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‘who threatneth the dissolving thereof, as one of his great judgements.' [30] Shaken: 'shakened' in MS. [33] passe from:

'leave'in MS. [33p. 57 [1] Concerning..followeth: omitted in MS. P. 57 [144] In MS. ‘and speake of the materialls, and the causes, and

the remedyes.' [3] Lat. de earum causis et flabellis. [5-11] Concerning.. Fire: omitted in MS. (12] Discontentinent: in MS. discontent,' Lat. præsentium rerum tædiurn. (13] It is certain : in MS. “certainly.' Overthrowne Estates; Lat. hominum res attritæ et decocta fortuna. [15] Rome: 'the tymes' in MS. before : Lat. paulo ante. [17] Lucan, Phars. I. 181. The true reading is avidum for rapidum and Et for Hine in the second line. [20] In his tract ‘Of the true greatness of the kingdom of Britain,' Bacon inakes a different application of this quotation : “For it is nocessary in a state that shall grow and inlarge, that there be that composition which the poet speaketh of, Multis utile bellum; an ill condition of a state (no question) if it be meant of a civil war, as it was spoken ; but a condition proper to a state that shall increase, if it be taken of a foreign war. For except there be a spur in the state that shall excite and prick them on to wars, they will but keep their own and seek no further.” (Bacon's Works, ed. Spedding, vii. p. 59). assured and infallible: Lat. certum. [22] 'troubles and seditions' in MS. [22-26] And if..worst: omitted in MS. [26-30] In MS. 'For discontents, they are the verie humors in the politique body apt to gather a præternatural heate and to inflame.' [27] Discontentments: Lat. alienationes animorum et tædium rerum præsentium. [28] Humours: Lat. malignium humorum. (30) no Prince: in MS. 'not Princes.' (31) be: in MS. "are.' (32) to be: omitted in MS.

[34] who doe often spurne at their owne Good : omitted in MS. p. 58 [2] Lat. ex quibus invidia oritur,

rise : in MS. 'arrise.' fact: in M$. 'true proportion.' [4] Discontentments: in MS kindes of discontents. [5–17] Dolendi..pull: omitted in MS. [5] Plin. Ep. viii. 17. [6] great: Lat. maximis. [7] mate the Courage: Lat. animos frangunt. (10) Discontentments: Lat. alienationem animorum et invidiam grassantem. [:5) Lat. tandem glomerantur et ruunt. (16] This proverb is entered in the Promus, fol.

13а, in the following form: en fin la soga quiebra por el mas delgado. In Collins's Spanish Proverbs, p. 126, it is El hilo por lo mas delgado quiebra. The English form is, The last straw breaks the camel's back. (18) and Motives: omitted in Lat. (19) Innovation in : omitted in MS. ‘Alterations' in MS. Taxes: Lat. tributa et census. [20] ‘breaking priviledges' in MS. Lat. immunitatum et privilegiorum violatio. [21] Lat. nd honores et magistratus promotio. [22] Disbanded Souldiers; Factions growne desperate : omitted in MS. (24) and knitteth: omitted in MS. (2629) In MS. 'For the remedyes, there maie be some generall preservatives; the cure must aunsweare to the particuler disease.' From p. 58, t. 29, "And so be left, &c.' to p. 60, l. 32, 'Common People' is omitted in

the MS. p. 59 [2] Lat. artifices et manufacturas introducere et fovere. [3] Lat.

desidiam et otium.

[9] Lat. temporibus scilicet pacis quando gladius nihil demetit. [23] Preferments: Lat, vocationes civiles.

