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from memory, for his Latin does not correspond with that of any ver

sion I have consulted. p. 41 [2] Lat. num non melius inceperis quam perstiteris.

[3—7] Neglect. .avoid: added in 1625. [7] therfore: added in 1625. without Braverie: Lat. absque elatione tui ipsius. (15) Lat. contende ut quæ agis pro potestate tanquam regulis quibusdam cohibeantur, ut hominibus tanquam digito monstres.

Course: 'courses' in MS. [17] and peremptorie : added in 1625. [18] Lat. quid sit quod agas diligenter expone. [19] Right: ‘rights' in ed. 1612. (22) Lat. quam ut quæstiones de iis cum strepitu suscites et agites. [23] Inferiour Places: the Lat. adds, tibi subordinatorum. (26) Advices: “intelligence' in ed. of 1612. [29] accept of: Lat. allicias et recipias.

[30] Lat. in auctoritate utendâ et exercenda. p. 42 [1] In ed. of 1612, “do not only bind thine owne hands, or thy

seruants hands that may take; but bind the hands of them that should offer."

[5] Lat. prædicata et ex professo. (104-14] Therefore ..steale it: added in 1625. (11) declare : Lat, declares et inculces. (14) Lat. servus gratiosus et apud dominum potens. (16) to close Corruption : added in 1625. close: omitted in Lat. [17] Lat. invidiam et malevolentiam parit illa, nihil inde metens. [21] Comp. Adv. of L. 11. 23, $ 5; where Bacon remarks upon the same verse of the Proverbs: “Here is noted that a iudge were better be a briber, then a respecter of persons: for a corrupt Iudge offendeth not so lightly as a facile.” [25] Prov. xxviii. 21. [27] αρχή τον άνδρα Seikvow: attributed by some to Pittacus of Mitylene, by others to Solon. Aristotle (Mor, v.) quoted it in the name of Bias. Epaminondas (Plut. Præc. Civ. xv. 2) varied it; uovov i åpxni tòv äv&pa delavvolv, ålda kai ápxriv amp. (Adagia, p. 226; ed. Grynæus, 1629). The saying also occurs in Guicciardini (Maxims, 72; Eng. tr.), and at the conclusion of his History. Magistratus virum indicat, in the Promus, fol. 76. [29] Tac. Hist. I. 49. (31) Tac. Hist. 1. 50: quoted again in Adv. of L. 11. 22, § 5, where it is introduced with, Tacitus obserueth how rarely raising of the fortune mendeth the disposition."

[33] of Sufficiencie: Lat. de arte imperatoriâ. (34) an assured Signe: Lat. signum luculentissimum. p. 43 [2] Comp. Antitheta vri; Virtutis, ut rerum aliarum, rapidus

motus est ad locum, placidus in loco: est autem virtutis locus honos. [4] Comp. Adv. of L. II. 10, $ 1: So that it is no maruaile, though the soule so placed, enioy no rest, if that principle be true, that Motus rerum est rapidus extra locum, Placidus in loco." In the Promus already referred to, fol. 86, there is this note ; Augustus rapide ad locum leniter in loco." and calme : omitted in MS. [6] in Authoritie: Lat. in honore adepto. [7-end) All Rising. .another Man: added in 1625. [8] to side a Mans selfe: Lat. alteri parti adhærere. Here again the translator seems to have missed the point. (18] Lat. in quotidianis sermonibus aut conversatione privata.


ESSAY 12 p. 44 (1) Lat. tritum est dicterium. (3] Cic. de Orat. Ill. 56, § 213;

de clar. Orat. 38; Orat. 17. Quintilian (x1. 3) substitutes pronunciatio for actio. Archdeacon Hare has some remarks upon this anecdote in Guesses at Truth, pp. 147–151, 2nd series, 2nd ed. 1848.

