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directly communicating religious in- ther an improvement upon the “godstruction is to them an object of ab- less education” devised by statesmen horrence. A tale is introduced (p. 54) and politicians. Not only are youth apparently for the purpose of showing and grown men not to be taught relius how much more excellent a man a gion in schools, or colleges, or lecture play-actor is than a minister of the rooms, but they are not to be taught it gospel. The minister is represented at all. Religion, it seems, is an in
an inhuman monster, a profane stinct, and consequently not a subject swearer, having a heart dead to chari- of education. When men have been ty, and presenting nothing to the starv- taught all other things, it will spring ing but religious tracts. The actor is as a natural fruit out of them all, and
of active benevolence, and adorn them all. We would certainly while making no profession of reli- feel disposed to say that such expectagion, carrying on a mission of mercy tions as these run counter to all experiand tenderness. The design of such But the disposition is checked a tale is abundantly obvious. How when we find what kind of fruits the far it is true to nature, let experience writers of the Journal characterize testify. We do not deny that there as religion. Many of our readers may is such a thing as a benevolent actor, be aware that, in his early youth, neither do we deny the existence of Shelley wrote and published a poem, hypocritical clergymen; but such are abounding with the most fearful and not proper representatives of their outrageous blasphemies. Even those class, and would not be given as such, who were indifferent to all religion except for the purpose of stirring up were shocked by its daring profanity. in tbe hearts of the outcast and forlorn Queen Mab stands unrivalled in its poor of our large towns a suspicion and ferocious atheism. Now of Shelley hatred against the only class of men and of this poem of his, the writers of capable of doing them any effective and the Journal say (p. 131), “I would permanent good, or who are at all take Shelley, and take him, not in his likely to attempt it. This is empha- more mature state, but in his poetic tically the mission which the Church boyhood, when he was inditing the has now to undertake and carry on, fierce and ponderous commentaries of and we confess we would have stopt Queen Mab; take him in his hostility ere now our somewhat disgusting reve- to our received forms of faith and lations of what others are attempting received authorities; take him when, to do for the masses of our large towns, in the first fervour of youth, he was were it not that we are urged on by throwing down the gauntlet to every the hope of contributing something to species of superstition, and waging stimulate the sluggish energies of against theology an interminable warChristians in this vast field of labour. fare; and I say that, even at that moThe matter is, we are solemnly con- ment, Shelley was a religious poet. vinced, one of most pressing urgency. Whatever is just, true, and beautiful The call is “ now or never.
in human feelings, as it flows out toThe Journalists give us their method wards the vast universe of which we of making men religious. They say are a portion—whatever is most en(p. 133), “The best course would be nobling in the principle of love towards to enlarge their minds, to give some- all beings—whatever tends to show thing like training to the powers and
the advance in human nature, and even capabilities they possess ; to lead them in unconscious being—we have in that to greater knowledge of the truths of persecuted and condemned Queen Mab nature around them—to expand and a demonstration that if Shelley were raise their thoughts; and then, in this an atheist, he was an atheist whom a growth of the mind, the religion would God might love, and in whom we may come of itself, if they have the ele- perceive a brother.” Now we are ments of religion in their nature ; it quite prepared to admit that the reliwould come to them, for it belongs to gion of Shelley was the religion inthe human constitution.” This is ra- stinctive in the human constitution,
The Scriptures áttest it when they say, ligion,” they say, “ is that condition in " The carnal mind is enmity against which the mind of man attains to its God, and is not subject to the law of noblest elevation and its broadest views God, neither indeed can be.” And if so-when it traces laws in the natural so, there can be little doubt that the and in the moral universe—when it has method of training the human mind glimpses of the great order of things suggested by the Journal would pre- that every where prevails—when it sent us pretty uniformly such results relies on the beneficent operation of as we find in Shelley. It were well that those laws and feels itself a portion such a truth as this were more deeply of one great whole, bound together by pondered, and that men everywhere the principles of vital being, &c., (pp. should act upon the conviction, that 130-1.) Their view of religion, as without early and careful religious here expressed, seems to combine
