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ex scrupulis et difficultatibus proponendis et prædicendis. [26) Lat. decoéter rei familiaris occultus. (29—34) Seeming Wise-men.... Formall: added in 1625. [30] Lat. opinionem vulgi.

[33] Lat. quam hujusmodi formalistam fastidiosum.

ESSAY 27

Entirely rewritten from the ed. of 1612, where it stands thus: “There is

no greater desert or wildernes then to bee without true friends. For without friendship, society is but meeting. And as it is certaine, that in bodies inanimate, vnion strengthneth any naturall motion, and weakeneth any violent motion ; So amongst men, friendship multiplieth ioies, and diuideth griefes. Therefore whosoeuer wanteth fortitude, let him worshippe Friendship. For the yoke of Friendship maketh the yoke of fortune more light. There bee some whose liues are, as if they perpetually plaid vpon a stage, disguised to all others, open onely to themselues. But perpetuall dissimulation is painfull ; and hee that is all Fortune, and no Nature is an exquisit Hierling. Liue not in continuall smother, but take some friends with whom to communicate. It will vnfold thy vnderstanding; it will euaporate thy affections; it will prepare thy businesse. A man may keepe a corner of his minde from his friend, and it be but to witnesse to himselfe, that it is not vpon facility, but vpon true vse of friendship that hee imparteth himselfe. Want of true friends, as it is the reward of perfidious natures ; so is it an imposition vpon great fortunes. The one deserue it, the other cannot scape it. And therefore it is good to retaine sincerity, and to put it into the reckoning of Ambition, that the higher one goeth, the fewer true friends he shall haue. Perfection of friendship, is but a speculation. It is friendship, when a man can say to himselfe, I loue this man without respect of vtility. I am open hearted to him, I single him from the generality of those with whom I liue; I make

him a portion of my owne wishes." p. 106 [3] Arist. Pol. 1. I. [10] it: Lat. hujusmodi vita solitaria.

[12] Lat. altioribus contemplationibus. [21] Lat. nihilo plus sunt

quam in porticibus pictura. p. 107 [2] Adagia, p. 506. A comic poet quoted by Strabo xvi. p. 738,

punning upon the name of Megalopolis, a town of Arcadia, said épnuia Meyaan 'otiv v peyádn Tólis. Strabo applies it to Babylon. Entered in the Promus, fol. 7 a. [3] Lat. Amici et necessarii. [16] Lat. animæ perturbationes. doe cause and induce: Lat. imprimere solent. [19] Lat. in ægritudinibus animæ. [25] The Latin adds

[27] Lat. tanquam sub sigillo confessionis civilis. [33] Lat. distantiam et sublimitatem. P. 108 [6] Lat. nomine gratiosorum vel amicorum regis.

[10] Tiberius called Sejanus, KOLVwVòv twv Opovridwv (Dio Cass. LVIII. 4), or socium laborum, as Tacitus has it (Ann. IV. 2). [28] Plutarch, Pomp. 14. Quoted in Adv. of L. 11. 23, $ 5. [30] Lat. ut eum Casar Octavio suo nepoti hæredem substituerit. (33] Lat. qui Cæsarem ad mortem suam pertraxit. [34] Plutarch, Jul. Cæs. 64.

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p. 109 (2] The Latin adds uxoris suæ.

[4] Lat. sperare se eum senatum non tam parvi habiturum, ut dimittere illum vellet donec uxor somnium melius somniasset. [8] Cic. Phil. XIII. 11. [10] Dio Cass. LIV. 6. [20] Tac. Ann. IV. 40.

[22] Tac. Ann. IV. 74. (24) Lat. similis aut etiam illâ majoris amicitiæ exemplum cernitur. (25) Plautianus: the ed. of 1625, and the Latin have Plantianus.

(30) Dio Cass. LXXV. 15. p. 110 [6] Lat. nisi per hasce amicitias facta fuisset integra et perfecta.

