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No. 1.] Thursday, March 12, 1713.

Ille quem requiris. JMart. Epig. ii. 1.

He, whom you seek.

The RE is no passion so universal, however diversified or disguised under different forms and appearances, as the vanity of being known to the rest of mankind, and communicating a man's parts, virtues, or qualifications, to the world: this is so strong upon men of great genius, that they have a restless fondness for satisfying the world in the mistakes they might possibly be under, with relation even to their physiognomy. Mr. Airs, that excellent penman, has taken care to affix his own image opposite to the title-page of his learned treatise, wherein he instructs the youth of this nation to arrive at a flourishing hand. The author of The Key to Interest, both simple and compound, containing practical rules plainly expressed in words at length for all rates of interest, and times of payment, for what time soever, makes up to us the misfortune of his living at Chester, by following the example of the above-mentioned Airs, and coming up to town, over against his title-page, in a very becoming periwig, and a flowing robe or mantle, inclosed in a circle of foliages; below his portraiture, for our farther satisfaction as to the age of that useful writer, is subscribed, “Johannes Ward de civitat. Cestriae, aetat. suae 58. An. Dom. 1706. The serene aspect of these writers, joined with the great encouragement I observe is given to another, or what is indeed to be suspected, in which he indulges himself, confirmed me in the notion I have of the prevalence of ambition this way. The author whom I hint at shall be nameless, but his countenance is communicated to the public in several views and aspects drawn by the most eminent painters, and forwarded by engravers, artists by way of mezzotinto, etchers, and the like. There was, I remember, some years ago, one John Gale, a fellow that played upon a pipe, and diverted the multitude by dancing in a ring they made about him, whose face became generally known, and the artists employed their skill in delineating his features, because every man was a judge of the similitude of them. There is little else, than what this John Gale arrived at, in the advantages men enjoy from common fame; yet do I fear it has always a part in moving us to exert ourselves in such things as ought to derive their beginnings from nobler considerations. But I think it is no great matter to the public what is the incentive which makes men bestow time in their service, provided there be any thing useful in what they produce; I shall proceed therefore to give an account of my intended labours, not without

some hope of having my vanity, at the end of them, indulged in the sort above-mentioned. I should not have assumed the title of Guardian, had I not maturely considered, that the qualities necessary for doing the duties of that character, proceed from the integrity of the mind more than the excellence of the understanding. The former of these qualifications it is in the power of every man to arrive at ; and the more he endeavours that way, the less will he want the advantages of the latter; to be faithful, to be honest, to be just, is what you will demand in the choice of your Guardian; or if you find added to this, that he is pleasant, ingenious, and agreeable, there will overflow satisfactions which make for the ornament, if not so immediately to the use of your life. As to the diverting part of this paper, by what assistance I shall be capacitated for that, as well as what proofs I have given of my behaviour as to integrity in former life, will appear from my history to be delivered in ensuing discourses. The main purpose of the work shall be, to protect the modest, the industrious; to celebrate the wise, the valiant; to encourage the good, the pious; to confront the impudent, the idle; to contemn the vain, the cowardly; and to disappoint the wicked and profane. This work cannot be carried on but by preserving a strict regard, not only to the duties but civilitics of life, with the utmost impartiality towards things and persons. The unjust application of the advantages of breeding and fortune, is the source of all calamity, both public and private ; the correction, therefore, or rather admonition, of a Guardian in all the occurrences of a various being, if given with a benevolent spirit, would certainly be of general service. In order to contribute as far as I am able to it, I shall publish in respective papers whatever I think may conduce to the advancement of the conversation of gentlemen, the improvement of ladies, the wealth of traders, and the encouragement of artificers. The circumstance relating to those who excel in mechanics, shall be considered with particular application. It is not to be immediately conceived by such as have not turned themselves to reflections of that kind, that Providence, to enforce and endear the necessity of social life, has given one man's hands to another man's head, and the carpenter, the smith, the joiner, are as immediately necessary to the mathematician, as my amanuensis will be to me, to write much fairer than I can myself. I am so well convinced of this truth, that I shall have a particular regard to mecha. mics; and to show my honour for them, I shall place at their head the painter. This gentleman is, as to the execution of his work, a mechanic; but as to his conception, his spirit, and d