in some training, we cannot expect religious measure those developed in Combe's men. Unless, indeed, we get so láti- “ Constitution of Man,” and those more tudinarian in our views of religion as recently brought out in the “Vestiges of to hold with the writers of the People's the Natural History of Creation.” Of Journal in regard to the principles both these works, they elsewhere exdeveloped in Queen Mab—“ if that be press a very unqualified adiniration, and not religion, there is no religion on indeed their moral philosophy and the face of the earth." We have now
theology may be safely asserted to be got, we think, to the ultimatum of these exclusively derived from them. Of the writers. Their view of religion, as ex- Vestiges they say, “ What denunciapressed in our last quotation, is, that tions of impiety were hurled against the it consists in denying the existence of author about Materialism-what ena God-in casting ridicule upon, and deavours were made to heap obloquy uttering horrid blasphemies against, the against him, because what he had adbeing and attributes of that God who vanced in his book was thought to is revealed to us. Religion is, that each endanger certain theological doctrines ! man becomes a god unto himself—the Positions laid down in that work deification of human nature, or of na- which had previously been recognised ture in general. This was the reli- as the results of science, and concurred gion of the French Revolutionists. in by all who had made geology their And we confess some measure of study, such as the gradual formation alarm, when we think that it is be- of the world,” &c., (p. 34.) Surely it coming the religion of so many of our is scarcely necessary to say, that all common people, the artisans of our this is utterly untrue. The author of large towns. It is dreadful even to con- the Vestiges has found his opponents template the possibility of the scenes in the men of science who have conenacted on the wide stage of France victed him of erring quite as much from being renewed within the shores of these ascertained truths, as from the Britain. Yet there can be little doubt truths of revelation. It has been provthat where such principles are cherish- ed against him, not only that he is a ed and acted upon, they must issue in materialist, but that his assumptions such results. There is nothing which are glaringly inconsistent with known tends so much to barden the heart, and facts, and that he is mainly ignorant to produce that intense selfishness of the science he professes to teach. which terminates in deeds of general The danger which was apprehended massacre, as the deification of nature, from his work, and the People's Jourespecially of human nature. When nal proves it to be a real danger, was man ceases to believe in God, he ceases that men
even more ignorant than to have human sympathies. Love to himself, would take his assumptions as man is the result and fruitoflove to God. true, and employ them for the purpose
In the religious belief of these wri- for which they are eminently fitted. ters the existence and the government It is not without its use to notice in of a God has no place. In regard to this closing this exhibition of the religious they leave us in no doubt. 6. True re principles of the People's Journal, several points of contact with Puseyism gained nothing which they had not.” and Popery. It is an old adage, that This would do for a lamentation over extremes meet, and we have here a new the evil effects of the Reformation. exhibition of its truth. The rampantin- William Howitt is anxious to restore fidelity of the Journal has many views to the people the May-day festivities. -indeed almost all their practical He sighs for the restoration of the views in thorough harmony with Pusey- Book of Sports, by which the Stuarts ism. Its mode of alleviating the condi- of old thought to beguile the Scottish tion of the people is the same as theirs people of their religion. The scheme -with some slight difference, perhaps, was not ill devised. It is surely ominin the modes they would respectively ous of evil times, to find the modern take to educate the young. They are disciples of Laud working hand in both strenuous advocates for an undiscri- hand with infidels, for the ac
accomplishminating beneficence to the poor, and ment of the same wicked purpose. for the multiplication of sights and 2. What are the educational views of games wherewith to amuse them, Nay, the People's Journal ? so accommodating in this way are the On this subject it is happily not writers of the People's Journal, that necessary that we should long detain they express a longing desire for the our readers. Though the question is restoration, in all their integrity, of the to us one of vast and increasing in, popish holidays. After the quotations terest, a criticism on this periodical is we have made, what do our readers not the most fitting occasion for the think of the following? The title of full consideration of it. The educathe essay is “ Easter Monday. Foot- tional views of the present age, are the ball playing in the last century," religious and irreligious. Their parti56 With the exception of Christmas, zans respectively hold, that religion Easter was and is the greatest festival ought to impregnate and form a part of the Catholic Church. The occasion of all education, or that religion is the most joyful that can be conceived should not be taught at all, but left as
