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p. 13 [8] Is. xiv. 14. Bacon quotes it again in the Adv. of L. 11. 22, § 17; "Aspiring to be like God in power, the Angells transgressed and fel: Ascendam, & ero similis altissimo." [29] James i. 20, quoted from memory: the Vulgate is correctly given in An Advertisement, &c. (Resuscitatio, p. 176).

ESSAY 4

p. 14 [1] Comp. Antitheta XXXIX; Vindicta privata, justitia agrestis. Vindicia, quo magis naturalis, eo magis coercenda.

xix. 11.

3,

[9] Prov. p. 15 [5] Lat. alias ipse sibi pœnam conduplicat, inimicus vero lucrum facit. [15] The same saying is repeated in Apoph. 206. I have not been able to trace it in any books, and it is quite possible that in Bacon's time some sayings of Cosmo might still be traditional. [19] Job ii. 10. [27] Pertinax: Hist. Aug. Script. 1. 578, ed. 1671. Henry the Third: the Latin has Henrici Quarti magni illius Galliæ Regis. There is no reason for the change; Bacon again alludes to the assassination of Henry 3 and Henry 4 in A Charge in the Star-chamber against William Talbot (Resuscitatio, p. 55,) "In France, H. in the face of his Army, before the walls of Paris, stabbed, by a wretched Jacobine Fryer: H. 4 (a Prince, that the French do surname the Great;) One, that had been a Saviour, and Redeemer, of his Country from infinite Calamities; And a Restorer of that Monarchy, to the ancient State, and Splendour; and a Prince, almost, Heroicall; (except it be, in the Point, of Revolt, from Religion;) At a time when he was, as it were to mount on Horse-back, for the Commanding, of the greatest, Forces, that, of long time had been levied in France; This King, likewise, stiletted, by a Rascal Votary; which had been enchanted and conjured, for the purpose."

Henry 3 was assassinated by Friar Clement on the 2nd of August, 1589.

ESSAY 5

p. 16 [2] Seneca, Ep. vII. 4, § 29. [12] Seneca, Ep. VI. 1, § 12; quoted in Adv. of L. II. 20, § 5, and again in De Sap. Vet. c. 26, in connection with the same fable of Hercules. [17] Apollodorus, de Deor. Orig. II. c. 5. [20] "Hercules sailed across the ocean in a cup that was given to him by the Sun, came to Caucasus, shot the eagle with his arrows, and set Prometheus free." (Works, VI. p. 746, ed. Spedding). Bacon gives the same interpretation to this fable in De Sap. Vet. c. 26, but adds, at the end of the same chapter, another; "The voyage of Hercules especially, sailing in a pitcher to set Prometheus free, seems to present an image of God the Word hastening in the frail vessel of the flesh to redeem the human race. But I purposely refrain myself from all licence of speculation in this kind, lest peradventure I bring strange fire to the altar of the Lord." (Works, vi. p. 753, ed. Spedding). p. 17 [4] World: the Latin adds undique circumfusos. But to speake in a Meane: Lat. Verum ut a granditate verborum ad mediocritatem descendamus. [24] Compare Apoph. 253: "Mr Bettenham

said; that virtuous men were like some herbs and spices, that give not their sweet smell, till they be broken or crushed." Mr B. was Autumn Reader of Gray's Inn in 1590. Bacon gives a curious explanation of this in his Natural History (cent. iv. exp. 390): "Most Odours smell best, Broken, or Crusht, as hath beene said; but Flowers Pressed or Beaten, doe leese the Freshnesse and Sweetnesse of their Odour. The Cause is, for that when they are Crushed, the Grosser and more Earthy Spirit commeth out with the Finer, and troubleth it; Whereas in stronger Odours there are no such Degrees of the Issue of the Smell."

ESSAY 6

p. 18 [1] Lat. Artium civilium compendium quoddam et pars infirmior. So in Antitheta XXXII; Dissimulatio compendiaria sapientia. [6] Tacitus saith: Lat. quod discrimen bene apud Tacitur, Cæsarem Augustum inter, et Tiberium, adnotatum est. Etenim de Liviâ sic ait, quod esset, &c.