[11] Hist. of Philip de Commines, trans. Danett, v. 5, P. 164 (ed. 1596). [21] closenesse : Lat. occultatio consiliorum. [22] μη εσθίειν καρδίαν, a proverb of Pythagoras quoted by Plutarch (de educ. puer. c. 17). In Athenæus it is attributed to Demetrius Byzantius (Adagia, p. 441). See Diog. Laert. VIII. 17, 18. [25] Lat. quibus cogitationes suas et

anxietates libere impertiant. p. 111 [4] Paracelsi Opera, vi. 313, ed. Francof. 1605. Si lapis ille ex

materia convenienti et philosophicâ ratione a prudenti medico fiat, et consideratis satis omnibus circumstantiis hominis ipsi exhibeatur, tunc renovat et instaurat organa vitæ perinde ac si igni apponatur ligna, quæ pene emortuum ignem refocillant, et causa sunt splendentis et claræ flamma. [5] Good, and : omitted in the Latin, [6] Lat. absque auxilio notionum chymicarum. [8] Lat. in rebus naturalibus. [24] Lat. clarescere veluti in diem. [26] Lat. agitat

et in omnes partes versat. [31] Plutarch, Them. 29. p. 112 [16] Yuxn fnpn oopwtátn, quoted by Galen. See Adagia, p. 268,

and Spedding's Bacon, 11. 267, note. It occurs again in de Sap. Vet. c. 27, and Apoph. 258: “Heraclitus the Obscure said; The dry light was the best soul. Meaning, when the faculties intellectual are in vigour, not wet, nor, as it were, blooded by the affections.”

[26] See note on p. 37, 1. 12. p. 113 [4] The Latin adds tanquam in speculo, aliquando, ut fit etiam

in speculis. [12] Jam. i. 23. (14) Lat. Quantum ad negotia, vetus est; Melius videre oculos quam oculum; licet nonnulli hoc cavillentur. Etiam recte dicitur, &c. (17—19] Or that.. Letters: omitted in the Latin. [21–24] Lat. etsi quidam tam altum sapiant, ut putent in sese esse omnia. Verum quicquid dici possit in contra

rium certum est, consilium negotia dirigere et stabilire. p. 114 (1] Lat. consilia illa a diversis manantia (licet cum fide et bona

intentione præstita). (14] Lat. consiliis istis dispersis (ut jam dictum). [26] Lat. non per hyperbolem sed sobrie dictum esse ab antiquis. [27] In Diog. Laert. VII. 1, § 23 it is put in the mouth of Zeno Cittieus ; ερωτηθείς τι εστι φίλος, άλλος εγώ, έφη. It occurs again in Arist. Magn. Mor. II. 15; Eth. Eud. vii. 12. [28] Lat. quando quidem, si quis vere rem reputat, amici officia proprias cujusque vires superent. [30] Lat. in medio operum aliquorum. [31] Lat. in collocatione filii in matrimonium, consummatione conatuum et desideriorum

suorum. p. 115[1] Lat. adeo ut fatum immaturum vix obsit. as it were: Lat.

ut loquamur more tribulum aut firmariorum. [5, 6] For.... Frend: omitted in the Latin.

[13] Lat. ad quæ erubescimus.

[18] upon Termes: Lat. salvâ dignitate. [23] The Latin adds in fabulâ.

ESSAY 28 First published in the edition of 1597, enlarged in 1612, where it is called

Of Expences,' and again in 1625. p. 116 [4] Lat. spontanea paupertas. (12–15] Certainly.. Part: added in 1625.

[12] Lat. qui diminutionem fortunarum suarum pati nolit. [17] Estate: 'estates' (1612). [20] Wounds cannot be Cured without searching : printed as a quotation in 1597. [22] at

all: added in 1612, but omitted in MS. p. 117 [2] In the printed ed. of 1597 this clause stands, 'yea and change

them after;' but the MS. which I have printed in the Appendix has the correct reading. [3—5] He..Certainties; added in ed. of 1612, except that for ‘it behoveth him to’ the reading of that edition was had neede.' The sentence is omitted in MS.

[4] Lat. eum quæ computationi subjacent, in certos reditus atque etiam sumptus vertere convenit. [5-12] A Man..Decay: added in 1625. (12) Lat. in perplexâ et obæratâ re familiari liberandâ. (16--21) Besides.... Estate: added in 1612, but omitted in MS. [21] Certainly, who : *He that’ (1597).