-the rising of Christ from the tomb, the proper work of ministers, who may the promise and evidence of immortal overtake it as best they can. The life to every child of Adam. There is views of the writers of the Journal nothing calculated to inspire so much differ from both of these. They have joy--so much rapturous confidence—so no place for religion at all. It is left much grateful love to God and our Sa- to spring up instinctively; and if it do viour,” (p. 197.) Thus it is seen how not spring up at all, perhaps, so much well superstition and infidelity get on the better. To give a harmony and together. There is the strongest pos- acceptance to their principles, they sible objection to people frequenting hold that there is nothing in human church-to the circulation of religious nature which requires to be checked tracts—to teaching Bible truths, but it and corrected. Education with them is a most praiseworthy thing to exhibit consists in fostering and giving grateful love to God and our Saviour, strength to the impulses of our nature. by playing foot-ball on Easter Monday. They ridicule the idea of its being in any
Is not the following also an admir- sense a corrective. Thus, “It is well able piece for the Puseyites ? It is said in Combe's work on Man, that from the pen of William Howitt, gathering knowledge is to the mind of “With all our progress, we have not man what gathering honey is to the progressed into half the ease and gaiety bee; and this deserves to be regarded that our ancestors possessed. With as the foundation truth of education. all our improvements, we have not im- Fortunately we do not interfere with proved on their habit of enjoying them- the bees in their work as we do with selves. With all our triumphs of ma- human intelligences in their work. If chinery and of knowledge, we have won we did, it is to be feared that the no leisure, no happiness, not even our world's
's supply of honey would be very daily bread.
We have lost all that much diminished in quantity, and deour ancestors possessed, and have teriorated in quality, We should be
gin to hear of the natural and total “ have been rendered the mere tool of depravity of the bee tribe ; there the employing class, and placed at the would be attempts to prevent any bees mercy of a terrible influence.” And, from gathering honey unless they had again, in another place, “England, a sectarian mark painted on their proud England, rich England, mighty wings; and what with this interfer- and free England, grinding its children ence, and proscribing them from cer- to death in mines and mills, in subtertain fields and flowers, or only allow- ranean darkness and nakedness." ing them a previously defined range Such statements as these can have according to the convenience of others, no other effect than to irritate and in great would be the starvation and suf- flame the minds of working people ference of the insect tribe itself; and against their employers. It would have manifold would be the injury to human been unspeakably more to the purpose beings who now reap profit and enjoy- to have indicated to both parties the ment from letting the truths and pre- precise practical evils which admit of a cepts of nature take their course with remedy, and which prevail in their exinsects, though they strive against isting relations, and to have shown them in human nature.” Popery, we what remedies they propose.
On both apprehend, would not be unwilling to of these subjects, however, if they are avail itself of the inference deducible not altogether silent, their teaching is from this passage. For what is it?
in the last degree vague.
The condiPlainly that there should be no education tion, it would appear, which is to be at all. If the foundation truth of edu- achieved for the working man, is that cation be that men gather knowledge which the common people of England as the bees gather honey, where is the are supposed to have enjoyed long ago use of schools and schoolmasters? The condition, if not of entire idleness, bees have no teachers, because they at least one on which he could amuse have an unerring instinct; and, as crea- himself on all the Popish holidays. tures of instinct, are incapable of educa. Now we do not object to any working tion-of improvement- of progress. man, or the whole class together, If it be so with men, let us shut up our achieving as much relaxation from laschools, and get back again to barbar- bour as they possibly can, though we ism. Surely such a view as this is an would strive to have them spend their outrage upon the common sense of leisure time more profitably than in mankind. And yet something like it dancing round a May-pole, or playing must be adopted by those who hold at foot-ball on Easter Monday. But that there is nothing in human nature how is such a result to be brought that requires to be checked and coun- about? How are our workmen to be teracted. But if, on the other hand, freed from oppressive labour ? Not, buman nature be such a thing as to re- certainly, by heaping abuse upon their quire both checks and stimulants, it employers. They must achieve this will be very difficult to avoid the in- freedom for themselves. And here, for ference in favour of a religious educa- once, these writers and we are agreed. tion. For if these are to be employed But the question still is, how ? Our at all, why not bring early and habitu- answer is that of Dr Chalmers—by a ally into operation that which has prov. Christian education, and the exercise of ed itself to be the only effective check Christian graces. The answer of the and counteraction, and best stimulant People's Journal is different. But we to humanity--the Christian religion. confess our inability to gather precisely
