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of perturbations to which one already it appeared to give promise of a ring known is subject, opening the way to
and satellite. He writes-" On the the discovery of the concealed object. 3d instant (October), whilst viewing
Observations upon Uranus had this object with my large equatorial, shewn the motions of that planet to during bright moonlight, and through present great irregularities, which could a muddy and tremulous sky, I susnot be explained by the action of Ju- pected the existence of a ring round piter and Saturn; and after carefully the planet, and on surveying it again examining the analytical theory of for some time on Saturday evening Uranus, Le Verrier, in the summer of last, in the absence of the moon, and 1846, published the following elements under better, though not very favourof an undiscovered planet, the cause able atmospherical circumstances, my of the perturbations :-Mean distance suspicion was so strongly confirmed of from the sun, 33 times that of the the reality of the ring, as well as of earth from the sun; greatest distance the existence of an accompanying safrom the sun, 36 times that of the earth tellite, that I am induced to request from the sun; period of revolution you, as early as possible, to put the 217} years; mass 38 times that of the observations before the public. The earth. At the close of August, in a telescope used is equatorially paper presented to the French Aca- mounted Newtonian reflector, of 20 demy, he pointed out the place in the feet focus, and 24 inches aperture, and heavens where it should be found, the powers used were various—from about 5° east of the star d in Capricorn. 316 to 567. At 13 hours mean time, Scarcely a month had elapsed when the I observed the planet to have a very following note from Dr Brünnow to obliquely situated ring, the major Mr Hind of London announced the axis being seven or eight times the discovery of the stranger. Berlin, length of the minor, and having a diSept. 25. My dear Sir,-M. Le Ver- rection at right angles to a parallel of rier's planet was discovered here on declination. At the distance of about the 23d of September, by M. Galle. three diameters from the disc of the It is a star of the eighth magnitude, planet northwards, and not far from but with a diameter of two or three the plane of the ring, but a little folseconds. (Then follow its places for lowing it, was situate a minute star, Sept, 23, 24). The planet is now re- having every appearance of a satellite. trograde, its motion amounting daily I observed the planet again about two to four seconds of time. Brünnow.” hours later, and noticed the same apM. Galle communicated immediately pearances, but the altitude had then with M. Le Verrier by letter on the declined so much, that they were not 25th, observing—“The planet, whose 80 obvious. My impression certainly position you have described, really was, that the supposed satellite exists. On the same evening that I had somewhat approached, but I canreceived your letter, I discovered a star not positively assert it.
With respect of the eighth magnitude, which is not also to the existence of the ring, I am marked on the excellent chart of Dr not able absolutely to declare it, but Bremiker, and which forms part of the I received so many impressions of it, collection of celestial charts published always in the same form and direction, by the Royal Academy of Berlin. The and with all the different magnifying observations on the following night powers, that I feel a very strong pershowed that this star is precisely the suasion that nothing but a finer state planet in question. M. Encke and I of the atmosphere is necessary to enhave, with the aid of Fraunhofer's able me to verify the discovery. Of large telescope, compared it with a the existence of the star having every star of the ninth magnitude."