(10) Lat. histrionis potius virtus censenda est quam oratoris. [18] Antith. XXXII; Quid actio oratori, id audacia viro civili; primum, secun

dum, tertium. p. 45 [1] Lat. captivos ducit eos. [5] in Popular States: Lat. in De

mocratiis. [23] I have been unable to trace any foundation for this story of Mahomet. The saying is a common Spanish proverb and appears in Bacon's Promus, or Common-place book, fol. 20 b, as follows; Se no va el otero a Mahoma vaya Mahoma al otero. But, singularly enough, in a letter from Antonio Perez to the Earl of Essex, it is quoted in exactly the converse form: “Tu videris quo id modo fiet, an ego ad templum, an, ut solebant loqui Hispani Mauri, si no puede yr Mahoma a Lotero (i.e. al otero), venga Lotero (i.e. el otero) a Mahoma, templum cum aliqua occasione huc se conferat.” Antonii Perezii ad Comitem Essexium..epistolarum centuria una. Norimb. 1683, ep. 14, p. 18. I am indebted for this reference to the Rev. J. E.

B. Mayor, Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. p. 46 [2] Lat. vultum enim tunc nanciscitur in se reductum sed defor

miter. [6] Lat. sed audaces, quando tale quidpiam illis contingit, attoniti hærent. (11) Hence the proverb, “Who so bold as blind Bayard ?'

ESSAY 13 p. 47 [1] Lat. ut sit affectus qui hominum commoda studeat et bene

velit. (3) And: 'for' (1612). [4) is a little too light : Lat. lerius aliquanto est atque angustius. [5] Habit: Lat. affe£tum et habitum. [7] and Dignities of the Minde: added in 1625. [8] Lat. cum sit ipsius divinæ naturæ adumbrata quædam effigies et character. [9] Man: Lat. homo animalis. (11) Goodnesse: Lat. bonitas moralis. [13]-p. 48 [6] The desire..committed: added in 1625. [19] Lat. quæ, si benefaciendi materiâ aut occasione destituta, non inveniat quo se exerceat in homines, deflettet certe in brutas ani

mantes. P. 48 [2] Leg. Turc. epist. quat. ep. III. p. 133, ed. 1605. Bacon's memory was here at fault. The offender was a Venetian goldsmith who de- / lighted in fowling, and had caught a goatsucker, or some such bird, about the size of a cuckoo and nearly of the same colour. Its bill when open would admit a man's fist. The goldsmith, by way of a joke, fixed the bird alive over his door, with a stick in its mouth to keep the beak distended. The Turks were enraged, seized the man, dragged him before a judge, and with difficulty allowed him to escape. In the Latin translation the correct version is given. Adeo ut, (referente Busbequio) Aurifex quidam Venetus, Byzantii agens, vix furorem populi effugerit. quod avis cujusdam, rostri oblongi, fauces inserto

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baculo diduxisset. (7) This proverb is entered in the Promus, fol.

[9] One of the Doctors of Italy: omitted in the Latin. The Italian translation has “quel empio Nicolo Macciavello. (10) Macciavel: see Disc. sopr. Livio, 11. 2. [20] Lat. ne te illorum interea aut vultibus aut voluntatibus mancipio dedas.

[21] or: 'and' (1612). [23] Phædr. III. 12. A good story is told in Apoph. 203, in which an allusion to this fable is brought in. “When peace was renewed with the French in England, divers of the great counsellors were presented from the French with jewels. The Lord Henry Howard was omitted. Whereupon the King said to him; My Lord, how haps it that you have not a jewel as well as the rest? My Lord answered again, (alluding to the fable in Æsop;) Non sum Gallus, itaque non reperi gemmam.I think it very probable that this story was in Bacon's mind when he wrote the Essay. [26] Matt. v. 45. [29] 'honours' in MS. [31] with choice: Lat. paucis et cum

delectu. p. 49 (2) Mark x. 21. [16] Difficilnesse: the Latin adds libidinem.