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design, he is hardly below even the poet, in liberal art. It will be from these considerations useful to make the world see the affinity between all works which are beneficial to mankind is much nearer, than the illiberal arrogance of scholars will at all times allow. But I am from experience convinced of the importance of mechanic heads, and shall therefore take them all into my care, from Rowley, who is improving the globes of the earth and heaven in Fleet-street, to Bat. Pigeon, the hair cutter in the Strand. But it will be objected upon what pretensions I take upon me to put in for the prochain ami, or nearest friend of all the world. How my head is accomplished for this employment towards the public, from the long exercise of it in a private capacity, will appear by reading me the two or three next days with diligence and attention. There is no other paper in being which tends to this purpose. They are most of them histories, or advices of public transactions; but as those representations affect the passions of my readers, I shall sometimes take care, the day after a foreign mail, to give them an account of what it has brought. The parties amongst us are too violent to make it possible to pass them by without observation. As to these matters, I shall be impartial, though I cannot be neuter: I am, with relation to the government of the church, a tory, with regard to the state, a whig. The charge of intelligence, the pain in compiling and digesting my thoughts in proper style, and the like, oblige me to value my paper a half-penny above all other half sheets.” And all persons who have any thing to communicate to me, are desired to direct their letters (postage paid,) to Nestor Ironside, Esq. at Mr. Tonson's in the Strand. I declare beforehand, that I will at no time be conversed with any other way than by letter: for as I am an ancient man, I shall find enough to do to give orders proper for their service, to whom I am, by will of their parents, Guardian, though I take that to be too narrow a scene for me to pass my whole life in. But I have got my wards so well off my hands, and they are so able to act for themselves, that I have little to do but give a hint, and all that I desire to be amended is altered accordingly. My design upon the whole is no less than to make the pulpit, the bar, and the stage, all act in concert in the care of piety, justice, and virtue; for I am past all the regards of this life, and have nothing to manage with any person or party, but to deliver myself as becomes an old man with one foot in the grave, and one who thinks he is passing to eternity. All sorrows which can arrive at me are comprehended in the sense of guilt and pain; if I can keep clear of these two evils, I shall not be apprehensive of any other. Ambition, lust, envy, and revenge, are excrescences of the mind, which I have cut off long ago; but as they are excrescences which do not only deform, but also torment those on whom they grow, I shall do all I can to persuade all others to take the same measures for their cure which I have.

* Two pence was the original price of this paper.