[29] Lat. materiam mercium. [33] Ovid. Met. II. 5. p. 60 [2] See Burton's Anat. of Mel. (Democritus to the Reader, p. 77,

ed. 1813): “ The Low Countries generally have three cities at least for one of ours, and those far more populous and rich: and what is the cause, but their industry and excellency in all manner of trades, their commerce, which is maintained by a multitude of tradesmen, so many excellent channels made by art, and opportune havens, to which they build their cities? all which we have in like measure, or at least may have. But their chiefest loadstone, which draws all manner of commerce and merchandise, which maintains their present estate, is not fertility of soyl but industry that enricheth them: the gold mines of Peru or Nova Hispania may not compare with them. They have neither gold nor silver of their own, wine nor oyl, or scarce any corn growing in those United Provinces, little or no wood, tin, lead, iron, silk, wool, any stuff almost, or mettle; and yet Hungary, Transilvania, that brag of their mines, fertile England, cannot compare with them.” [9] Comp. Apoph. 252. “Mr Bettenham used to say; That riches were like muck; when it lay upon an heap, it gave but a stench and ill odour; but when it was spread upon the ground, then it was cause of much fruit.[12] Lat. voragines illas fænoris, monopoliorum, et latifundiorum in pascua conversorum. Usurie : see Hist. of Hen. 7, p. 66; “ There were also made good and politike Lawes that Parliament against Vsurie which is the Bastard vse of Money." Pasturages: see Hist. of Hen. 7, p. 73.

The whole passage will be found in a note on Essay 29, p. 122, where it is directly referred to. made a speech in the House of Commons upon this subject, in which he said: “For enclosure of grounds brings depopulation, which brings forth first idleness, secondly decay of tillage, thirdly subversion of houses and decrease of charity and charge to the poor's maintenance, fourthly the impoverishing the state of the realm." (Mr Spedding's Letters and Life of Fr. Bacon, 11. p. 82.)

[24] John v. 4. [25] Lat. ut ita demum animos exulceratos prodere possint. [26] Hom. Il. 1. 398. The fable is alluded to in Adv. of L. II. 4, § 4.

“So in the Fable that the rest of the Gods hauing conspired to binde Iupiter, Pallas called Briareus with his hundreth hands to his aide, expounded, that Monarchies neede not feare any courbing of their absolutenesse by Mightie Subiects, as long as by wisedome they keepe the hearts of the people, who will be sure to come in on their side.” In Homer it is Thetis, not Pallas, who calls Briareus. (33) and Discontentments: not in MS. (34] The MS. has: “so it be without bravery or impor

tunitye.” Lat. ut ebulliant eorum dolores et in fumos abeant. p. 61 [2] In the Hist. of Hen. 7, p. 137, Bacon says, after the execution

of Stanley, Lord Chamberlain,“ men durst scarce commune or talke one with another: but there was a generall Diffidence euery where. Which neuerthelesse made the King rather more Absolute, then more Safe. For, Bleeding Inwards and shut Vapours strangle soonest, and oppresse most." backe: not in MS. and: 'or' in MS.

In 1597 Bacon

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(5—8] The Part..them: the MS. has, ‘Also the part of Epimetheus may become Prometheus in this case.' Comp. de Sap. Vet. c. 26. [8] Epimetheus: in MS. “Hee.' [9] at last shut the lid: omitted in MS. [10] Certainly: omitted in MS. (11) and Entertaining: the MS. has of some degree.' [13] Bacon had written otherwise of Hope, and more bitterly, in Meditationes Sacra, "De Spe Terrestri,” which was published in 1597. He there says, (I quote from the English translation published in 1598); “And therefore it was much lightnesse in the Poets to faine Hope to bee as a counterpoyson of humaine deceases, as to mittigate and asswage the fury & anger of them, whereas in deede it doth kindle and enrage them, & causeth both doubling of them and relapses." (14) Discontentments: MS. 'discontents.' [15] and Proceeding: omitted in MS. [16] when.. Satisfaction: MS. 'if it can hold by hope where it cannott by satisfaction.' (17—24] And when.. beleeve not: omitted in MS. [23] Lat. ostentare in gloriam suam. [26] Bacon had this in mind afterwards when he wrote Considerations touching a Warre with Spaine: “They (the Spaniards) bragged, that they doubted not, but to abuse and lay asleepe the Queene and Counsell of England, as to haue

any

feare of the Party of Papists here; For that they knew (they said) the State would but cast the eye, and looke about, to see whether there were any Eminent Head of that Party, vnder whom it might vnite it selfe; And finding none worth the thinking on, the State would rest secure, and take no apprehension” (p. 28. ed. 1629). [26] Discontented Persons: MS. 'discontents.'

