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i prevails among the young lawyers, which was seen
formerly between Hortenfius and Cicero, of which the latter has left us a fine description. "I was very far, says he, speaking of Hortenfius, from looking upon him as an enemy, or a dangerous rival. I loved and efteem
ed him as the spectator and companion of my glory. | I was sensible how advantageous it was for me to have
such an adversary, and the honour which accrued ta me from having sometimes an opportunity to dispute the victory with him. Neither of us ever opposed the other's intereft. It was a pleasure to us to affift one another, by communicating our lights, giving advice mutually, and supporting each other by reciprocal esteem; which had such an effect, that each placed his friend above himself,
The bar therefore may be an excellent school for young lawyers, not only with regard to eloquence but to virtue, if they are capable of improving by the good examples it affords. They are young and unexperienced, and consequently ought to determina little, but to hear and consult very much. How great soever their understandings or abilities may be, they yet ought to be very modest. This virtue, which is the ornament of their age, at the same time that it seems to conceal, sets off their merit the more. But above all, they should fhun that mean kind of jealousy which is tortured at another's glory and reputation ; that ought to form the band of friendship and unity. They must, I say, shun jealousy, as the most
* Dol-bam quòd non, ut pleri. favendo. Brut. n. 2, 3. que putabant, adversarium aut ob- Sic duodecim poft meum confutrectatorem laudum mearum, sed latum annos in maximis causis, focium potius & consortem glori- cùm ego mihi illum, libi me ille anofi laboris amiseram .... Quo e- teferrer, conjunctissimè versati sua nim animo ejus mortem ferre de
Ibid. n, 223, bui, cum quo certare erat gloriosius, i Æqualitas vestra, & artium ftuquàm omnino adversarium non ha- diorumque qua fi finitima vicinitas, bere? cum præsertim non modò tantum abeit ab obtrectatione invia nunquam fit, aut illius à me cursus diæ, quæ solet lacerare plerosque, impedicus, aut ab illomeus, sed con- uti ea non modò non exulcerare trà semper alter ab altero adjutus & veftram gratiam, fed etiam concicommunicando, & monendo, & liare videatur. Brut, n. 156. Vol: II.
shameful of vices, the most unworthy a man of honour, and the greatest enemy to society.
OF THE ELOQUENCE OF THE PULPIT.
the Christian Doctrine, which we cannot recommend too much to the professors of rhetoric, diftinguishes two things in the Chriftian orator; what he says, and his manner of saying it; the things in themselves, and the method of discussing them, which he calls fapienter dicere, eloquenter dicere. I will begin with the latter, and conclude with the former.
FIRST PART Of the manner in which a-Preacher ought to deliver
himself. k Saint Austin, pursuant to Cicero's plan of the duties of an orator, tells us they consift in instructing, pleasing, and moving the passions. Dixit quidam eloquens, & verum dixit, ita dicere debere eloquentem, ut doceat, ut deleElet, ut flectat! He repea same thing in other terms, saying, the Christian orator must speak in such a manner as to be heard intelligenter, libenter, obedienter ; viz. that we should comprehend what he says, hear it with pleafure, and consent to what he would persuade us. For preaching has three ends : That the truth should be known to us, should be heard with pleasure, and move us. Ut veritas pateat, ut veritas placcat, ut veritas moveat. I shall pursue the same plan, and go through the three duties of a Christian orator.
* De doftr, chr, 1. 4. n. 27.
m N. 61:
I. DUTY OF A PREACHER. To instruct, and for that end to speak clearly. Since the preacher speaks in order to instruct, and has equal obligations to all, to the ignorant and the poor, as much and perhaps more than to the learned and the rich; his chief care should be to make himself clearly understood : every thing muft contribute to this end: the disposition, the thoughts, the expression, and the utterance.
'Tis a vicious taste in some orators, n'to imagine they are very profound, when much is required to comprehend them. They don't consider, that every discourse which wants an interpreter, is a very bad one. • The supreme perfection of a preacher's stile should be to please the unlearned as well as the learned, by exhibiting an abundance of beauties for the latter, and being very perspicuous for the former. But in case those advantages cannot be united, P St. Austin would have us facrifice the first to the second, and neglect ornaments, and even purity of diction, if it will contribute to make us more intelligible; because it is for that end we speak. This fort of neglect, which requires, some genius and art, as 9 he obferves after Cicero, and which proceeds from our being more attentive to things than to words, must not,
Tunc demum ingeniofi fcili- dam, cùm de tali genere locutionis cec, fi ad intelligendos nos opus fat ageret, efle in ea quandam diliingenio. Quintil. in proæm. 1.8. gentem negligentiam. Hæc ta
men Gic detrahit ornatum, ut form, Otiofum for, vitiofum) sermo- des non contrahat. S. Auguft. de. nem dixerim, quem auditor suo doct, christ. 1. 4. n. 240 ingenio non intelligit. Quint. l. Melius est reprehendant nos 8. c. 2.