No. 2.] Friday, March 13, 1713. The readicst way to proceed in my great undertaking, is to explain who I am myself, that promise to give the town a daily half. sheet: I shall therefore-enter into my own history, without losing any time in preamble. I was born in the year 1642, at a lone house within half a mile of the town of Brentford, in the county of Middlesex; my parents were of ability to bestow upon me a liberal education, and of a humour to think that a great happiness even in a fortune which was but just enough to keep me above want. In my sixteenth year I was admitted a commoner of Magdalene-hall, in Oxford. It was one great advantage, among many more, which men, educated at our universities, do usually enjoy above others, that they often contract friendships there, which are of service to them in all the parts of their future life. This good fortune happened to me; for during the time of my being an under-graduate, I became intimately acquainted with Mr. Ambrose Lizard, who was a fellow-commoner of the neighbouring college. I have the honour to be well known to Mr. Josiah Pullen, of our hall above-mentioned; and attribute the florid old age I now enjoy to my constant morning walks up Hedington-hill, in his cheerful company. If the gentleman be still living, I hereby give him my humble service. But as I was going to say, I contracted in my early youth, an intimate friendship with young Mr. Lizard, of Northamptonshire. He was sent for a little before he was of bachelor’s standing, to be married to Mrs. Jane Lizard, an heiress, whose father would have it so for the sake of the name. Mr. Ambrose knew nothing of it till he came to Lizard-hall, on Saturday night, saw the young lady at dinner the next day, and was married, by order of his father, sir Ambrose, between eleven and twelve the Tuesday following. Some years after, when my friend came to be sir Ambrose himself, and finding upon proof of her, that he had lighted upon a good wife, he gave the curate who joined their hands the parsonage of Welt, not far off Wellingborough. My friend was married in the year sixty-two, and every year following, for eighteen years together, I left the college (except that year wherein I was chosen fellow of Lincoln,) and sojourned at sir Ambrose's for the months of June, July, and August. I remember very well that it was on the fourth of July, in the year 1674, that I was reading in an arbour to my friend, and stopt of a sudden, observing he did not attend. “Lay by your book,” said he, ‘ and let us take a turn in the grass-walk, for I have something to say to you.' After a silence for about forty yards, walking both of us with our eyes downward, one big to hear, the other to speak a matter of great importance, sir Ambrose expressed himself to this effect: “My good friend,' said he, “you may have observed that from the first moment I was in your company at Mr. Willis's chambers, at University College, I ever after sought and courted you, that inclination towards you has improved from similitude of manners, if I may so say when I tell you I have not observed in any man a greater candour and simplicity of mind than in yourself. You are a man that are not inclined to launch into the world, but prefer security and ease, in a collegiate or single life, to going into the cares which necessarily attend a public character, or that of a master of a family. You see within, my son Marmaduke, my only child; I have a thousand anxieties upon me concerning him, the greater part of which I would transfer to you, and when I do so, I would make it, in plain English, worth your while.” He would not let me speak, but proceeded to inform me, that he had laid the whole scheme of his affairs upon that foundation. As soon as we went into the house, he gave me a bill upon his goldsmith,” in London, of two thousand pounds, and told me, with that he had purchased me, with all the talents I was master of, to be of his family, to educate his son, and to do all that should ever lie in my power for the service of him and his to my life's end, according to such powers, trusts, and instructions, as I should hereafter receive. The reader will here make many speeches for me, and without doubt suppose I told my friend he had retained me with a fortune to do that which I should have thought myself obliged to by friendship; but, as he was a prudent man, and acted upon rules of life, which were least liable to the variation of humour, time, or season, I was contented to be obliged by him his own way; and believed I should never enter into any alliance which should divert me from pur. suing the interests of his family, of which I should hereafter understand myself a member. Sir Ambrose told me, he should lay no injunction upon me, which should be inconsistent with any inclination I might have hereafter to change my condition. All he meant was, in general, to insure his family from that pest of great estates, the mercenary men of business who act for them, and in a few years become creditors to their masters in greater sums than half the income of their lands amounts to, though it is visible all which gave rise to their wealth was a slight salary, for turning all the rest, both estate and credit of that estate, to the use of their principals. To this purpose we had a very long conference that evening, the chief point of which was, that his only child Marmaduke was from that hour under my cere, and I was engaged to turn all my thoughts to the service of the child in particular, and all the concerns of the family in general. My most excellent friend was so well satisfied with my behaviour, that he made me his executor, and guardian to his son. My own conduct during that time, and my manner of educating his son Marmaduke to manhood, and the interest I had in him to the time of his death also, with my present conduct towards the numerous descendants of my old friend, will make, possibly, a series of history of common life, as useful as the relations of the more pompous passages in the lives of princes and statesmen. The widow of sir Ambrose, and the no less worthy relict of sir Marmaduke, are both living at this time. I am to let the reader know, that his chief

* A banker at this time }.” called a goldsmith.

entertainment will arise from what passes at the tea-table of my lady Lizard. That lady is now in the forty-sixth year of her age, was married in the beginning of her sixteenth, is blessed with a numerous offspring of each sex, no less than four sons and five daughters. She was the mo. ther of this large family before she arrived at her thirtieth year: about which time she lost her husband, sir Marmaduke Lizard, a gentle. man of great virtue and generosity. He left behind him an improved paternal estate of six thousand pounds a-year to his eldest son, and one year's revenue, in ready money, as a por. tion to each younger child. My lady's Chris. tian name is Aspasia; and as it may give a certain dignity to our style to mention her by that name, we beg leave at discretion to say lady Lizard, or Aspasia, according to the matter we shall treat of. When she shall be consulting about her cash, her rents, her household affairs, we will use the more familiar name; and when she is employed in the forming the minds and sentiments of her children, exerting herself in the acts of charity, or speaking of Inatters of religion or piety, for the elevation of style we will use the word Aspasia. Aspasia is a lady of great understanding and noble spirit. She has passed several years in widowhood, with that abstinent enjoyment of life, which has done honour to her deceased husband, and devolved reputation upon her children. As she has both sons and daughters marriageable, she is visited by many on that account, but by many more for her own merit. As there is no circumstance in human life, which may not directly or indirectly concern a woman thus related, there will be abundant matter offer itself from passages in this family to supply my readers with diverting, and perhaps useful notices for their conduct in all the incidents of human life. Placing money on mortgages, in the funds, upon bottomry, and almost all other ways of improving the fortune of a family, are practised by my lady Lizard, with the best skill and advice. The members of this family, their cares, passions, interests, and diversions, shall be represented, from time to time, as news from the teatable of so accomplished a woman as the intelligent and discreet lady Lizard.

