whose business is to draw up from exclusive privileges, from giving regulations respecting mendicity. Some caution money, from the vexations of commutations have taken place of the the customhouse, and from the coalisentences of those who, notwithstand- tions formed at Rome with the particiing the general amnesty, still choke pation of public functionaries against
every provincial manufactory that there, in the non-execution of any laws rivals with the metropolis—when the whatever. In every country ruled by employment of capital is guaranteed an absolute and all-powerful will, you by the permanent tranquillity of the may at least point to every good procountry--when, above all, the whole ject which that will forms as a posigreat Italian market is open to the tive progress; in the Roman States producers of the State, and the lines the best designs may remain sterilecan extend unbroken from one end of the best laws become a dead letter. the Peninsula to the other;* then, but The Pope orders, and nothing is done. only then, we shall begin to have faith “ His electors, the Cardinals”-let us in the effects of railroads on the ma- be permitted to cite what we have terial wellbeing of the population of written elsewhere, for we might change Italy. At the present day it is the the words, but not the things—"each moral result we look at; the more eligible after him, and feeling themrapid circulation of ideas, the fusion of selves his equals, substitute their pleathe provinces with each other, and of sure for his, every one in his sphere. all with the capital, the unification, as The Bishops, also partaking in this far as may be, of a country whose ever divine character, and in irresponsible open wound is anarehy ;-this, we authority, exercise a wide and almost repeat, will be the real immediate ad- entirely independent power. The vantage of railways in the Roman
same, too, with the cbiefs of the Holy States, but it will be a very great one. Inquisition. The Ecclesiastics, holdThere, as in all other parts of Italy, it ers of the principal offices, incompetent is only faith that is wanting, faith in a from past habits and studies to undercollective effort-the mutual esteem take their administration, discharge which is its foundation. Every inter- their duties by the aid of inferior emnal increase of contact must powerfully ployés, who in turn, feeling their poassist in creating it.
sition as uncertain, as dependent on a We do not attach much importanee necessarily short-lived patronage, are to the formation of the commissions guilty of every possible malversation, mentioned above. Such commissions and aim solely at self-enrichment. Bewere formed by Gregory XVI., after neath all, the weary people, borne the insurrection of 1831, and by other down by all, reacting against all, are Popes at their accession; they produced initiated into a corruption, the examno results.
There exists an element of ple of which is set by their superiors, dissolution in the Roman States, capa- or avenge themselves as they may, by ble of rendering all written reforms revolt or the poignard. Such, abridginefficient- this is the administration. ed, is the normal state of Papal Italy. It is, perhaps, the only country in And in such a system, there is not, Europe where a change of men is more there cannot be, any place for social important than a change of measures. interests, but place for the interests Every foreigner who wishes to form a of self alone. The priests, who gocorrect estimate of the value of the vern, have nothing in common with events which take place there, should the governed ; they may have misbegin by well understanding the spe. tresses, they cannot have wives; their cial position we speak of.
children, if they have any, are not leIt has been said, and it must be re- gitimate, and have nothing to hope peated, what constitutes the misfor- for but from intrigue and favouritism. tune of the other States of Italy, of the love of glory—the ambition of dothe nations subject to Austria, and of ing good—the last stimulant left to inPoland, is despotism : what consti- dividuals where every other is wanting tutes the misfortune of the Roman -exist not for them. . How States is anarchy. Elsewhere, the should men devote themselves to evil consists in the want of good laws; amendments, that can be in force only a few years—that must pass away un- brand by trial and public condemnader each new Pope, ere they can bear tion all those priests who use and abuse, fruit? How should the auditors, as- ---your religion would suffer. A priest sessors, or secretaries, through whom in the pillory! a priest at the gallies! the Ecclesiastics are driven, by their What would the people think? What want of political aptitude to govern, would be said by his penitents, whose labour for good, when the glory would agitated conscience the sacred word of all go to their chiefs? Why should that man, of that robber, calmed but a they not labour for evil, when the dis- few days since ? honour will fall there also ? Fear For this state of things, for this has no hold on the subalterns, for, school of corruption, which has been not acting in their own name, they teaching for ages, and whose doctrines have nothing to dread save from their have filtered from the clergy into the patrons. Fear has no hold on the laity, there is but one remedy--the heads, for, as to some, their power, secularisation of all offices, the choice and the part taken in the election of of the employés by the country wherethe reigning Pope, as to others, the ever it is possible, their responsibility, apostolic constitutions, or the tradi- and the superintendence of society by tions of the Church, establish an irre
* At the present time, Naples is hostile and stands aloof. And the Austrian journals, as the Trieste Lloyds, and others, but lately announced on occasion of a controversy about a book by the counsellor Petite of Turin, that the Piedmontese lines would never obtain their junction with the Lombardo Austrian railways.
& free press.
Without that nothing sponsibility in fact or in law. * " will be done. Illusions may last for
Such is the organization, or rather some time longer, but they will end by the disorganization of the States of the posting on the doors of the Papal paPope. And what can be done with lace, what the wits wrote over the door such an administration ? You may of the hall of the Parliament at Naples form the finest financial plans in the in 1820, Scusate le ciarle-excuse the world. How will you ensure their exe- chattering. cution with a Treasurer-General who Will the Pope do this ? renders no account, who may rob the Of this measure, there would be two country with impunity, and whom, if inevitable consequences. The first is, the robbery is discovered, you cannot, the introduction into office, into the diaccording to the apostolic constitutions, rection of the wheels of government, deprive of his office, but by the public of men devoted not only to the party scandal of raising him to the rank of of local reforms, but also to the NaCardinal ? You may issue the strict- TIONAL party. They form a majority est charge to the Governor of Rome to in the Roman States ; they would get be just and impartial, why should he the upper hand, and would give form obey ? He can but gain by not exe- to the tendency of the country towards cuting your orders; he also can only that object. The second is the resistlose his office in exchange for a Cardi- ance of Austria, even by force of arms. nal's hat. You cannot take from these Already, if we are to believe well inmen whom you despise, whom you formed persons, an Austrian note, know to be vassals of the genius of founded solely on pre-visions of the fuevil, their position immediately beneath ture, has been handed to the Secretary yourself, except by placing them by of State, Gizzi, threatening this oppoyour side, introducing them into your sition, and insolently referring to the councils, by giving them a voice in the fate of Cracow. But, however that may election of the Pope who is to follow be, there is not the shadow of a doubt you with sovereign power to destroy that Austria would interfere by arms, your work,“ You cannot force your if ever such measures as we have enulegates to obedience; if they be at all merated were taken. A free press, in bold, they will answer you, quoting we whatever corner of Italy it may be esknow not what old texts, that you can- tablished, raises the question of life not remove them from the place of and death for Austria and her Italian their malversation before three com- possessione. She must put it down, plete years have elapsed. You cannot were it even at the price of a war.
* Italy, Austria, and the Pope. London: Strange, Paternoster Row.