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try had their eyes, upon their combat. This is a fine thought, but it is very much improved by the manner of turning it: an exhortation more at length would be cold and languid. In reading the last words, we i. magine we see those generous combatants advancing between the two armies with a noble, intrepid air of defiance.

*3. Confederant utrinque pro caftris duo exercitus, periculi magis præfentis quam curæ expertes: quippe imperium agebatur, in tam paucorum virtute atque fortuna pofitum. Itaque ergo erecti suspensique in minime gratum Spectaculum animo intenduntur.

Nothing was more suitable here than this thought, periculi magis præfentis quam curæ expertes; and Livy immediately affigns the reason of it. What image do these two words, erecti suspensique paint in our minds!

3.4. Datur fignum, infeftisque armis, velut acies, terni juvenes, magnorum exercituum animos gerentes, concurrunt, Nec his, nec illis periculum suum, publicum imperium servitiumque obversatur animo, futuraque sa deinde patria fortuna quam ipfi fecissent. Ut primo ftatim concursu increpuere arma, micantesque fulsere gladii, horror ingens spečtantes perstringit ; & neutro inclinata spe, terpebat vox spiritusque.

Nothing can be added to the noble idea which Livy gives us of thefe combatants in this place. The three brothers were on each side like whole armies, and had

f 3. They were ranged on both lone inspired with the courage of fides round the field of battle, be- armies. Boch Gdes infenfible of ing more uneasy on account of their own danger, bave nothing the consequences to the state, before their eyes, but the flavery than of the danger to which thein- or liberry of their cuntry, whose selves were exposed, because the future destiny depends whollyupoa combat was to determine which their valour. The moment the of che two nations should govern clashing of their weapons is heard, the other, and fo being, agitated and the glitter of their swords is with these reflections, and solicie seen, the spectators seized with tous about the event, they gave fear and alarm, (while bope of suce their whole attention to a lightcess inclined to neither Gide) coite which could not but alarm them. tinued motionless, so that one would

3 4. The signal is given; the have said, they had lolt che use of champions march three and three their speech, and even of breath. againit each other; themselves 2.


the courage of armies; infenfible of their own danger, they thought of nothing but the fate of the publick, confided entirely to their personal valour. Two noble thoughts, and founded in truth! But can any one read what follows, and not be seized with equal horror and trembling with the spectators of the fight? The expreffions are all poetical in this place, and youth must be told, that poetical expressions, which are to be used seldom and very sparingly, were requisite from the grandeur of the subject, and the necessity there was to defcribe so glorious a spectacle in a suitable pomp of words.

The mournful filence which kept both sides in a manner fufpended and immoveable, turned immediateîly into acclamations of joy, on the side of the Albani,

when they saw two of the Horatii killed. The Romans, on the other hand, lost all hope, and were in the utmost anxiety. Alarmed and trembling for the surviving Horatius, who was to combat three antagonifts, they had no thoughts but of the danger he was in. Was not this the real fense of both armies, after the fall of the two Horatii ; and is not the picture which Livy has given us of it very natural?

$5. Confertis deinde manibus, cum jam non motus tantum corporum, agitatioque anceps telorum armorumque, Jed vulnera quoque & fanguis spectaculo effent; duo Romani fuper alium alius, vulneratis tribus Albanis, expirantes corruerunt. Ad quorum cafum cum conclamaflet gaudio Albanus exercitus, Romanas legiones jam fpes to19, nondum tamen cura deseruerat, exanimes vice unius quem tres

. Curi atii circumfleterant. I shall give the remainder of this quotation with little or no reflection, to avoid a tedious prolixity. I must only observe to the reader, that the chief beauty of

* 5. Afterwards when they began bani, who were all wounded. Upto engage, not only the motion of on their falling, the Alban army their hands, and the brandishing of houted aloud, whilft the Roman their weapons drew the eyes of legions remained without hope, the spectators, but the wounds, and but not anxiety, trembling for the blond running down; two Romans surviving Roman, surrounded by falling dead at the feet of the Al- the chree Albania Vol. II,




this relation, as well as of history in general, according to Cicero's judicious remark, confifts in the surprizing variety which runs through the whole, and the different emotions of fear, anxiety, hope, joy, despair, and grief occasioned by the sudden alterations, and unexpected vicissitudes, which rouze the attention by an agreeable surprize, keep the reader in a kind of fufpenfe, and give him incredible pleasure even from that uncertainty, especially where the narration concludes with an affecting and fingular event. It will be easy to apply these principles to every thing that follows.

