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tendencies, the awakening has been military men had been sitting since sudden, electric- twenty cities have the commencement of the agitation. rushed into festivals — the manifesta- Sentences had been promulgated contions intended to encourage, to urge for- demning fifty persons at once.* Open ward in the path of progress the man carts passed along the roads of Romagna who has shown Italian intentions, have under the most burning sun, and surastonished the liberal party themselves. rounded by sbirri, loaded with political Rome, which was believed to be, and prisoners being transferred from one priwhich indeed is in part, corrupt at son to another. In prison their treatheart, and infeoffed by its interests ment was such as reminds one of Spielto the high aristocracy of the clergy, berg; and that it might be clearly seen Rome has taken part in the outburst, that once arrested there was no hope, and has fraternised with the provinces. their defence was committed by the And that there might be no mistaking commission itself to some known partithe popular feelings, at Bologna, An

san of

the government, who was cona, Spoletto, cries of “ Down with liable to be interrupted or punAustria, vive Italy,mingled with ished whenever he departed from those of “ Long live Pius IX.” At the undissembled intentions of the Ferrara the Italian soldiery engaged judges.f Terror was the order of the in bloody quarrels with the Austrian day. And yet all this display of regarrison.

pressive means of vengeance, did not This is, we repeat, the really im- deter discontent: At Bologna it mutportant point of view, from which to tered its complaints ; in Romagna it study what is passing in Italy; it is as stalked with uplifted head. Combats a symptom of the state of affairs, that were of continual occurrence. Agents we should appreciate the spirit of con- of the government and Swiss fell here cession shown in the views of Pius IX. and there. A plan was hatching for a The source of that spirit is not in the new insurrection, more general and spontaneous inspirations of the Pope; more energetic than that of Rimini. it is in the opinion of the country. It was to commence at Sinegaglia, and

We do not by this mean to deny the break out soon after the death of good intentions of Pius IX. But in re- Gregory XVI. The government knew garding the man we would not have Italy this; and it was one reason for the forgotten, of whose wishes he has been conclave to dispatch; for the new Pope, bitherto but a very feeble exponent. to avert by popular means the storm We cannot refrain also from pointing that persecution had only swelled, and out, that when Farretti was elected to to enter upon a new path. the pontifical throne, the horizon was He has entered upon it; will be very threatening; so threatening indeed, have courage, virtue, talent to pursue that Rome had but two courses to follow it ? For, to respond to the hopes and to maintain itself; to solicit the inter- wishes of the population by whom he vention of Austria, or to dissipate the is surrounded, he must advance, still danger by clemency and promises of advance, frankly, energetically, unrestconcession. The insurrectionary agita- ingly. Any hesitation,

any evasion, any tion had never ceased since 1843. The sudden stop, would leave him isolated prisons overflowed with victims. Extra- between the two parties, abhorred by ordinary special commissions of mixed the one, outstripped by the other. He composition, that is to say, exceptional must change all the high officers of tribunals composed of civilians and government who surround him: with few

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• See among others the sentence of the Ravenna commission, (10th Sept. 1845,) presided over {by the Cardinal Legate Massimo, whose furious excesses equalled those of the colonel of carabineers Freddi at Bologna.

| The advocate Pantoli, a man devoted to the government, was appointed by the Ravenna commission defender of the accused. Suddenly enlightened by the mass of injustice collected in the suit, and by the want of proofs, he worthily fulfilled his office and crushed the accusation. He had his house searched, and papers concerning the defence withdrawn; then, he was confined to Ravenna till the ratification of the sentence, and threatened with a prohibition from following his profession.

