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ordaine all other ceremonies concerning deuotion to the goddes, and specially this custome which he stablished, to bring the people to actio religion. For when the magistrates, bishoppes, priestes, or other pers religious ministers goe about any deuine seruice, or matter of religion, Psissima an herauld euer goeth before them, crying out aloud, Hoc age: as tes taken say, doe this, or mind this.” [15] Indifferent persons: Lat. qui æqua Bowling sunt et in neutram partem propendeant. [18] Lat. delegationell bowls non tantum temporaneas aut e re natâ sed etiam continuatas et per open wipetuas. The Latin adds quæ curent separatim. [19] Suits: Latsteatest gratias, gravamina. [20] Lat. consilia subordinata diversa Latin tr [26] The Latin adds, mercatoribus, artificibus. (32) Lat. al parietes camera consilii.

understa p. 88 [6] Lat. se ad nutum ejus applicabunt. [8] a Song of Placebollo a nara

the Vesper hymn for the dead. “Pope Sixtus's Breviary says, 'ar". 73, ei vesperas, absolutè incipitur ab Antiphonâ placebo Domino in regionagain

, vivorum.'" (Nares' Glossary, s. v.) Chaucer (Persones Tale) has 1 1625. “Flaterers ben the develes chapeleyns, that singen ay placebo."

Bacon followed the advice which he himself gave. At the conclusionsons, wh of his speech for the Naturalization of the Scottish Nation, he said well kno “Mr Speaker, I haue (I take it) gone through the parts which I pro pounded to my selfe, wherein if any man shall think I have sung qof dissir placebo, for mine owne particular; I would have him know that I arg not so unseene in the world, but that I discerne, it were much alike fa my priuate fortune a tacebo, as to sing a placebo in this businesse : bu 116] Lat I haue spoken out the fountain of my heart."

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ESSAY 21

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p. 89 [3] Antith. XLI; Occasio, instar Sibyllæ, minuit oblatum, pretiun rem fere auget. [4] Sybilla: the story is told by Aulus Gellius, Nocl. Att [32] Lat

[6] Lat. integrum tamen pretium postulat. Adagia, phas 687, ed. Grynæus: Fronte capillata est, post hæc occasio calva. Se of Secre also Phædrus, v. 8, and Posidippi Epigr. 13 in Brunck's Anthologia Bodley.

[9] Antith. xli; Occasio primum ansam vasis porrigit 94 [1] I deinde ventrem. [14] Antith. XLIII; Non jam leve est periculum illud ges

si leve videatur. [15] ibid. Plura pericula fallunt, quam vincunt prolata p. 90 [2] ibid. Docet periculum progredi qui accingitur, et periculum scilicet fingit remedio. [8] Argos: Æsch. Prom. 567, &c. Hom. II. 1. 403. Antith. XLI. The Helmet of Pluto: Hom. II. v. of Pluto when he slew the Gorgon Medusa. See the same fable en." It was 845. See de Sap. Vet. c. VII. Perseus in the fable wore the helmet Essays, larged in the De Augmentis, 11. 13. A note in the Promus, fol. 15 b, is: “Plutoes Helmett-Secresy Invisibility.”

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ESSAY 22

Greatly enlarged from the ed. of 1612. p. 9r [8] In the Promus of Formularies and Elegancies (Works vii.

197 ed. Spedding) occurs this note, descriptive of the characters of some men; “Cunning in the humours of persons, and not in the conditions

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of actions." [9] Lat. personarum naturas et mores. [11] Lat. in personarum aditibus et temporibus. [13] Lat. constitutio ipsissima. [13] of one: Lat. hominum. [16] I suppose the figure is taken from the game of bowls. Under the head of Bowl-Alley, or Bowling-Alley,” Nares (Glossary) gives "a covered space for the game

of bowls, instead of a bowling-green." He quotes, “whether it be in - open wide places, or in close allies,-the chusing of the bowle is the greatest cunning.” Country Contentm. G. Markham, p. 58. The Latin translator seems to have missed the point. He renders, et non aliter fere usum sui præbent quam in viis quas sæpe contriverunt, understanding alley in its ordinary sense, and applied metaphorically to a narrow walk of life.