(17—22] Such men..raw: added in 1625. [18] Lat. fere florent, easque semper aggravant. [20] Luke xvi. 21. [22] raw: Lat. cruda quæque et excoriata. "There be many Misanthropi' (1612). Lat. non paucos reperias misanthropos. [25] See Timon's speech to the Athenians as given by Plutarch. “My Lords of Athens, I hauc a litle yard in my house where there groweth a figge tree, on the which many citizens haue hangd themselues: & because I meane to make some building on the place, I thought good to let you all vnderstand it, that before the fig tree be cut downe, if any of you be desperate, you may there in time goe hang yourselues.” North's Plutarch, Antonius, p. 1002, ed. 1595. Comp. Shakspere, Tim. of Athens, v. 2, 'I have a tree, which grows here in my close, &c.' [26] Lat. humanæ naturæ vomicas et carcinomata; cf. Suet. Aug. 65. [27] great Politiques: Lat. mercurii politici. (31)-p. 50 [14] The

parts.. Christ himselfe: added in 1625. p. 50 [6] Lat. supra injuriarum jactum et tela. [9] Trash: Lat.

sarcinas. (10) Rom. ix. 3. See Adv. of L. II. 20, $ 7, where the same passage is alluded to. “But it may be truly affirmed that there was neuer any phylosophy, Religion or other discipline, which did so playnly and highly exalt the good which is Communicatiue and depresse the good which is priuate and particuler as the Holy faith: well declaring that it was the same God, that gaue the Christian Law to men, who gaue those Lawes of nature, to inanimate Creatures that we spake of before ; for we reade that the elected Saints of God haue wished themselucs Anathematized, and razed out of the Booke of life, in an extasie of Charity, and infinite feeling of Communion.


Greatly altered and enlarged from the ed. of 1612, in which it was differently arranged. The Essay in that edition began at p. 52, 1. 14, “It is a reuerend thing..p. 53, 1. 2, Honour ;” with the additional

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clause, "and Enuy is as the sunne beames, that beate more vpon a rising ground, then upon a leuell;” which was afterwards incorporated in the Essay 'Of Envy.' Then followed the passage, p. 51, l. 22—P. 52, 1. 7; A great. .Maiesty of Kings.”

The other variations will be noted in the course of the Essay. p. 51 (1-21) Added in 1625. [12] Lat. vel si omnino in personas, id fit tanquam in maxime idoneas rebus gerendis, minime vero ut ratio habeatur insignium aut imaginum. (17) Respects: Lat. dignitas.

(22) and Potent: added in 1625. P. 52 (3] Fortune: 'fortunes' (1612). [5] Lat. ut insolentia popularis

illorum reverentiâ tanquam obice retundatur, [8—14) A Numerous Nobility..Persons: added in 1625. [8] Lat. Rursus numerosa nobilitas, quæ plerumque minus potens est, statum prorsus depauperat. [16] Lat. annosam et proceram arborem. [21] Those that are first raised to Nobility: 'The first raisers of Fortunes' (1612). [24] any: added in 1625. [27] Posterity: 'posterities' (1612). [32] Lat. invidiæ stimulis vix carebit. (34) from; 'in' (1612);

“from others towards them ;" omitted in the Latin. 2. 53 [1] Lat. eo quod nobiles in honorum possessione nati videntur.

[2] Lat. prudentes et capaces. [3] Lat. negotia sua mollius fluere sentient, si eos potissimum adhibeant.

ESSAY 15 Not published in the edition of 1612, though evidently written before that time. It is found in a MS. of that edition which is preserved in the British Museum (Harl. MSS. 5106), and was written, according to Mr Spedding, between the years 1607 and 1612. He has printed this

earlier form in his edition of Bacon's Works, Vol. VI. p. 589. P. 54 [2] Kalenders: Lat. prognostica. [5] Æquinoctia. The word

'equinox' was apparently not yet naturalized, though it was in use many years before. Thus in Blundevile's Exercises, fol. 149 a: “The Colure of the Equinoxes is so called because it cutteth the Zodiaque in the beginning of Aries, which is called the vernal Equinoxe: and also in the beginning of Libra, which is called the Autumnall Equinoxe, at which two times the dayes and nightes be equall.” [6] hollow: Lat. cavos et veluti e longinquo. of Winde: omitted in MS.