aspect of a satellite, there is not the The new member of the system was shadow of a doubt. Afterwards, I speedily picked up at Mr Bishop's turned the telescope to the Georgium observatory in the Regent's Park, and Sidus, and remarked that the brightest by Mr Lassell of Liverpool, to whom two of his satellites were both obvi
ously brighter than this small star ac- bours, while the object itself had been companying Le Verrier's planet.' seen, though not recognised. It ap
A just tribute has been paid to the pears from a public communication of merits of Le Verrier by the principal Sir John Herschel's, that when the late European nations in complimentary illustrious astronomer Mr Bessel visithonours, and these, with some more sub- ed him at Collingwood, on the 12th of stantial tokens of reward, have also been July 1842, he remarked that the conferred by his own country. The motions of Uranus, as he had satisMinister of Public Instruction, M. Sal- fied himself by careful examination of vandy, in a report to the Crown, the recorded observations, could not states—" Sire, a great discovery-one be accounted for by the perturbations of the rare efforts of the human mind of the known planets, and that the de-has conferred honour on France, viations far exceeded any possiblelimits and on your reign, A French youth, of error of observation. In reply to the M. Le Verrier, of the Academy of question, whether the deviations might Sciences, by the unaided power of pro
not be due to the action of an unknown found thinking, using the mathematics planet ? he stated that he considered as its instruments, has grasped, in the it highly probable that such was the regions of space, beyond our solar case, being systematic, and such as -system, a planet which, but for him, might be produced by an exterior might have remained for ever unde- planet. I then enquired whether he tected by observation. In general, had attempted, from the indications observations have preceded science,
afforded by these perturbations, to but in this case science has only had discover the position of the unknown to follow the steps of theory, and to body, in order that a hue and cry look at the exact point indicated for the might be raised for it. From his reunknown star, which theory alone had ply, the words of which I do not call as yet seen by the mind's eye. There to mind, I collected that he had not has not, in the whole history of science, then gone into that enquiry, but prooccurred a more striking event than posed to do so, having now completed this. In recommending M. Le Verrier certain works which had occupied too for the Legion of Honour, I also re- much of his time. Accordingly, in a commend M. Galle of Berlin, who has letter which I received from him after been the first to discover the Planet his return to Königsberg, dated NoLe Verrier. He thus united with M. vember 14, 1842, he says, ' In referLe Verrier in a discovery which has ence to our conversation at Collingastonished the scientifie world.” It is wood, I announce to you (melde ich little likely that astronomers will agree Ihnen) that Uranus is not forgotten.' to this title of the planet, or to that Doubtless, therefore, among
papers of Gallia, which has been proposed, will be found some researches upon as they refused to elevate Herschel this subject.” and George the Third to a place in the Upon retiring from the chair of skies, and went to Pagan mythology the British Association, a fortnight befor the name Uranus.
fore the discovery of M. Galle, Sir But we have not yet done with this John Herschel, in remarkable words, discovery. It will be seen that only referred to the astronomical events of by accidental circumstances has France the past year, observing that it bad the honour of it. In fact, so far given a new planet (Astrea) to our list, from M. Salvandy's statement being and adding, “ It has done more, it has correct, that but for the young French given us the probable prospect of the academician's labours, great as are discovery of another. We see it as his merits, the planet might have re- Columbus saw America from the shores mained for ever unknown, all its ele- of Spain. Its morements have been ments had been arrived at by a Cam- felt trembling along the far-reaching bridge student, and were in the hands line of our analysis, with a certainty of our Astronomer Royal months be- hardly inferior to that of ocular defore their publication among our neigh- monstration.” This striking para
