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The required books of the C. L. S. C. are recommended by a Council of six. It must, however, be understood that recommendation does not involve an approval by the Council, or by any member of it, of every principle or doctrine contained in the book recommended.





AFTER the Declaration of Independence, and under the Articles of Confederation, until October 20, 1781, the foreign correspondence of the government of the United States and the immediate management of its relations with other nations were intrusted to a committee of Congress. On the date mentioned Robert R. Livingston of New York, who had been elected secretary of foreign affairs by Congress, took the oath of office and served in that capacity until June, 1783, when he resigned, and Elias Boudinot of New Jersey, the president of Congress, performed the duties of this office as secretary ad interim. On the organization of the new Congress in the following November, Thomas Mifflin of Pennsylvania was elected to be its president, and he acted in this capacity until December, 1784, when John Jay of New York, who had been sent to Spain to secure the recognition of American independence by that government, was chosen to be secretary of foreign affairs. He served until March 4, 1789, under the Confederation. On the organization of the government under the Constitution, he continued in charge of its foreign relations, until March 21, 1790, having in the meantime been appointed and confirmed chief justice of the Supreme Court.

The act for the establishment of " an executive department, to be denominated the Department of Foreign Affairs" was

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passed by Congress and approved by the president, July 27, 1789. In the following September "an act to provide for the safe keeping of the acts and records and seal of the United States," was passed, which changed the name to the "Department of State,” and provided that its principal officer should be called the secretary of state. Thomas Jefferson of Virginia was commissioned secretary of state in September, 1789, and entered upon the performance of the duties of the office on March 21, 1790, after his return from France, where he was our first minister plenipotentiary. Since the time of Jefferson there have been twenty-eight secretaries of state, not including undersecretaries of the department who have temporarily performed the duties of the office. They were: Edmund Randolph of Virginia; Timothy Pickering of Massachusetts; John Marshall and James Madison of Virginia; Robert Smith of Maryland; James Monroe of Virginia; John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts; Henry Clay of Kentucky; Martin Van Buren of New York; Edward Livingston of Louisiana; Louis McLane of Delaware; John Forsyth of Georgia; Daniel Webster of Massachusetts (twice, in 1841 and in 1850); Abel P. Upshur of Virginia; John C. Calhoun of South Carolina; James Buchanan of Pennsylvania; John M. Clayton of Delaware; Edward Everett of Massachusetts; William L. Marcy of New York; Lewis Cass of Michigan; Jeremiah S. Black of Pennsylvania; William H. Seward of New York; Elihu B. Washburn of Illinois; Hamilton Fish of New York; William M. Evarts of New York; James G. Blaine of Maine (twice, in 1881 and 1889); Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, and Thomas F. Bayard of Delaware. Of those who have served as secretaries of state six were subsequently elected presidents of the United States.

The Constitution authorizes the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to conduct the foreign

policy of the government, and he, under the. statutes of Congress, intrusts it to the secretary of state. He, in turn, directs the transactions of the officers of the diplomatic and consular service, who are stationed at the capitals and the principal ports and commercial cities of the world. These officers are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, except in a few minor places when they are selected by the secretary of state.

The Senate of the United States has a committee on foreign relations, and the House of Representatives, committees on foreign affairs and expenditures in the Department of State. These committees are charged with the consideration of legislation that may be proposed affecting the intercourse of our government with foreign nations, and the Senate committee has also the duty of reviewing and reporting upon treaties with foreign governments, which require ratification by a two-thirds vote of the Senate before they can be proclaimed by the President and 'take effect. Under the rules of the Senate all nominations to the diplomatic and consular service, and all treaties are considered in secret session.

The discussions are never reported or published except in cases of extraordinary importance, but a record of the action of the Senate is preserved in what is known as the Executive Journal. The result is afterwards communicated to the President by the executive clerk, and published in the Congressional Record, after three sessions of the Senate have intervened. This postponement is for the purpose of enabling any Senator to enter a motion to reconsider whatever action may have been taken, should he desire to do so.

The House of Representatives may sit in secret session to consider questions affecting the foreign policy of the government, if a majority of the members of that body regard it expedient to do so. This provision is intended to enable

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