[29] Lat. adds, et ducem idonsum. [31] Lat. acceptus est et gratiosus. [33] MS. 'that is thought discontent in his particular.' [54] p. 62 [4] which kinde. .reputation :

omitted in MS. p. 62 [5] Generally: MS. 'also.' all Factions, and Combinations: MS. 'anie combination.' [6] are: MS. is.' [7, 8] and setting

themselves: omitted in MS. [8] not one: MS. 'none.' [10] The MS. has, “if the true parte of the State." [12] The MS. has, 'the false, entyer and unyted.' (13–32] I have..noted: omitted in MS. (15) Lat. exitiale sibi vulnus inflixit. [16] Suet. Jul. Cæs. 77. Quoted in Adv. of L. I. 7, § 12: vpon occasion, that some spake, what a strange resolution it was in Lucius Sylla, to resigne his Dictature; he scoffing at him, to his owne aduantage, answered; That Sylla could not skill of Letters, and therefore knew not how to Diclate.Apoph. 135. [21] Tac. Hist. 1. 5. [23] Flav. Vop. Prob. 20. [28] See quotation from the Adv. of L. given in the note to p. 20, 1. 18.

(34) one, or rather more: omitted in MS. p. 63 [1] Lat. militiâ et fortitudine spectatus.

Valour: in MS. valew.'

[4] Court: MS. “Courts.' Lat. in aulis principum. first: omitted in MS. [6] Tac. Hist. 1. 28. [9]-end. The MS. has, “ But lett such one be an assured one and not popular, and holding good correspondence with the gowne men; or els the remedy is worse then the disease. (11) Lat. et cum cæteris proceribus bene comparati.

ESSAY 16 Considerably enlarged from the ed. of 1612. p. 64 [2] Lat. Alcorani Talmudi aut legenda. Legend: the Golden

Legend, or Legenda Aurea, a collection of lives of Saints and other stories, written by Jacobus de Voragine. The Italian translation omits 'the Legend.' and the Talmud : added in 1625. [4] See Adv. of L. II. 6, § 1: “There was neuer Miracle wrought by God to conuert an Atheist, bycause the light of Nature might haue ledde him to confesse a God.” [5] Atheisme: 'Atheists' (1012). [6] convince it: 'conuince them' (1612).

It is true that: ‘Certainely' (1612). [7] Mans minde: omitted in MS. Comp. Adv. of L. I. 1, $ 3: “It is an assured truth, and a conclusion of experience, that a little or superficiall knowledge of Philosophie may encline the minde of Man to Atheisme, but a further proceeding therein doth bring the mind backe againe to Religion: for in the entrance of Philosophie, when the second Causes, which are next vnto the sences, do offer themselues to the minde of Man, if it dwell and stay there, it may induce some obliuion of the highest cause; but when a man passeth on further, and seeth the dependance of causes, and the workes of prouidence; then according to the allegorie of the Poets, he will easily beleeue that the highest Linke of Natures chaine must needes be tyed to the foote of Iupiters chaire.” [8] Mens Mindes: 'men' (1612). [9] while : when' (1612). (10—12] it may..further: 'it resteth in them (1612). [12] the Chaine of:

ided in 1625.

[13] Linked: 'knit' (1612). (13, 14) must needs flie: 'flies' (1612). [4] Nay even: * Most of all' (1612). [15] Lat. adds, si quis vere rem introspiciat. [16] most: added in 1625.

[17] Leucippus: the founder of the atomic theory. The date and place of his birth are unknown. Democritus: born at Abdera in Thrace B.C. 460, died B.C. 357. Epicurus: born in the island of Samos B.C. 342, died at Athens B.C. 270. [19] “ARISTOTELES of Stagira the sonne of Nichomachus, hath put downe for Principles these three, to wit, a certaine forme called Entelechia, Matter, and Privation: for elements, foure, and for a fifth Quintessence, the heavenly bodie which is immutable." Holland's Plutarch, p. 808. [22] unplaced: Lat. sine ordine fortuitò vagan

tium. p. 65 [2] Ps. xiv. 1. This text is taken as the motto for the oth medita

tion in Meditationes Sacra, “De Atheismo," with which this Essay has many points of resemblance, as the following passages will shew.