graph, as subsequently explained, had no little irritation at these facts being a twofold reference to the calculations laid before the public, but historical of Le Verrier, and to a similar inves- truth, and a just distribution of honour tigation previously completed by Mr to whom honour is due, demanded their Adams of Cambridge, the independ- prompt statement, while nothing can ence of the investigations, and their be more explicit than the recognition very nearly coincident results, justify- which M. Le Verrier's claims have reing the confidence so strongly expres. ceived on this side the channel. Among sed by the speaker. Mr Adams com- other proofs of this, the council of the menced his theoretical researches in Royal Society of London have awardJanuary 1843, recommenced them ed to him the Copley medal, given to upon larger data in February 1844, Sir W. Herschel for his discovery of and obtained results for the heliocen- Uranus. tric longitude, eccentricity of orbit, The new planet, thus brought before longitude of perihelion, and mass, of human observation after ages of conan assumed exterior planet, deduced cealment, is one from which our smaller entirely from unaccounted for pertur- world can never be hailed, unless it bations of Uranus. These results were has dwellers differently constituted to communicated to Mr Challis, the Pro- ourselves, or furnished with far supefessor of Astronomy at Cambridge, in rior instrumental assistance. It is the September 1845. In October, they third body in the system in point of were in the hands of Mr Airy, the As- magnitude, having a computed diametronomer Royal, whereas Le Verrier's ter of about 50,000 miles, that of Julabours were not made public till the piter being about 90,000, Saturn June of the year following. They 79,000, and Uranus 35,000. Taking were not then so complete as those of the earth as 1, its comparative volume Mr Adams, indicating merely the pro- will be 250, that of Jupiter being 1300, bable position of the hypothetical Saturn 900, Uranus 80, and the sun planet, while the iatter had given near 1,250,000. Its comparative values respecting its mass and the form mass, taking that of the earth as 1, is of its orbit. The correspondence be- 38, that of Jupiter being 338, of Satween two independent enquiries as to turn 95, of Uranus 17, and of the sun position, inspired confidence, and Mr 355,000. Its mean distance from the Airy recommended a systematic search sun appears to be 3,200,000,000 miles, for the object which Mr Challis com- that of Uranus, the farthest planet bemenced on July 29. It now appears, fore known, being 1,800,000,000. Conthat, on August 4th and 12th, he ac- sequently, its discovery has added a lintually seized the planet, and recorded ear extent of 1,400,000,000 miles to two positions of it, but did not recog- the former supposed limits of our sysnise it, through not comparing his ob- tem. Yet there, across that mighty servations, which a pressure of occupa- gulph, as here, and where Mercury tion, and an impression that the dis- nestles near the sun, the laws of gracovery required a much more extensive vitation are constantly and unerringly search, prevented. But for this, and obeyed—a silent but impressive prothe non-publication of the Cambridge clamation this to intelligent piety, of mathematician's results at the time the cardinal doctrine of Scripture, with they were forwarded to Mr Airy, the which, indeed, the remoter regions of honourable position of M. Le Verrier the universe are oracular, that there is would have been ocoupied by Mr one God and Father of all, who is Adams, and that of M. Galle by Mr above all, and through all, and in you Challis. The French have displayed all!"
PERIODICALS FOR THE PEOPLE.
In our day such periodicals have this they possess a double facility.
numerous, and very They are not generally subjected to influential. Circulating extensive- the rigid tests by which works larger ly among the more intelligent and in size and of higher pretensions are thinking class of the working people, tried. They escape the judgment of they constitute a large share of, in any who are best qualified to provery many instances, their only read- nounce a just verdict on their merits, ing. The minds of such men are in and but rarely fall under the notice of great measure moulded by the reading those who, while they read them, will of such publications, and by means at the same time prove them. They of personal intercourse, and the ine
occupy more than any other kind of vitable influence which strong and ac- books the position of teachers. They tive minds have over those of weaker are peculiarly addressed to a class of frame, the information and opinions men who either refuse to read books at they thus imbibe are indefinitely ex- all, or who, when they do read them, tended
among the working popula- subject their minds to the influence of tion.
them. And what makes a bad periThe contributors to such periodicals odical of this class more dangerous are by no means men of contemptible still, is, that its errors, often very intellect. Some of the most vigorous, dangerous, are not obtruded upon the powerful, and well-stored minds of mind unmixed. The case is often the age, give expression to their views
A reader of a single number, in through this channel. The Arch
the variety of articles presented to bishop of Dublin contributed his Es- him, finds some entertaining, some says on the Christian Evidences to a dull enough, some instructive, some weekly penny periodical. The Penny bad. He will take the periodical with Cyclopedia numbered among its con- this drawback, and read it from week tributors some of the highest scienti- to week. Meanwhile the periodical is fic names in England.
