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EXTRACTS

FROM DEMOSTHENES AND ESCHINES.

FROM THE FIRST PHILIPPIC OF DEMOSTHENES.

M. Tourreil places this harangue at the head of the rest.

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EMOSTHENES, in this oration, animates the Athenians with hopes of better fuccefs hereafter in the war against Philip, in cafe they will follow his example, by applying themselves ferioufly to the management of their affairs.

"If you refolve, fays he, to imitate Philip, which << you have not done hitherto; if every one will act "with fincerity for the publick good; the wealthy "" by contributing part of their eftates, and the young (s men by their fwords; in a word, if you will de

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pend on yourselves only, and fupprefs that indolent "difpofition which ties up your hands, in expecta"tion of fome foreign fuccours; you then will foon, by the affiftance of the Gods, retrieve your loffes, and atone for your faults, and will be revenged of your enemies. For, do not think, gentlemen, "that Philip is a God who enjoys immutable felicity: "He is dreaded, hated and envied by thofe who are " beft affected to his intereft; and indeed, we must 66 prefume they have like paffions with the reft of 66 mankind. But all these fentiments feem at present

extinguished, and that because your flow and indo"lent conduct gives them no opportunity of exerting themselves; and it is to this you must apply a remedy.

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For obferve, gentlemen, the low condition to "which you are reduced, and to what a height this "man's infolence is rifen. He will not allow you the "liberty of determining for peace or war. He threa

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tens you; he fpeaks, as it is faid, with an arrogant and haughty tone: he is not fatisfied with his former conquefts, but is every day acquiring more; and whilft you are temporizing and unactive, he furrounds and invefts you on all fides.

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When, gentlemen, when will you act as you ought to do? What event do you wait for? What "neceffity muft compel you to it? Alas! is there not neceffity fufficient at this very time? For, in my "opinion, none is more urgent to a free people, than "when they are furrounded with fhame and ignominy. Will you for ever do nothing but walk up "and down the city afking one another, what news? "What news! Is there any thing more new, than " to fee a man of Macedonia become mafter of the "Athenians, and give laws to all Greece? Is Philip

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dead, fays one? No, replies another, he is only fick. Whether he be fick or dead, what is that to "the purpofe; fince, were he no more, you would "foon raife up another Philip by your bad conduct; for his grandeur is much more owing to your in"dolence, than to his own valour."

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Extract from the fecond Olynthian.

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&2 It is generally ranked the third.

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Demofthenes compares the prefent condition of the Athenians to the glory of their ancestors.

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"Our ancestors, who were neither flattered by "their orators, nor loved by them, as you are by yours, governed Greece during fixty five years, "with the unanimous confent of the whole nation, << put above ten thousand talents into the public trea

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“fury, exercifed fuch a power over the King of Ma66 cedon,

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BC cedon, as becomes the Greeks to exercise over a "Barbarian; raise great numbers of magnificent tro"phies for the victories they had gained in person "both by fea and land; they only of the whole race I "of men tranfmitted to their pofterity by their great "exploits a glory fuperior to envy itself. Such were "thofe perfonages, at that time with regard to Greece. "Let us now examine their public and private life in "those days. Their magiftrates erected many noble "edifices for our ufe, and adorned our temples with "fuch a number of rich ornaments, that none will "be able to furpafs them hereafter in magnificence. "As to their private behaviour, they were fo tem<< perate, and adhered fo ftrictly to our ancient fimplicity of manners, that if any of you happens to "know the houses inhabited once by Ariftides, Mil"tiades, or any other of their illuftrious contempo66 raries, he does not fee them diftinguished by their fplendor from the others in their neighbourhood. For "in the management of public affairs, they thought "themselves obliged to aggrandize the ftate, and not "their families. By this means they arrived at the "meridian of felicity, and that defervedly, by faith"fully confulting the common good of Greece, an "exemplary piety towards the Gods, and living with "their fellow-citizens in a modeft equality. Such "was the condition of your fore-fathers, under fuch "worthy leaders; but what is yours at this time un"der those foft-tongued orators who govern you? "Does it bear the least resemblance to it? I will not "infift upon the parallel, though the fubject opens a large field

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"But fome will anfwer me, and fay, though things "don't go on well abroad, they are in a much better "condition at home. But what proofs can be brought "of this? Why, fome battlements have been whit"ened, fome high-ways repaired, and fome aqueducts "built; with fuch like trifles. Caft your eyes I be"feech you, upon thofe men, to whom you owe these

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rare monuments of their adminiftration. Some of "them were raised from poverty to affluence, others "from obfcurity to fplendor; fome again have built "private houses fo magnificent, that they feem to in"fult even the publick edifices; and the lower the "fortune of the ftate has funk, the higher has that of "fuch people rifen. To what then must we impute "this entire fubverfion of things in our days, and "why is that wonderful order, which was formerly "feen in all things, now changed for confufion? "The reafon is this: firft, because the people at that "time, having valour equal to military employments, "kept the magiftrates dependent on them, and had "the entire difpofal of all offices and favours; and << every citizen thought it a merit to receive honours, "employments, or good offices from the people. "But now 'tis quite otherwife; for the magiftrates "confer all favours, and exercise a defpotic power; "while you, unhappy people, enervated and defpoil"ed both of treafure and alliances, are merely but as "fo many lacqueys and in a manner only a more nu66 merous mob; and think yourselves doubly happy, "if your magiftrates do but indulge you the two O"boli for the theatre, and the mean entertainment "they provide for you upon rejoicing days. And to "complete your bafenefs, you lavish the title of be"nefactors upon those who give you nothing but "what is your own; and who, after imprisoning you, as it were, within your own walls, lay baits for and "foften you in this manner, with no other view but 66 to prepare you for slavery."

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EXTRACT OF THE HARANGUE CONCERNING THE CHERSONESUS.

The penfioners which Philip kept at Athens were perpetually endeavouring to find out expedients for difpofing the people to peace; but Demofthenes difcovers their treachery and artifices.

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"I fhall only obferve, that as foon as this dif"course against Philip was begun, one of those mer"cenaries rofe, up and cried out,What a blessed thing is peace! How difficult to fupport great armies! Our "treafury is in danger: and they amuse you with "fuch difcourfes, by which they cool your zeal, and "give Philip an opportunity of effecting his purposes " without difficulty... But it is not you who are to "be perfuaded to peace; you, I fay, who being al

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ready but too much influenced that way, loiter "here in indolence; 'tis that man who breathes no"thing but war. . . . Befides, we ought not to con"fider what is employed for our fafety as a hardship, "but that which we fhall fuffer in cafe we neglect to "fecure ourselves in time. As to the fquandering of the "publick monies, this must be remedied by proposing "the best means of preventing it for the future, and not by perfuading you to abandon entirely your own "intereft.

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"As to myself, gentlemen, I am filled with indig"nation to see some of you make such a noise about "fquandering the publick funds, (which may be reċ"tified by punishing the offenders in an exemplary "manner) because their private intereft fuffers by it; "and not say one word, at the fame time, of Philip, "who plunders all Greece fucceffively, and that to <6 your prejudice. Whence can it proceed, gentlemen, that while Philip is difplaying his banners in "the face of the whole world, committing violences "and feizing fortreffes; none of thefe people has ever "thought fit to fay, that man acts unjustly, and com"mits hoftilities? And that when you are advised not 66 to fuffer fuch outrages, but to put a stop to them, "these very people cry out immediately, that you are (6 going to kindle the flames of a war which were "extinguished.

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"What! fhall we fay again, that to advife you to "defend yourselves, is kindling a war? If that be b Towards the end of the harangue,

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