Tac. Ann. V. 1. Compare Adv. of L. 11. 23, § 31. "So tedious, casuall, and vnfortunate are these deepe dissimulations, whereof it seemeth Tacitus made this iudgement, that they were a cunning of an inferiour fourme in regard of true pollicy, attributing the one to Augustus, the other to Tiberius, where speaking of Liuia, he sayth: Et cum artibus mariti simulatione filii bene composita: for surely the continuall habite of dissimulation is but a weake and sluggish cunning, & not greatly politique." This passage appears to be the germ of the Essay. [9] And againe: Lat. Idem alibi hisce verbis Mucianum inducit, Vespasianum ad arma contra Vitellium sumenda hortantem. [11] Tac. Hist. 11. 76, non adversus divi Augusti acerrimam mentem, nec adversus cautissimam Tiberii senectutem. [15] Habits and Faculties, severall, and: omitted in the Latin. [20] It is difficult to say whether Bacon had in his mind the egregium publicum et bonas domi artes of Tac. Ann. III. 70, or the studia fori et civilium artium decus of Agr. c. 39.

p. 19 [1] and a Poorenesse : omitted in the Latin. [5] or vary: omitted in the Latin. [20] Closenesse, Reservation, and Secrecy: Lat. Taciturnitas. [30] Antith. XXVIII; Taciturnitas confessoris virtus. Taciturno nil reticetur; quia omnia tuto communicantur. facile aliorum animos reserabit.

[33] Lat.

Antith.

p. 20 [7] Secrecy: Lat. silentibus. Comp. Antith. xxvIII. XXXII; Etiam in animo deformis nuditas. [12] Antith. xxvIII; Qui facile loquitur quæ scit, loquitur et quæ nescit. [18] Comp. Adv. of L. 11. 23, § 12: "We will beginne therefore with this precept, according to the aunciente opinion, that the Synewes of wisedome, are slownesse of beleefe, and distrust: That more trust bee giuen to Countenances and Deedes, then to wordes: and in wordes, rather to suddaine passages, and surprised wordes: then to set and purposed wordes: Neither let that be feared which is sayde, fronti nulla fides, which is meant of a generall outward behauiour, and not of the priuate and subtile mocions and labours of the countenance and gesture, which

as Q. Cicero elegantly sayth, is Animi Ianua, the gate of the Mynd: None more close then Tyberius, and yet Tacitus sayth of Gallus, Etenim vultu offensionem coniectauerat." Antith. XXXIII; Placet obscurus vultus, et perspicua oratio. [30] Lat. nisi obfirmato et absurdo silentio se quis muniat. p. 21 [21] Lat. quod in hominis potestate relinquit, ut pedem referat et se absque existimationis suæ jacturâ de negotio subducat. Si quis enim se manifesta declaratione obstringit, is cuneis quasi impactis includitur; aut pergendum est ei, aut turpiter desistendum. [26] Lat. verum assentabitur potius. [30] In the Promus, fol. 6 b, the proverb stands thus, Di mentira y saqueras verdad: and in fol. 13 a, Tell a lye to knowe a truth. Compare Adv. of L. 11. 23, § 14; "And experience sheweth, there are few men so true to themselues, and so setled; but that sometimes vpon heate, sometimes vpon brauerye, sometimes vpon kindenesse, sometimes vpon trouble of minde and weaknesse, they open themselues; specially if they be put to it with a counter-dissimulation, according to the prouerb of Spain, Di mentira, y sacaras verdad: Tell a lye, and find a truth." Lat. perinde ac

si simulatio clavis esset ad secreta reseranda.

p. 22 [2] round: Lat. perniciter. [7-10] Antith. XXXII; Qui dissimulat præcipuo ad agendum instrumento se privat, i.e. fide. [11] Lat. veracitatis famam.