exceptions, they are vicious and corrupt, such that the stamp and registration and would impede and vitiate the best duties return to the state a net proceed possible laws. He must secularise his of only 440,000 scudi, so few transacentire government. He must dismiss tions are there ; in which the post, so the mercenary Swiss, who exhaust while limited are communications, returns only they exasperate the people, and alienate 250,000 scudi, of which the expenses from him the national troops. He consume 150,000. He must do all this, must organise the communes, and re- for all this is asked, is urgently needed, lieve local districts by a just manage- and will soon be demanded. And when ment of their affairs from the arbitrary he has done all this, nothing will be rule that tortures them. He must cause done, for a breath, carrying away the the general interests, rights and duties pontiff, may carry away all this, unless to be represented by a body offering its permanence be insured by guarantees securities for its honesty, intelligence, taken from the inmost constitution of and independence. He must fix the the government; nothing will be done, laws by codes, which have long been de- for the religious question on the one hand, manded in vain: put an end to the inequa- and the national question on the other, lity, by which for the same crime a priest will rise before him more threatening is less punished than a layman: secure than ever, demanding a solution the more by an appeal not merely illusory, indi- impossible for a Pope, as the latter convidual liberty, now at the mercy of each tains within itself the germ of the annipetty employé or favourite of a legate, hilation of the temporal power of the

He must organize not one school, but Papacy, and the first the reduction of a good system of education, freed from its spiritual power at least to a position the direction of corporate bodies, jesui. subaltern to the church, to the assembly tical or others; introduce publicity of of the faithful. trial and the jury; abolish confiscation, * And yet, these first steps, which we suppress the Holy Inquisition and all have briefly indicated, and without clerical jurisdiction over the laity. He which the public enthusiasm will take a must open a path to intellect by dealing new direction in four or six months, liberally with the press, domestic and will Pius IX. take them ? Speaking as foreign. On the one hand he must re- individuals, we do not think he will. In cruit the finances, exhausted, indebted, another number we will give our reaunequal to the expenses of the state ;t We shall not the less attentively must, on the other, lighten the taxation follow his bold or hesitating march, and which is excessive ; must abandon a we shall not hail with less sincere approprohibitive system, that favours not the bation every progressive measure he may national industry but the monopoly of adopt. Great institutions should never a few individuals, while it nurses smug- be stifled in the mire, and there would gling ; must put an end to the system of at least be something touching and sofarming the duties, under which the con- lemn to see the papacy, which has done sumer pays not only the tax but the so much evil to Italy, do homage, beprofit of the farmer also ; must raise ore it expires, to public opinion, aid her fallen credit by the principle of associa- in those paths of improvement to which tion applied to agriculture and manu- God calls all nations, and which, whatfactures ; must give vital circulation and ever be done to prevent it, must soon movement to an economical condition irrevocably be opened to her.

sons.

* These demands are enunciated in the manifesto of the moderate party, published at the time of the Rimini affair.

+ The net revenue of the State is 7,220,000 scudi. The regular expenses, including the cost of the Swiss, not included in Dr Bowring's tables, amounts to 17,934,000 scudi.

CONSTANCE LYNDSAY ;

OR, THE PROGRESS OF ERROR.

CHAPTER I.

ness.

ever.

“Good night, dear Constance," said earliest years almost the idol of her Mr Bouverie to his cousin, as he ac- father ; the companion of his walks companied her to the door of her and rides, the sharer in all his hours apartment, may you enjoy quiet of recreation. Even in his study, her repose under the shadow of the Al- place was by his side, and the most mighty,' and be strengthened for our delightful employment of his leisure journey of to-morrow.”

hours bad been to instruct her, not Constance did not reply. The tears only in those accomplishments in which that had been filling her eyes while he excelled, but to lead her in paths of her cousin spoke, now overflowed, and literature and science, such as rarely withdrawing her hand from his affec- form a part of female education. tionate pressure, she turned hastily Constance had just entered upon her aside and entered her room.

seventeenth year, when the health of her She advanced to the window, and father began to decline, but she would throwing it wide open, leant upon the not see what was but too evident to casement, and pressing her hands every other eye; and when at length a upon her throbbing brow, wept for sudden attack of illness proved too much some time with unrestrained bitter for his enfeebled frame, and in a few

days terminated his life, she gave herAt length she looked up and turned self up to the wildness of uncontrolled a long gaze of mournful affection upon sorrow, and mourned as if every hope the lovely scene that lay before her, in and joy of her life were blighted for deep repose, beneath the unclouded radiance of a bright harvest moon. The only surviving relations of Mr