ESSAY 29

Greatly altered and enlarged from the ed. of 1612. In its present form, though in a Latin dress, it was incorporated in the De Augmentis, VIII. 3. The Latin translation is said to have been by Hobbes of Malmesbury. In the ed. of 1612 the title of the Essay is ‘Of the greatnesse of Kingdomes,” and in the Latin translation, De proferendis imperii finibus. The beginning of the Essay seems to have been the discourse “Of the true greatness of the kingdom of Britain,” written in 1608, which was never completed, but was turned into a

general treatise “Of the True Greatness of Kingdoms and Estates.” p. 118[1]-p. 119[7] The Speech..serve: greatly altered from ed. of 1612,

where it stood thus: “The speech of Themistocles, which was arrogant in challenge, is profitable in censure. Desired at a banquet to touch a Lute, hee said, Hee could not fiddle; but he could make a small Towne to become a great Citie. This speech at a time of solace, and not serious, was vnciuill, and at no time could be decent of a mans selfe.

But it may haue a pretie application: For to speake truly of politikes & Statesmen, there are sometimes, though rarely, those that can make a small estate great, and cannot fiddell. And there bee many that can fiddell very cunningly, and yet the procedure of their Art is to make a flourishing estate ruinous & distressed. For certainly those degenerate Arts, whereby diuers politikes and Gouernors doe gaine both satisfaction with their Masters, and admiration with the vulgar, deserue no better name then fidling; if they adde nothing to the safetie, strength, and amplitude of the States they gouerne.” [6] Plutarch, Them. 2; Cimon, 9; Adv. of L. I. 3, $7. [8] holpen a little with a Metaphore: Lat. ad sensum politicum translata.

[9] expresse: Lat. optime describunt et distinguunt. differing; Lat. multum inter se discrepantes. (11) Statesmen: Lat. senatores aliosque ad negotia publica admotos, qui usquam fuerunt.

(15) fiddle very cunningly: Lat. in citharâ aut lyrå (hoc est aulicis tricis)

mire artifices. p. 119 [8] Governours: the Latin adds minime spernendi. [9] Tac.

Ann. VI. 39, XVI. 18. Mannage: a metaphor from horsemanship. See Adv. of L. 11. 20, § 11; So as Diogenes opinion is to be accepted, who Commended not them which absteyned, but them which sustayned, and could refraine their Mind in Precipitio, and could giue vnto the mind (as is vsed in horsmanship) the shortest stop or turne.”

(13] in Power, Meanes, and Fortune: omitted in the Latin. (20) vaine : Lat. vanis et nimis arduis. [24] 'The greatnes of a State in bulke or territory' (1612). [29] by Cards and Maps: Lat. tabulis. Cards : ‘Carts' (1612). [30] not any Thing amongst: ‘nothing among' (1612). [33] Power and Forces: 'greatnes’ (1612). (33] After “Estate," the ed. of 1612 adds; “Certainly there is a kind of resemblance betweene the Kingdome of heauen, and the Kingdomes vpon the earth.'

The same figure is employed by Bacon in his speech on the Naturalization of the Scottish Nation, 17 Feb. 1606–7, and in the discourse “Of the true Greatness of the Kingdom of Britain" written in 1608. See Bacon's Works, vii. pp. 40, 49, ed.

Spedding p. 120 [1] Matt. xiii. 31. [4, 5] 'States that are great in Territory,

and yet not apt to conquer or inlarge' (1612). [6] some: 'others (1612). of: 'or' (1612).

[7] 'foundation' (1612). [10–12] 'goodly Stables, Elephants, (if you wil) Masse of treasure, Number in Armies, Ordinance, and Artillerie, they are all but a Sheep &c.' (1612). [14] stout and warlike: 'militarie' (1612). [14]-p. 121 [16] Nay.. Themselues; added in 1625. [16] Virg. Ecl.