No. 3.) Saturday, March 14, 1713. Quicquid est illud, quod sentit, quod sapit, quod vult,

quod viget, caleste et divinuin est, obeanquerem eter

num sit necesse est. Cicero.

Whatever that be, which thinks, which understands, which wills, which acts, it is something celestial and divine, and, upon that account, must necessarily be eternal.

I AM diverted from the account I was giving the town of my particular concerns, by casting my eye upon a treatise which I could not over: look without an inexcusable negligence, and want of concern for all the civil, as well as religious interests of mankind. This piece has for its title, A Discourse of Free-thinking, occasioned by the rise and growth of a sect called Freethinkers. The author very methodically cnters

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90. Strictures on the Examiner—Letter to one of the Writers in the Guardian. - stretc. 91. Account of the Short Club. - - Pope. 92. The same, Characters of the Members. 93. Thoughts on the Immortality of the Soul-on the Pharisees and Sadducees. Jyotton. 94. On Education. - - - - Steele. 95. Adventure of a Strolling Company—Letters on Lions—Collee-houses—a Virtuoso-on the Terræ filius. - - 96. A Proposal for Honorary Rewards—Coins and Medals. - - - .dddison. 97. Letter from Simon Softly, complaining of a Widow—Advice to him. - 98. Notice of the Tatler and Spectator—Scheme of a Lion's Head at Button's. - 99. Essay on National Justice—a Persian Story. — 100. On the Tucker–Naked Necks—Laws of Lycurgus–Position of Venus. - 101. Letters from France–Gayety of the French. 102. Variableness of the English Climate. 103. On the Fireworks—Serious Reflections on the same - - - - 104. Story of a French Gentleman—Letter on the Manners of the French. - - 105. Exhibition of the Charity Children—Propo. sals to extend our Charities. - - 106. Vision of Aurelia with a Window in her Breast. - - - - - - 107. Letter from a Projector, offering himself as a Nomenclator—Letter from Messrs. Dit. ton and Whiston. - - - - 108. Institution of the Tall Club. . - 109. Correspondence on the Tucker. . - 110. On the Language of Treaty—Improprieties instanced. - - - - - - 111. Improper Conduct of the British Youth— Love of Knowledge–Solomon's Choice. — 112. Art of Flying—Letter from Dardalus—Remarks on Modern Dædalists. - - 113. Letter from a Citizen in his Honey-moon— Tom Truelove's Courtship. - - 114. Erection of the Lion's Head—Remarks on Lions—on Petticoats. - 115. On Criticism—Strada's Prolusion. 116. Matters of Dress not to be introduced in the Pulpit—Letter on Naked Breasts. 117. Happiness of living under the Protection of Omnipotence. - - - - - 118. Information from a Lioness—Offer of an Outriding Lion. - - - - 119. Translation of Strada's Prolusion. - 120. On Female Garnesters. - - 121. Account of the Silent Club. - - Penree. On Female Undressing. - - . ...?ddison. 122. Sequel of Strada's Prolusion. . - 123. On Seducers of innocence—Letter to one from a Mother. - - - - 124. Letters from a University Lion—on Horns— Burlesque Lyric—Visit to the Lion. . 125. Pleasures of Spring—Music of Birds. . Tickell. 126. The Attractions of Friendship and Benevolence. - - - - - - Berkeley. 127. The Court of Venus from Claudian. Eusden. 138. On the Demolition of Dunkirk. Steele. 129. On Anger Revenge, Duelling

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from the Husband of a Woman that is never in the Wrong—from the Wise of one of the Dumb Club—on Naked breasts. Duel between Sir Edward Sackville and Lord Bruce. - - - - - The Lion, how treated by the Town—Complaint of a Wife's Dress. - .Addison.