There lay the calm Ulleswater, on Lyndsay, with the exception of his whose tranquil bosom the moonbeams nephew, Lord Carrysford, a fine boy slept, a pillar of unbroken light. Close of thirteen, were a sister, a few years to the shore was moored the little bark, older than himself, and her children. in which she had often glided over Lady Catherine Lyndsay had, at an those waters; and there, bending, as early age, become the wife of Viscount in days of yore, their feathery branches Delamere, and from that time she had to meet the wave, were the trees, rarely met the brother, to whom she, under whose shadow she had played in nevertheless, continued fondly attachthe bright noontide of her childhood's ed, as she had resided since the period days.

of her marriage, almost entirely on the And there, towering in majestic continent. grandeur, were the mountains, each Immediately after Mr Lyndsay's familiar form of which seemed that of death, his curate, Mr Stanley, had a friend, known and loved from in- written to announce the mournful event fancy ; and Constance wept again in to Lord Delamere, who was then about the anguish of her spirit, when she re- to return to England. He arrived too late membered that the morrow must bear to

pay

the last sad duty to his departher far from those cherished scenes, ed brother, but Mr Bouverie, his eldest to which the endearing name of home son, hastened to Beverleigh, to conclude belonged no more.

any arrangements that might be neConstance was the only child of the cessary, and conduct Constance to Delate honourable and reverend Frederick lamere Castle, her future home. Lyndsay. Deprived in infancy of a During the interval that elapsed mother's care, she had been from her before the arrival of Mr Bouverie,

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Constance bad found in the parental ten- moment longer, her favourite dog, a derness of Mr and Mrs Stanley, all the noble animal of the Newfoundland comfort that Christian sympathy could breed, had emerged from amongst administer to her desolate heart; and them, and with frantic demonstrations amongst the trials to which she looked of joy, bounded upon her. “My poor forward on the morrow, that of separa- Oscar," said she, whilst she threw her tion from those friends was not the arms around his neck, and wept afresh, least.

my beautiful dog, must I leave you The bright sunbeams pouring through too !” At this moment she heard a the roses and jessamine that clustered footstep advancing upon the gravel round her casement, awoke Constance path. from the feverish slumber into which It was her maid, already attired for she had not fallen until the dawn of their journey. morning. She rose, and placing her- “ Mr Bouverie desired me to tell you, self at the window, gazed long in a Madam, that everything is ready as half-unconscious reverie upon those be- suori as you feel disposed to set out.” loved scenes that had so often met her Constance arose ; she wiped away glad awakening

her tears, and calmly walked towards The sound of the church clock strik

her room.

In a few moments she was ing the hour of seven, at length aroused ready. Mr Bouverie met her in the her. In one hour they were to begin hall; he only exchanged a brief“ Good their journey, and rising, she hastily morning," as he led her to the carriage ; summoned her maid, and began her but the tone of his voice, the kind brief toilet; dismissing her attendant pressure of his hand, spoke the sympaas soon as it was completed, she wan- thy that he did not convey by words. dered into a small room opening from Everything was ready, and only the her dressing room, which had been last trial remained, the uttering of that furnished as a boudoir. All looked mournful word, “ Farewell.” blank and desolate. Her harp, her Her father's attached servants, many books, all the things which had become of whom she remembered from infancy, so blended with her thoughts and feel- were assembled on the steps of the ings, as to seem almost a part of her- hall. self, had been removed to be conveyed With a calm brow and pale cheek, to Delamere Castle, and, sad at heart, Constance exchanged with each of them Constance turned away, and passed a kind adieu. through the open porch into a beautiful She turned to Mr Stanley, and flower garden, where, in the beloved silently placed her hand in his. society of him whom she should behold He pressed it with a father's tenno more on earth, she had spent many derness, while she fervently implored bright summer hours.

that the presence and blessing of the From hence she could see the win- Shepherd of Israel might be with her dows of her father's study and private for ever. Large tear drops trembled apartments, but she turned shuddering in her eyes, as she was clasped for one away from their closed blinds, for moment to Mrs Stanley's bosom, but hers was not the calm heaven-taught she repressed the rising emotion, and grief, which, resting in the joyful hope hastened onward.