ESSAY 7

This Essay stands sixth in the ed. of 1612.

p. 23 [7] Antith. v; Brutorum æternitas soboles; Virorum, fama, merita, et instituta. [9-15] And surely.. Posterity: added in 1625. [16] Houses: 'house' (1612). [17] Lat. non tantum ut continuationem speciei suæ, sed ut rerum a se gestarum hæredes. [20] 'The difference of affection in parents' (1612). [22] 'Specially'

(1612).

p. 24 [1] Prov. x. 1. See Adv. of L. II. 23, § 5.

[6] middest: 'middle' (1612). [7] many times: added in 1625. [16] and added in 1625. [22] Kinsfolkes: 'kinsfolke' (1612). [29] betimes: Lat. in tenera ætate filiorum suorum. [29]-end. Added in 1625. [31] Lat. flexibiles et cerei.

p. 25 [4] A sentence of Pythagoras preserved by Plutarch (de Exilio, c. 8); ἑλοῦ βίον ἄριστον· ἡδῦν δὲ αὐτὸν ἡ συνήθεια ποιήσει. Jeremy Taylor (Holy Dying, p. 340, ed. Bohn), quotes as if from Seneca, elige optimam vitam, consuetudo faciet jucundissimam.

ESSAY 8

p. 26 [1] Antith. v; Qui uxorem duxit et liberos suscepit, obsides fortunæ dedit. [4] Certainly: Lat. ut alibi diximus; referring to Essay 7, and to a passage in the short piece In felicem memoriam Elizabethæ (Bacon's Works, vi. p. 296), of which Rawley gives the following translation in the Resuscitatio, p. 186. "Childlesse she was, and left no Issue behind Her; which was the Case of many, of the most fortupate Princes; Alexander the Great, Julius Cæsar, Trajan and

others. And this is a Case, that hath been often controverted, and argued, on both sides; Whilest some hold, the want of Children, to be a Diminution, of our Happinesse; As if it should be an Estate, more then Human, to be happy, both in our own Persons, and in our Descendants: But others, do account, the want of Children, as an Addition to Earthly Happinesse; In as much, as that Happinesse, may be said, to be compleat, over which Fortune hath no Power, when we are gone: Which, if we leave Children, cannot be." [6] In ed. 1612, after 'Men,' is inserted, "which have sought eternity in memory, and not in posterity; and."- [8-11] it were.. pledges: added in 1625. See Adv. of L. 11. prol. I. [12] who though they: 'that' (1612). Lat. qui licet liberis careant. [13] yet their: 'whose' (1612). Lat. tamen memoriæ suæ incuriosi sunt, et cogitationes [14] and doe account' (1612).

vitæ tantum curriculo terminant. [15] other: 'others' (1612). account: 'esteeme' (1612). [16]-p. 27[1] Nay more.. Riches: added in 1625. p. 27 [3] 'Specially' (1612).

humorous: Lat. phantasticis. [5] restraint: 'restriction' (1612). [8] but: added in 1625. [9] Antith. v; Cælibatus et orbitas ad nil aliud conferunt, quam ad fugam. [11] doth well with: 'is proper for' (1612). [20] Antith. v; Uxor et liberi disciplina quædam humanitatis; et cælibes tetrici et severi. [22-25] though..they: added in 1625. [23] Charitable: Lat. munificiet charitativi. [26, 27] because..upon: added in 1625. dernesse: Lat. indulgentia et teneritudo affectuum. Gryll. 1; Cic. de Orat. 1. 44. Compare Adv. of L. "Vlysses, Qui vetulam prætulit immortalitati, being those which preferre Custome and Habite before all excellencie." suam: added in 1625.

p. 28 [5] Quarrell: Lat. ansa.