grammatici, quam non intelligant. Ita & sermo do&is probabilis, populi
. Id. in Pfal. cxxxviii. & planis imperitis erit. Ibid. 9 Indicat non ingratam negli
P Cujus evidentiæ diligens appe- gentiam, de re hominis magis, titus aliquando negligit verba cul- quàm de verbis, laborantis. . . tiora, nec curat quid bene fonet, Quædam etiam negligentia eft dilis sed quid indicet arque intimet quod gens. Orat, n. 77, & 78. oftendere jotendit. Unde ait qui
however, be carried so far as to make the discourse low and groveling, but only clearer and more intelligible.
St. Austin wrote at first against the Manichees, in a florid and fublime ftile; whence his writings were not intelligible to those who had but a moderate share of learning, at least not without great difficulty,
Upon this he was told, that if he desired to have his works more generally useful, he must write in the plain and common stile, which has this advantage over the other, that it is equally intelligible to the learned and the unlearned. The holy father received this advice with his usual humility, and made proper use of it in the books he afterwards wrote against the heretics, and in his sermons. His example ought to be a rule to all those who are to instruct others.
As obscurity is the fault which the preacher should chiefly avoid, and that his auditors are not allowed to interrupt him, when they meet with any thing obfcure; St. Austin advises him to read in the eyes and countenances of his auditors, whether they understand him or not; and to repeat the same thing by giving it different turns, till he perceives he is under stood; an advantage which those cannot have, who by a servile dependance on their memories learn their fermons by heart, and repeat them as so many lessons.
That which generally occafions obfcurity in difcourse, is our endeavouring to explain ourselves al.
ways * Me benevolentiffimè monu- nec decoris: ac per hoc debet mar
ut communem loquendi imè tacenti subvenire cura dicenconfuetudinem non defererem, fitis. Solet aurem motu suo fignierrores illos tam perniciofos ab ani- ficare utrum intellexerit cognofmis etiam imperitorum expellere cendiavida multitudo: quod donec cogitarem. Hunc enim fermonem fignificet, versandum eft quod agiufitatum & fimplicem etiam do&i tur multimoda varietate dicendi: intelligunt, illum autem indocti quod in poteftate non habent, qui non intelligunt. De Gen. contra præparata & ad verbum memoriter Manich. 1. 1. C. I.
retenta pronunciant. S. Aug. de [ Ubi omnes tacent ut audiatur doct. chris, 1. 4. n.25. unus, & in eum intenta ora con- * Cavenda, quæ nimium cor vertunt, ibi ut requirat quisque quod ripientes omnia sequirur, obfcuri. non intellexerit, nec moris eft, tas; satiusque eft aliquid (racioni)
ways with brevity and conciseness. One had better say too much than too little. A ftile that is every where sprightly and concise, such as that of Salust, or of Tertullian for instance, may fuit works which are not intended to be spoken, and give the reader time and liberty to read them over and over again ; but it is not proper for a fermon, the rapidity of which might escape the most attentive auditor. must not even be supposed, that he is always fo; and consequently the discourse ought to be so clear, as to reach even the most unattentive, in like manner as the sun strikes our eyes, without our thinking of it, and almost in spight of us. The supreme effect of this quality does not consist in making ourselves understood, but in speaking in such a manner that we cannot be misunderstood.
The neceffity of perfpicuity in Catechists. The necessity of the principle I have now laid down appears in its greatest evidence, with regard to the firft instructions given to young people, which I look upon as a primary kind of preaching, more difficult than is generally imagined, and oftentimes more useful than the brightest and most laboured discourses. 'Tis allowed that a catechist who teaches children the first elements of religion, cannot be too clear and intelligible. No thought or expression should fall from him above their capacities. Every thing ought to be adapted to their strength, or rather to their weakness. We must say but few things to them, express them supereffe, quàm deeffe. . , Vitanda ritatem apud fe ipse discutiat, & illa Salustiana (quanquam in ipfo tenebris orationis inserat quoddam virtutis locum obtinet) brevitas, & intelligentiæ suæ lumen; sed mul. abruptum fermonis genus, quod tis eum frequenter cogitationibus aotiolum fortasse lectorem minùs vocari, nili tam clara fuerint quæ fallit, audientem transvolat, nec dicemus, ut in animum ejus oratio, dum repetatur exspectat. Quintil. ut fol in oculos, etiamsi non in1. 4. 6.2.
tendatur, incurrat. Quare, non Idipfum in consilio eft haben. ut intelligere poffit, sed ne omnino dum, non semper tam efle acrem poffit non intelligere, curandum. (audicoris, intentionem, ut obscu- Quint. 1. 8. cap. 2.