[19] A saying of Aristippus; Diog. Laert. 11. 73, εις άγνωτας τους δύο γυμνους απόστειλον και είση. It is quoted again, Apoph. 255. [20]-95 (14) And because. .looked backe: added in 1625. 92 [1] Adv. of L. 11. 9, § 2. “And therefore a number of subtile persons, whose eyes doe dwell vpon the faces and fashions of men ; doe well know the aduantage of this obseruation; as being most part of their abilitie; neither can it bee denied, but that it is a great discouerie of dissimulations, and a great direction in Businesse.” [5] Sometimes: Lat. per vices. [8] Lat. ut cum aliquid propere et facile obtinere et expedire cupias. [12] Lat. ad objectiones et scrupulos. [16] Lat. de rebus status gravioribus sermones. [21] he doubts: omitted in the Latin. [26] Lat. quasi se ipsum deprehenderet et contineret. [32] Lat. insolitum induere vultum. 1.93 [1] Lat. quid sibi velit ista oris mutatio. [2] Neh. ii. 1.

[10] Tac. Ann. XI. 30. [12] Lat. non inutile est. [17] Lat. ut * rem fere prætermissam. [30] Lat. astutia species satis va fra est. 4+ [32] Lat. ut inde alterum irretiat et subruat. [33] Mr Spedding has suggested to me that probably the two competitors for the office

of Secretary, here alluded to, were Sir Robert Cecil and Sir Thomas hy is Bodley. 94 [1] Lat. qui tamen se invicem amice tractabant.

[6] Lat. seque illud genus hominum minime ambire. [7] Lat. verba illa callide prolata bona fide arripuit. [11] The Latin adds, tanquam scilicet ab altero prolata. [12] The Latin adds cum ipsa se vigentem reputaret. [16] Various explanations of this proverb have been given; among others that by Mr Singer in his cdition of the Essays, suggested by a writer in the Gentleman's Mag. 1754, p. 66. “It was originally, no doubt, 'Cate in the pan,' but thus popularly corrupted. The allusion is probably to the dexterous turning or shifting the side of a pancake by a sleight of hand familiar to cooks." The Latin translator was clearly at a loss for the meaning when he wrote quod Anglico proverbio Felem in aheno vertere satis absurde dicitur. It appears to have been a common saying. Nares (Glossary, s. v.) quotes the following:

Damon smatters as well as he can of craftie phylosophie,
And can tourne cat in the panne very pretily.

Damon and Pith. 0. Pl. I. 193.

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And again from the famous song of the Vicar of Bray, in which a casa in-pan appears to be synonymous with turncoat:

When George in pudding-time came o'er,

And moderate men look'd big, Sir,
I turn'd a cat-in-pan once more,

And so became a Whig, Sir. [16] Lat. cum ea verba, quæ quis apud alium profert, imputat colio

quenti, tanquam ab ipso prolata. [22] Lat. ut quis in alios spicula quædam oblique torqueat. [25] Tac. Ann. XIV. 57. Lat. unde et se magis in tuto continent, quasi nihil diserte affir

mantes, et rem ipsam majore cum voluptate spargi efficiunt. p. 95 (9) sudden: omitted in the Latin. [12] Pauls: The body of ole

St Paul's church in London, was a constant place of resort for business and amusement. Advertisements were fixed up there, bargains made, servants hired, politics discussed, &c. &c.” Nares, Gloss. s. v. Fre quent allusions are made to it by Shakspere and the dramatists of his time. (15-19) Altered from the edition of 1612, where this paragrapé stands last ; “Very many are the differences betweene cunning and wisdome : and it were a good deed to set them downe; for that nothing doth more hurte in state then that cunning men passe for wise. [17] Lat. uberiorem catalogum. [20] But, certainly, some there are:

Euen in businesse there are some' (1612). [21] Resorts and Falls Lat. periodos et pausas. Ital. le riuscite, et le cadute. The word resort' appears to be used in the same sense in Adv. of L. II. 2, § 4 “But such beeing the workemanship of God, as he doth hang the greatest waight vpon the smallest Wyars, Maxima è Minimis sus pendens, it comes therfore to passe, that such Histories doe rather set forth the pompe of busines, then the true and inward resor thereof.” In the corresponding passage of the De Augmentis, 11. $ the last clause is given quam eorum veros fomites et texturas sit tiliores. The same sentiment as is expressed in the Essay occus again in the Adv. of L. II. 23, $ 30: “If we obserue, we shall find two differing kinds of sufficiency, in managing of businesse: some can make vse of occasions aptly and dexterously, but plotte little: some can vrge and pursue their owne plottes well, but cannot accom.) modate nor take in: either of which is very vnperfite without the other." [22] the Maine: Lat. viscera et interiora. [25] Looses: Lat. exitus. Lat. in conclusionibus deliberatorum. [27—29) Lat. ex hac re existimationem quandam aucupantur, veluti ingenia quæ ad decernendum potius quam ad disputandum sint aptiora. [29] In his “Observations upon a Libell published in anno 1592" (Re suscitatio, p. 145, ed. 1657), Bacon describes his father, Sir Nicholas Bacon, as one that was of the mind, that a Man, in his private Proceedings and Estate, and in the Proceedings of State, should rest upon the Soundnesse and Strength of his own Courses, and not upon Prac tise to Circumvent others ; according to the Sentence of Salomon; Vir Prudens advertit ad Gressus suos, stultus autem divertit ad Do

'vpon abusing others? (1612). [32] Prov. xiv. 15.

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ESSAY 23

p. 96 (1) Comp. Adv. of L. II. 23, § 8; “For many are wise in their

owne ways, that are weak for gouernmente or Counsell, like Ants which is a wise creature for it self, but very hurtefull for the garden.” [2] Orchard : omitted in the Latin. [6] Society : Lat, amorem reipublicæ. [7] Specially to thy King, and Country: added in 1625. [8] Adv. of L. II. 23, § 8: Of the Science of government Bacon says, “But yet there is another part of this part, which differeth as much from that wherof we haue spoken as sapere, & sibi Sapere : the one moouing as it were to the circumference, the other to the center : for there is a wisedome of counsell, and againe there is a wisedome of pressing a mans owne fortune; and they doe sometimes meet, and often seuere.' [10] Himselfe: Lat. commodum proprium. [15] onely : added in 1625. [19] Affaires : Lat. negotia publica. [20]

Hands : 'hand' (1612). p. 97 [1] Lat. ministros et servos qui hac nota non maculantur. [4]

And that' (1612). [8] Servant: 'seruants' (1612). (10—16] ‘And yet that is the case ; for the good &c.' (1612). [12] Lat. servos et ministros. (14) and Envies : omitted in the Latin. [22] Egges: ‘egge’in the MS. of ed. of 1612. [26] Affaires : in the ed. of 1612

the Essay ends here. p. 98 [2] Cic. ad Quint. Frat, 11. 8. [5] Lat. in exitu sacrificant

inconstantiæ fortunæ. [7] Lat. pulchra illa sapientia sua.

ESSAY 24

This Essay is little more than a translation of Antith. XL. p. 99 [1] Antith. xL; 'novi partus deformes sunt. [4] ibid. Sicut

qui nobilitatem in familiam introducunt digniores fere sunt posteris; ita novationes rerum plerumque præstant iis quæ ad exempla fiunt. [6] Lat. Ita rerum exemplaria et primordia (quando feliciter jacta sunt) imitationem ætatis sequentis, ut plurimum, superant. [10] Lat. ut fieri amat in violentis motibus. (11) Antith. XL; Omnis medicina innovatio. Qui nova remedia fugit, nova mala opperitur. Novator maximus tempus; quidni igitur tempus imitemur?