165 Come my poor of a re-union with the lost one, when Oscar, you must accompany us,” said time shall be no more, ean bear to Mr Bouverie, after he had placed Concherish each sacred memory of the stance in the carriage. The dog bad past.

but waited for one word of permission. She sought an arbour at the farther He bounded into the carriage, and took side of the garden, and lingering there, his place at his mistress' feet. One again yielded her thoughts to mournful brief glance from the dark eyes of retrospection. She was startled at Constance thanked Mr Bouverie, in length by a violent movement amongst language that touched his heart, and the thicket of flowering shrubs that then she turned aside to conceal the surrounded the arbour, and in one tears that would no longer be restrained, while she bent over the slept a little lake, clothed with fairy shaggy head that her favourite had laid islets. affectionately on her lap.

Constance continued silently to gaze, Mr Bouverie forbore to address her, till the carriage stopped in the wide until they had passed every familiar court of the castle, and she was lifted scene; but when, at length, he marked from it, and kindly saluted by a noble in her countenance an expression of looking man, whose dignified bearing relief, as her eye rested upon objects and benevolent smile, reminded her, which no longer recalled the past, he though he was not otherwise like him, made some brief comments upon the

of her father. The next moment she many interesting features of the was folded to the bosom of her aunt, country through which their journey whose sweet countenance and gentle lay, and soon, unconsciously to herself, tone so strongly resembled those of her Constance became engaged, and won father, that for a moment she almost from her own sad thoughts, by the felt as if restored to the parent she had charms of a conversation that ex- lost. pressed at once deep feeling and a vi- As she ascended the steps with her gour of intellect, that met and led aunt, she was met by Mrs Bouverie, onward her own.

who welcomed her with tender kind. Early in the evening they stopped ness; and the whole party entered the for the night at a retired inn, to which drawing-room, whose blazing fire was Mr Bouverie had sent a servant in ad gleaming brightly through the open vance, to see that every comfort was door, upon the polished oaken floor of provided for them; for the pale cheek the hall. and languid eye of Constance told how “You are very cold, dear Constance," greatly she needed the repose, which said Mrs Bouverie, as she pressed the for many nights she had hardly hand that she had retained in her own, tasted.

and gently drew her cousin towards On this evening she retired early, the fire. and, far from all that could awaken Yes," said Mr Bouverie,” even emotion, she soon sunk into a profound this bright sunshine fails now to impart slumber, from which she awoke at sun. its warmth to the evening air, and your rise, invigorated and refreshed. blazing faggots, dear Isabella, are most

At an early hour the travellers re- enlivening; but I hear a visitor begging sumed their journey; and late in the admittance, who, I am sure, will parafternoon of that day, as the carriage ticipate in an enjoyment of them. reached the summit of a little rising As he spoke, he advanced to the ground, Mr Bouverie pointed out to door, which had been closed, and in Constance the lofty turrets of Delamere opening it, Oscar entered, at first—as if Castle, rising from the midst of their uncertain whether he might venture; embowering woods.

but as soon as his eye rested upon As the carriage drove rapidly down Constance, he rushed forward with the hill, the exquisite beauty of the demonstrations of joy, not to be rescene before her, found its way to the pressed. heart of Constance, even amidst the " What a noble dog,” said Mrs many emotions which filled it, at this Bouverie, as she stooped to caress first view of her future home.

him. The sun was just sinking behind the “He is a faithful friend, poor felmountains of Wales, and his parting low,” said Constance," but I love him beams shed a flood of crimson light most dearly, because he

was my on the waving corn fields and rich fa- but the effort to speak with woods, and clothed as with a radiant composure was too great. mantle, a sloping hill, covered with She was exhausted by her journey ; velvet turf, and shadowing trees. and by the many agitating emotions

Delamere Castle was situated upon which filled her heart, her voice tremits declivity-a venerable pile of noble bled, and she burst into tears. gothic architecture; and at its base, “My own child,” said Lady Dela

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