First, he hath said in his heart; it is not said, he hath thought in his heart: that is, it is not so much that he feels it inwardly, as that he wishes to believe it. Because he sees that it would be good for him that there were no God, he strives by all means to persuade himself of it and induce himself to think so; and sets it up as a theme or position or dogma, which he studies to assert and maintain and establish.. And so it is true the Atheist hath rather said in his heart than thinks in his heart that there is no God.. Nor shall you see that those who are fallen into this phrensy to breathe and importunately inculcate anything else

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almost, than speech tending to Atheism; as in Lucretius the Epicurean; who makes his invective against religion almost as the burthen or verse of return to every other subject. The reason appears to be that the Atheist, not being well satisfied in his own mind, tossing to and fro, distrustful of himself, and finding many times his opinion faint within him, desires to have it revived by the assent of others. For it is rightly said that he who is very anxious to approve his opinion to another, himself distrusts it.(Works, vii. 251, 252, ed. Spedding.) There is besides another passage, on the tendency of the study of natural philosophy to Atheism, which is almost word for word the same with that at the beginning of the Essay. [9-21] It appeareth..themselves: added in 1625. [17] Lat. Imo, quod monstri simile est. [29] Diog. Laert. X. 123. [34] See Acosta, Hist. Nat. des Indes, v. fol. 212b. (Fr. trans. ed. 1600): “ils n'auoient point neantmoins de nom propre, pour nommer Dieu : car si nous voulons rechercher en langue des Indiens vn mot, qui responde à ce nom de Dieu, comme le latin Deus, le grec, Theos, l'hebreu, El, l'Arabic, Alla, l'on n'en trouuera

aucun en langue de Cusco ny en langue de Mexicque." p. 66 [4] In ed. of 1612, 'which shews yet they haue the motion, though

not the full extent.' (7] very: added in 1625. [8] very: added in 1625. [8—30] The contemplative Atheist.... Religion: added in 1625. Part of this passage was included in the next Essay in the ed. of 1612. In Antith. xiii. it appears in this form : Non cadit in mentem humanam ut sit merus atheista dogmate; sed magni hypocritæ sunt veri atheistæ, qui sacra perpetuo contrectant, sed nunquam verentur. [9] “Some of the philosophers, and namely, Diagoras of the isle of Melos, Theodorus the Cyrenæan, and Euemerus of Tegea, held resolutely that there were no gods." Plutarch's Morals, trans. Holland, p. 810, ed. 1603. [23] S. Bernard. Serm. ad Pastores (Opera, p. 1732 I, ed. Paris 1640.) [25] Lat. consuetudo profana

ludendi et jocandi in rebus sanctis. D. 67 (5] who: 'which' (1612). [6] Ovid. Met. I. 21. [19] Cic. de

Har. Resp. 9.

ESSAY 17

Enlarged from the edition of 1612, and omitted in the Italian translation. The chief points in this Essay and the preceding form the pro

and con of Antith. xii. Superstitio. P. 68 (1) no: Lat. nullam aut incertam. In a letter to Mr Toby

Matthews, Bacon says: “I entreat you much to meditate sometimes upon the effect of superstition in this last Powder Treason, fit to be tabled and pictured in the chambers of Meditation, as another Hell above the ground; and well justifying the censure of the Heathen, that Superstition is far worse then Atheism, by how much it is less evil to have no good opinion of God at all, then such as are impious towards his Divine Majesty and goodness” (Cabala, p. 57, ed. 1663). Mr, afterwards Sir Toby, Matthews, was a great friend of Bacon, and a convert to Romanism. The Essay 'Of Superstition' may have grown out of this letter. [2] Lat. quam contumeliosam et Deo ire

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