135. Best Way to bear Calumny. - 136. Various Causes of Death—Country Bill of Mortality. - - - - - , 137. Advantages of Illustrious Birth—how Contaminated—Pride of Mr. Ironside. 138. On Regard for Posterity. - - - 139. History of Lions—Story of Androcles. 140. On Female loress–Letter to Pope Clement on the Tucker. - - - - 141. On Wit—Life of the Author. - - Steele 142. Danger of Masquerades—Letter from a Dealer in Fig Leaves. - - - 143. Account of the Terrible Club. - - 144. Variety of Humour among the English. 145. Letters from a Swaggerer—concerning a Challenge–Advertisement. - 146. History of Lions—Story of Sir George Davis. - - - - - - - 147. Folly of Extravagance in New-married Per. soils. - - - - - - 148. History of Santon Parsisa. - - 140. Genius requisite to Excel in Dress. Gay. 150. On Paternal Affection—Story of a French Nobleman. - - - - - Steele. 151. Letter from the Father of a young Rake. 152. Comparative Merit of the two Sexes, an Allegory. . . - - - - ..?ddison. 153. Pride not made for Man. 154. Lucifer's Account of a Masquerade. 155. Utility of Learning to the Female Sex. 156. History and Economy of Ants. . 157. The same, concluded. - - - - 158. Proper Employment of Time: a Vision. 159. Story of Miss Betty, cured of her Vanity. — 100. Conjectures of concealed Meanings under the IIistory of the Ants. - • - - 161. Proper Sense and Notion of Honour. 162. Humour of a Blunt Squire—Complaisance— Story of Schacabac. . - - - 163. Letter from an Insulted Chaplain–Poen by Sir Thomas More. - - - - 164. On Translations—Speech of Pluto from Clau. dian. - - - - - - Eusden. 165. Miseries of Folly and Vice at the Head of a Family. - - - - - . Addison. 166. On Charity—The Guardian in search of the Philosopher's Stone. - - ... -167. Story of k elim and Abdallah. - - 168. Character of a Mistless of a Family from the Book of Proverbs—Translation from Ana. creon—Letter from Stecle on the Examiner - - - - - - Steele. 169. Contemplation of the Heavenly Bodies, Seasons, &c. - - - - - 170. Extract from General Maxims of Trade. — 171. Good done by the Author's Speculations— Letter from a short Writer—in Defence of Bare Necks. - - - - - 172. On the Invention of Letters—Poem in Praise of Writing. - - - - - 173. On laying out Gardens—Whimsical Form of Yews. - - - - - - Pope. 74. On the Manners of the Bath Visitors. Steele. 175. On Boyle's Lecture—Derham's Physico-Theology. - - - - - - ... -176. Three Letters intended for the Guardian. Hughes

ORIGINAL IDEDICATIONS.

VOLUME THE FIRST.

TO LIEUTENANT-GENERAL CADOGAN.

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present fortune unenvicd. For the public always reap greater advantage from the example of successful merit, than the deserving man himself can possibly be possessed of; your country knows how eminently you excel in the several parts of military skill, whether in assigning the encampment, accommodating the troops, leading to the charge, or pursuing the enemy : the retreat being the only part of the profession which has not fallen within the experience of those, who learned their warfare under the duke of Marlborough. But the true and honest purpose of this epistle is to desire a place in your friendship, without pretending to add any thing to your reputation, who, by your own gallant actions, have acquired that your name through all ages shall be read with honour, wherever mention shall be made of that illustrious captain. I am, sir, your most obedient, and most

humble servant, THE GUARDIAN.

VOLUME THE SECOND.

TO MR. PULTENEY.”

SIR,--The greatest honour of human life, is to live well with men of merit; and I hope you will pardon me the vanity of publishing, by this means, my happiness in being able to name you among my friends. The conversation of a gentleman, that has a refined taste of letters, and a disposition in which those letters found nothing to correct, but very much to exert, is a good fortune too uncommon to be enjoyed in silence. In others, the greatest business of learning is to weed the soil; in you, it had nothing else to do, but to bring forth fruit. Affability, complacency, and generosity of heart, which are natural to you, wanted nothing from literature, but to refine and direct the application of them. After I have boasted I had some share in your familiarity, I know not how to do you the justice of celebrating you for the choice of an elegant and

*Afterwards Earl of Bath.

worthy acquaintance, with whom you live in the happy communication of generous senti. ments, which contribute not only to your own mutual entertainment and improvement, but to the honour and service of your country. Zeal for the public good is the characteristic of a man of honour, and a gentleman, and must take place of pleasures, profits, and all other private gratifications. Whoever wants this motive is an open enemy, or an inglorious neuter to mankind, in proportion to the misapplied advantages with which nature and fortune have blessed him. But you have a soul animated with nobler views, and know that the distinction of wealth and plenteous circumstances, is a tax upon an honest mind, to endeavour, as much as the occurrences of life will give him leave, to guard the properties of others, and be vigilant for the good of his fellow-subjects. This generous inclination, no man possesses

in a warmer degree than yourself; which, that

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