tolerably uniform in its teaching-it These are not the times, then, in goes on systematically—and the poor which small and cheap periodicals can reader, when the year is out, has tabe safely despised or overlooked. They ken, not merely a grain of poison, are among the most powerful agents which his constitution might have shain the formation of public opinion, ken off, but he has it now circulating and hence, in the moulding of the ge- through all his veins, and forming part neral character of our population. of his constitution itself. They are generally read by a greater As a specimen, for the present, we number of persons than any other class take up the People's Journal, a Lonof publications, and the frequency don weekly publication, price three with which they repeat their visits halfpence. Each number contains more than compensates for any defect sixteen pages of letter-press royal which might be supposed to arise from octavo. It abounds in essays, lectures, the brevity of their instructions. tales, and poetry. Each number is il
It may not be unimportant, there- lustrated with a wood-cut, admirably fore, that we should occasionally take executed, even for our day, when high a glance at the character of this class excellence in this department of art of publications, either in the way of is far from being rare. Its literary reproof or commendation. This seems ability is of a high order. It numthe more necessary when we consider bers amung its contributors many men how covertly, and in what infinitesimal and women well known to fame. The doses, error of the most dangerous cha- name of the author of each article is racter may, through this medium, be given; and we find regularly such as instilled into the public mind. For William and Mary Howitt, Miss Mar
tineau, Camilla Toulmin, Ebenezer be very difficult to specify any engageElliot, &c. Let us, then, for a little, ment which might not with propriety examine the Journal. Let us see, be undertaken and performed on the not what it professes to do, but what it day of holy rest. At least there is not really is doing, for the people—what one, which the doer of the thing would kind of principles it is teaching them, find it difficult to classify under the and in what direction it seeks to lead general category. It is our duty, howthem.
ever, while thus noticing the lax no1. What are its religious principles, tions of Sabbath observance, to inor has it any ? Perhaps it would not form our readers that there is a formal be quite safe to say that it is entirely complaint against Sabbath desecration atheistical—as much so as the French entered on the pages of the Journal. Revolutionists at the end of last cen- We are thus furnished with a sufficitury. There is mention frequently entiy precise notion of the way in made in it of a God, and therefore it which they think the Sabbath ought is to be presumed that its writers have to be kept. They tell us, somewhat some belief in the existence of such vaguely, it is true, what we may do a being. It is impossible, however, on that day; they are more precise to gather from its pages what kind of when they come to tell us what may not a being their God is, and whether there be done. are positively any duties He requires But before we introduce the single at the hands of men. This much, at and most notable thing which is not to least, it is easy to determine, that be done on Sabbath, let us inform our their God is not the God of Christians, readers of the occasion on which this and that the duties they inculcate upon prohibition is introduced. The same men are not Christian duties. The W. J. Fox who tells us above what most copious writer in the Journal is it is lawful to do on Sabbath, gives a also the most outrageous and outspo- lecture on the political morality of ken in his hatred to what is commonly Shakspeare's Plays, and, with marvelknown and reverenced as religion. lous coherence to his subject, informs His papers purport to have been us that one of the greatest existing delivered in the form of lectures to nuisances is the Sabbath ringing of the working classes. He is the well- church bells. “Oh the jangling of known W. J. Fox, popular Socinian those bells, whether considered litepreacher and lecturer in London. rally or figuratively, is one of the nuiSome of his lectures, given here, are sances the Church entails upon able and vigorous—most of them, how
disturbing the quiet of ever, characterized by a style rather Sunday, and breaking rudely upon inflated, and not unfrequently descend- the disposition to reflectiveness and. ing to what is commonly called clap- calm which belongs to it.
Such a trap.
nuisance ought to be brought under the From what we have stated-and we operation of the New Police Act.” Mr now proceed to vindicate and prove our Fox proceeds to give a story, we prestatements—it will be inferred that they sume from the police reports, of a boy have no great liking to any of the posi- being apprehended and fined for ringtive institutions of religion. The Sab- ing his bell and selling crumpets on the bath comes in for a fair share of the Sabbath, and indignantly puts the quescensure which all religious institutions tion, Why, I should like to know, call forth. Thus it is asked, p. 33, are the crumpet bells to be put down, “What is the shutting up of our and the church bells kept up ?" With museums and zoological gardens on Mr Fox's leave, there are one or two the Sundays, but superstition? things which we also should like to And then, the principle is laid down, know ; as, for instance, whether a boy that to sanctify the Sabbath, we are ringing a bell and selling crumpets on called upon to engage in whatever ex- the street on a Sabbath, was employed alts and enlarges the intellect. In in sanctifying that day, even according this way it is obvious that it would to Mr Fox's view of the matter