[27] Ten[30] Plut. 1. 8, § 7; a figure of

[6] The saying is attributed to Thales See Diog. Laert. 1. 26, Plut. Symp. Probl. 111. 6. "Thales the wise, being importuned by his mother (who pressed hard upon him) to marrie; pretily put her off, shifting and avoiding her cunningly, with words: for at the first time, when she was in hand with him, he said unto her: Mother, it is too soone, and it is not yet time: afterwards, when he had passed the flower of his age, and that she set upon him the second time, and was very instant: Alas mother, it is now too late, and the time is past." (Holland's trans. p. 691, ed. 1603.) It is repeated in Apoph.

220.

"Art thou yong? then match not yet; if old, match not at all. -Vis juvenis nubere? nondum venit tempus. Ingravescente ætate jam tempus præteriit.*

and therefore, with that philosopher, still make answer to thy friends that importune thee to marry, adhuc intempestivum, 'tis yet unseasonable, and ever will be." Burton, Anat. of Mel. pt. 3, sec. 2, mem. 6, subs. 3. [9-17] It is often seene.. Folly: added in 1625.

pare Colours of Good and Evil, 8, p. 262.

* Stobæus, Serm. 66, Alex, ab Alexand. lib. 4. cap. 8.

[13] Com

ESSAY 9

Compare with the beginning of this Essay, Bacon's Natural History, cent. x. exp. 944: "The Affections (no doubt) doe make the Spirits more Powerfull, and Active; And especially those Affections, which draw the Spirits into the Eyes: Which are two: Loue, and Enuy, which is called Oculus Malus. As for Loue, the Platonists, (some of them,) goe so farre, as to hold, that the Spirit of the Louer, doth passe into the Spirits of the Person Loued, Which causeth the desire of Returne into the Body, whence it was Emitted: Whereupon followeth that Appetite of Contact, and Coniunction, which is in Louers. And this is obserued likewise, that the Aspects that procure Loue, are not Gazings, but Sudden Glances, and Dartings of the Eye. As for Enuy, that emitteth some Maligne and Poisonous Spirit, which taketh hold of the Spirit of Another; And is likewise of greatest Force, when the Cast of the Eye is Oblique. It hath beene noted also, that it is most Dangerous, when an Enuious Eye is cast vpon Persons in Glory, and Triumph, and Ioy. The Reason whereof is, for that, at such times, the Spirits come forth most, into the Outward Parts, and so meet the Percussion of the Enuious Eye, more at Hand: And therefore it hath beene noted, that after great Triumphs, Men haue beene ill disposed, for some Dayes following. Wee see the Opinion of Fascination is Ancient, for both Effects; Of Procuring Loue; and Sicknesse caused by Enuy: And Fascination is euer by the Eye. But yet if there be any such Infection from Spirit to Spirit, there is no doubt, but that it worketh by Presence, and not by the Eye alone; Yet most forcibly by the Eye."

p. 29 [8] Comp. Reginald Scot's Discouerie of Witchcraft (xvI. 9. p. 485, ed. 1584). "This fascination (saith Iohn Baptista Porta Neapolitanus) though it begin by touching or breathing, is alwaies accomplished and finished by the eie, as an extermination or expulsion of the spirits through the eies, approching to the hart of the bewitched, and infecting the same, &c. Wherby it commeth to passe, that a child, or a yoong man endued with a cleare, whole, subtill and sweet bloud, yeeldeth the like spirits, breath, and vapors springing from the purer bloud of the hart. And the lightest and finest spirits, ascending into the highest parts of the head, doo fall into the eies, and so are from thence sent foorth, as being of all other parts of the bodie the most cleare, and fullest of veines and pores, and with the verie spirit or vapor proceeding thence, is conueied out as it were by beames and streames a certeine fierie force; whereof he that beholdeth sore eies shall haue good experience. For the poison and disease in the eie infecteth the aire next vnto it, and the same proceedeth further, carrieng with it the vapor and infection of the corrupted bloud: with the contagion whereof, the eies of the beholders are most apt to be infected." (10] Mark vii. 22.

p. 30 [17] a kinde of plaie-pleasure: Lat. scenicam quandam voluptatem. [22] Plaut. Stich. 1. 3, 55; Nam curiosus nemo'st quin sit malevolus.

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