[24] And the Defeat was Easie: Lat. ea autem opinione fuit facilior. [28] Plut. Alex. 31; North's trans. p. 735. The saying is again quoted in Adv. of L. 1. 7, § 11. See also Arrian,

Exp. Alex. III. 19. [29] Plut. Lucull. 27; North's trans. p. 560. P. 121 [4] This saying is attributed to Mutianus the general of Vespasian

in the discourse of the true greatness of the Kingdom of Britain,' from which the whole passage is repeated. Machiavelli discusses the question in Disc, sopr. Liv. 11. 10, where he tells the tale of Solon and Crosus, for which see Lucian, Charon. Diogenes Laertius (iv. 48) gives as a saying of Bion’s τον πλούτον νεύρα πραγμάτων, and allusion is made to itin Plutarch (Agis & Cleom. C. 27): “But he that sayed first, that money was the sinew of all things, spake it chiefly in my opinion, in respect of the warres" (North's trans. p. 862, ed. 1595). (16--20] For this sentence the ed. of 1612 has: “The helpe is mercenary aides. But a Prince or State that resteth vpon waged Companies of forraine Armes, and not of his owne Natiues, may spread his feathers for a time, but he will mew them soone after." [17] The Latin adds cum copiæ nativæ desint. See Machiavelli Disc. sopr. Liv. II. 20; Princ. 13. [22, 23] That the same People or Nation, should: 'to' (1612). [23]

VII. 52.

Gen. xlix. 9, 14. [24] ‘laid betweene' (1612). it be, that: added in 1625. [25] over-laid with Taxes: 'ouercharged with tributes' (1612). (25)-p. 122 (3) should ever.. Tribute: added in 1625. [29] For these Excises or Accises see Howell's Fam. Lett. sect. 1. lett. 6, ed. 1645. Writing to his father from Amsterdam, che says: “Twere cheap living here, were it not for the monstrous Accises which are impos'd upon all sorts of Commodities, both for Belly and Back; for the Retailer payes the States almost the one Moity as much as he payed for the Commodity at first, nor doth any murmur at it, because it goes not to any Favourit, or private Purse, but to preserve them from the Spaniard, their common Enemy as they term him; so that the saying is truely verified here, Defend me, and spend me: With this Accise principally, they maintain all their Armies by Sea and Land, with their Garrisons at home and abroad, both here, and in the Indies, and

defray all other public charges besides."
p. 122 [3] is: 'bee euer' (1612). [4–6] ‘Nobilitie & Gentlemen

multiplying in too great a proportion maketh &c.' (1612). [4] States:
Lat. regnis et statibus. [5] Nobility and Gentlemen: Lat. nobiles
et patricii atque (quos vocamus) generosi. [8] in effect: added in
1625. [9] Labourer: Lat. mancipia et operarii. like as it is
in copices, where' (1612). [10] staddles: Lat. caudicum sive arbo-
rum majorum. [1218] So in Countries.. Strength: altered from
ed. of 1612, where it stands thus: 'And take away the middle people,
&
you
take

away the infantery, which is the nerue of an Armie : and you bring it to this, that not the hundreth pole will be fit for a helmet, and so great population and little strength.' (18—34] This, which

...Hirelings; added in 1625. [23] The Middle People: Lat. coloni et inferioris ordinis homines. [25] Hist. of Hen. 7, p. 73–75, ed. 1622: "Inclosures at that time began to be more frequent, whereby Arrable Land (which could not be manured without People and Families) was turned into Pasture, which was easily rid by a few Heards-men; and Tenancies for Yeares, Liues, and At Will (whereupon much of the Yeomanrie liued) were turned into Demesnes. This bred a decay of People, and (by consequence) a decay of Townes, Churches, Tithes, and the like. The King likewise knew full well, and in no wise forgot, that there ensued withall vpon this a decay and diminution of Subsidies and Taxes; for the more Gentlemen, euer the lower Bookes of Subsidies. In remedying of this inconuenience, the Kings Wisdome was admirable, and the Parliaments at that time. Inclosures they would not forbid, for that had beene to forbid the improuement of the Patrimonie of the Kingdome; nor Tillage they would not compell, for that was to striue with Nature and Vtilitie. But they tooke a course to take away depopulating Inclosures, and depopulating Pasturage, and yet not by that name, or by any Imperious expresse Prohibition, but by consequence. The Ordenance was, That all Houses of Husbandry, that were vsed with trventie Acres of Ground, and vpwards, should bee maintained and kept up for euer; together with a competent Proportion of Land to be vsed and occupied with them; and in no wise to bee seuered from them,

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