3. What are the social views of the what that answer is. Sometimes we People's Journal?
are led to infer that combination is to do It is painful to contemplate them. it - sometimes, again, that the reTheir object seems to be, to infuse a sources of the rich are to do it. Per.. deadly hostility into one class against haps they contemplate both—a pooranother. The people against the aris. law providing for the comfortable maintocracy-the employed against the em- tenance of all who are unwilling to ployers! The work-people, they say, work, or unable to obtain employment,
and a union of all, restricting them not of the profits of a good and ready to work below a fixed rate of wages.
market. This, or something very like Their views are not all alike hope- it, is practically the history of such less and vicious. They trust too much, schemes hitherto tried in Scotland. however, to the principle of co-opera
Our limits forbid us to deal with this tion. Benefit societies are recommend- subject of our social relations and ecoed as better than savings banks for this nomics more at length. We greatly
A more hopeful scheme, in fear that the writers of the People's every way, is the formation of exten- Journal have not practical information sive associations, to enable working enough to enable them to counsel wisely men to become proprietors of the houses even on such subjects as these. How they live in. We view this scheme much less on subjects' touching our more favourably, not because we think the general relations, as classes and members object an important one, but because its of a community! They seem, when existence and operation tend to foster speaking of them, as men looking into habits of economy, fore-thought, and unfathomable depths of darkness. They self-denial, which, to the working man, fear quiescence ; every movement is to and indeed to all men, are extremely them pregnant with hope. valuable. We are not quite so sure of
We have finished our review of this another scheme, which is a special fa- volume with feelings of mingled pain vourite with the People's Journal. and alarm. Its prevailing scope is to The great complaint they have against set man against man in fierce and incapitalists is, that they realize enor- terminable conflict, and all against mous profits at the expense of the God. We seem to be standing on the working man. Why might not the
Why might not the verge of a vast volcano, ready to exworking man become a capitalist him- plode, and overwhelm us with terrible self, and, in addition to his wages, reap
destruction, The existence of the all these profits? This he cannot do People's Journal—the countenance and singly. But co-operation might make support afforded to it, reveals an awful him a capitalist. The combination of state of things, which it is right should many small savings might supply funds be obtruded upon our notice, that we to erect a factory, and to work it. This may be aware of it in time, and, if is their scheme. It appears plau- possible, avoid its terrible consequences. sible," and there may be some pos
The fires will not always continue sibility of realizing it. But what smouldering—they are even now acthen ? If we are not very much misin- tively fed with most inflammable ma
very scheme was put in ope- terials, and we may expect an awful ration many years ago, both in Glas- conflagration. Wisely directed and gow and Paisley. The results were vigorous efforts might yet be made to not in favour of the working people. In quenchthem. Above all, immediate, and, a time of commercial prosperity, the if possible, united action, is necessary, plan may work well, but with the first Is it to be regarded as a fair deducstagnation in trade—the first glut in tion from the demerits we have noticed the market-comes ruin. The capital- that the People's Journal says much ist can for a period work short hours about the duty of love, which, to us, -he can work at a loss, and recover wears very much of a French dramahimself with the return of prosperity. tic aspect? The love which it inculThe co-operative factory becomes a cates, excepting in some few instances wreck. Its proprietors must work, for of the exhibition, and commendation, they cannot afford to be idle. Working of family affections, is a love limited to at a loss, they not only are without any class. The labourers are to love one return for their labour, but require an another, because love is essential to outlay, which obliges them either to combination, and combination is essenrelinquish their factory, or leaves them tial to, we shall not say what, but some helpless when the returning tide comes. faint glimpses of it may be obtained They have not wherewithal to purchase by what we have already said and the raw material, and avail themselves quoted.