[7] a Tempest: 'tempests' in MS. Lat. idem evenit ingruentibus procellis politicis. [9] Ille etiam: omitted in MS. Virg. Georg. J. 465. [12] Lat. Famosi libelli, et licentiosi et mordaces sermones in status scandalum. (12-16) against..embraced : omitted

in MS. [14] Lat. novarum rerum rumores mendaces. p. 55. [1] Virg. Æn. iv. 179; quoted in Adv. of L. II. 4, § 4. "In Heathen

Poesie, wee see the exposition of Fables doth fall out sometimes with great felicitie, as in the Fable that the Gyants beeing ouerthrowne in their warre against the Gods, the Earth their mother in reucnge thereof brought forth Fame.

Illam terra Parens, &c. Expounded that when Princes & Monarches haue suppressed actuall and open Rebels, then the malignitie of people, (which is the mother of Rebellion,) doth bring forth Libels & slanders, and taxations of the states, which is of the same kind with Rebellion, but more Feminine.” The same passage was in his mind when he wrote his History of Hen. 7 (p. 137, ed. 1622) : “Hereupon presently came forth Swarmes and Volies of Libels (which are the gusts of Libertie of Speach restrayned, and the Females of Sedition).” See also de Sap. Vet. c. ix. [5] Fames: the MS. adds and rumours.' [6] indeed: omitted in MS. [7] Howsoever, he noteth: ‘But he notes' in MS. [9] Brother and Sister: omitted in MS. (10-22] Especially.. Long-lived: omitted in MS. (12) the most plausible: Lat. quæ merito plausum vulgi mererentur. (15) Tac. Hist. 1. 7. The passage, according to one reading, stands inviso semel principe, seu bene seu male facta premunt, and the present is a good illustration of Bacon's manner of quotation on which Mr Spedding remarks (Works, 1. p. 13, note).

[17, 18] 'that' should be omitted in one of these lines. [21] the Going about: Lat. conatus sedulus. [22] Lat. nihil aliud fere efficit quam ut durent magis. [23] Obedience : the Latin adds in exequendis jussis. speaketh of: in the MS. 'describeth in an Army.' [24] Tac. Hist. 11. 39, miles alacer qui tamen jussa ducum interpretari quam exsequi mallet. [29] disputings: the Latin adds circa mandata. [26—3e] Disputing..audaciously: instead of this passage the MS. has: “When mandats fall to be disputed and distinguished, and new sences given to them, it is the first Essay of disobeying." (32) audaciously: Lat. audacius et contumacius. [33] Probably in Disc. sopr. Livio, 111. 27. The Italian translation, instead of Macciavel, has only un scrittore. noteth well: in the MS. 'well notes.' [34] Parents: in

the MS. 'fathers.' p. 56 [1] leane to a side: the MS. adds, 'in the state.' [2] MS. 'that

tilts aside before it overthrowes.' [3—12] As was. .Possession: omitted in MS. (16—26] For the Motions. . Frame: not in MS. [18] Primum Mobile. The tenth heaven, according to the old As. tronomers. In Blundevile's Exercises (fol. 137 b, ed. 1594), the 6th chapter of 'the first booke of the Spheare' is “Of the tenth Spheare or heauen, called in Latine primum mobile, that is, the first moueable, and what motion it hath.” It is described as follows: "This heauen is also of a most pure and cleare substance and without starres, and it continually mooueth with an equall gate from East to West, making his reuolution in 24. houres, which kind of moouing is otherwise called the diurnall or daily moouing, & by reason of the swiftnesse therof, it violently caryeth & turneth about all the other heauens that are beneath it from East to West, in the selfe same space of 24. houres, whether they will or not, so as they are forced to make their owne proper reuolutions, which is contrary from West to East, euery one in longer or shorter time, according as they be far or neare placed to the same. [22] Great ones: Lat. viri primores et nobiles.

[24] Tac. Ann. III. 4, again quoted from memory. The passage stands, promptius apertiusque quam ut meminisse imperitantium crederes. [26] For: 'And' in MS. [28] Job xii. 18; Is. xly. I. The MS. has

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