Cum per se res mutentur in deterius, si consilio in melius non mutentur, quis finis erit mali? Quæ usu obtinere, si non bona, at saltem apta inter se sunt. [14] of course : Lat. decursu solo. [17] Lat. finis mali. [18] Lat. aptum esse tamen temporibus. [21] Lat. ubi contra nova veteribus non usquequaque tam concinne cohæreant. From the expression which Bacon makes use of in the Antitheta, nulla novitas absque injuria, nam præsentia convellit, he had pro

bably in his mind Matt. ix. 16. p. 100 [2] Lat. tanquam advenæ aut peregrini. [4] Lat. in orbem agitatur. Froward : Lat. importuna et morosa.

Antith. XL; Morosa morum retentio res turbulenta est, æque ac novitas. Moris servi, temporis ludibria. Quis novator tempus imitatur; quod novationes ita insinuat, ut sensus fallant? Quod præter spem evenit

cui prodest minus acceptum, cui obest magis molestum. [12] For otherwise : Lat. Illud enim pro certo habeas. (14) Lat. cui incrementum est novitas, ille fortunæ gratias habet et tempori. [17] Lat. experimentis novis in corporibus politicis medendis non uti. (24--27] Quoted again in Adv. of L. I. 5, § 2.

ESSAY 25

Slightly altered and enlarged from the ed. of 1612. p. 101 [1] Lat. celeritas nimia et affectata. [8—12] And as in Races

..Dispatch : added in 1625. (10] After 'Speed' the Latin adds, sed in motu eorundem humiliore et æquabili. [13] Lat. ut brevi tempore multum confecisse videantur. [16] Abbreviate : 'make shorte' (1612); Lat. tempori parcere. (18—20] at severall. . Manner : ' by peeces, is commonly protracted in the whole' (1612). [20] Şir Amyas Paulet, with whom Bacon went to France in 1576 : see Apoph. 76. In Howell's Familiar Letters (Vol. 11. lett. 17) the saying is

attributed to Sir Francis Walsingham. that : added in 1625. P. 102 [1] rich : Lat. pretiosa. [4] at a deare Hand : Lat. magno. [5—8] The Spartans..comming : added in 1625.

The Spartans : comp. Thuc. I. 70, 84. and Spaniards: see Bacon's “Report in the House of Commons of the Earl of Salisburies and the Earle of Northampton's Speeches” (Resuscitatio, p. 32, ed. 1657). [14] 'backwards' (1612). (14—16] 'and be more tedious by parcels, then he could haue bin at once' (1612). [18] Actor : Lat. oratorem. [24] Lat. toga prælonga terram verrens. [25] Lat. transitiones bellæ.

[29] Lat. gloriolæ captatrices. Lat. cave ne in rem ipsam ab initio descendas. [30] Wils: ‘will' (1612), but the MS. has 'wills.' [32] of Minde: added in 1625. of Speech : added in 1625. [33] Lat.

instar fomentationis ante unguentum. p. 103 [1] and Singling out of Parts: added in 1625. [17] See Nat.

Hist. cent. VI. exp. 597.

ESSAY 26 Slightly enlarged and altered from ed. 1612. P. 104 [6] 2 Tim. iii. 5. [8] Lat. qui nugantur solenniter, cum pru

dentes minime sint. [9] Ter. Heaut. III. 5, 8. (11) Lat. affectationes istas videre in quot

formas se vertant, et quali utantur arte quasi prospectivă. [12] Prospectives : 'perspectiues' (1612).

[14] Close and Reserved : Lat. secreti. [16] Lat. et videri volunt plus

significare quam loqui. [20] well : Lat. tuto. P. 105 [2] Cic. in Pis. 6.

[4] think to beare it: Lat. se valere putant. [5] 'and will goe on’ (1612). [6] Lat. pro admissis accipiunt. [8] 'they will seeme to despise' (1612). (10) Lat. judicio limato. [13] Not Aulus Gellius but Quintilian (X. I), who says of Seneca, si rerum pondera minutissimis sententiis non fregisset, consensu potius eruditorum quam puerorum amore comprobaretur. It is quoted again in the Adv. of L. I. 4, $ 5. A. Gellius: 'Gellius' (1612).

(15) Plat. Protag. 337 (19] Lat. negativæ libenter se applicant,

[21] Lat.

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