* 6. Forte integer fuit; ut univerfis folum nequaquam te par, fic adversus fingulos ferox. Ergo, ut segregaret pugnam eorum, capeffit fugam, ita ratus fecuturas, ut quemque vulnere affectum corpus fineret.

7. Jam aliquantum fpacii ex eo loco, ubi pugnatum eft, aufugerat, cum refpiciens videt magnis intervallis fequentes : unum haud procul abese. In eum magno im. petu redit. Et, dum Albanus exercitus inclamat Curiatiis ut opem ferant fratri, jam Horatius cæfo hefte victor: fecundam pugnam petebat.

8. Tum clamore, qualis ex insperato faventium so


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i Multum cafus noftri tibi vae order to divide his adversaries, he rietatem in scribendo fuppedita- Aed, being perfuaded they would bunt, plenam cujusdam voluptatis, follow him with more or less ex. quæ vehementer animos hominum pedition, as their ftrength, after in legendo fcripto retinere poflit: so much loss of blood, would pero nihil eft enim aptius ad delectatio. mit. nem lectoris, quam temporum va

7. Having filed a considerable rietates fortunæque vicillicudines. fpace from the spot where they had

... Ancipites variique cafus ha- fought, he looked back and faw bent admirationem, lætitiam, mo- the Curiatii pursuing him at great leftiam, fpem, timorem. Si verò distances from each other, and one exitu notabili concluduntur, exple- of them very near; opon which tur animus jucundiffimæ lectionis he turned and charged him with voluptate. Cic. Ep. 12. l. 5. ad all his furce, and, while the Alban famil.

army were crying out to his brok 6. Happily, he was not wounded: thers to succour" him, Horatius, thus being too weak against three, who had already flain the first e. though fuperior to any one of them nemy, runs to a second victory. single, he had recourse to a frata- m 8. The Romans then encou. gem, in which he succeede). In rage their champion with great


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let, Romani adjuvant militem fuum : & ille defungi prælio festinat. Prius itaque quam alter, qui nec procul aberat, confequi poffet, & alterum Curiatium conficit

. 9. Jamque æquato marte finguli supererant, fed nec ratione fpe nec viribus pares. Alterum intaétum ferro corpus, &?

geminata victoria ferocem, in certamen tertium dabant: la alter, fesjum vulnere, feffum curfu trahens corpus, vicLine tusque fratrum ante frage, vietori objicitur hofti. Nec ami illud prælium fuit.

How beautiful are the thoughts and expressions! How lively the images and descriptions!

° 10. Romanus exultans, Duos, inquit, fratrum manibus dedi: tertium caufæ belli hujusce, ut Romanus

Albano imperet, dabo. Male fuftinenti arma, gladium 1** superne jugulo defigit : jacentem ||oliat.

Puli Romani ovantes ac gratulantes Horatium acciiunt, eo majore cum gaudio, quo propius metum res fuerat,

912, Ad sepulturam inde fuorum nequaquam paribus Cost animis vertuntur; quippe imperio alteri aucti, alteri in ditionis alienæ facti. fhours

, such as generally proceed o 10. The Roman then cried from unexpe&ed joy, and he, on out with an air of triumph, I have the other hand, haftens to put an end sacrificed the two firit to the

to the second combat; and in this manes of my brothers; I will Cinta manner, before the other comba- now facrifice the third to my

tant, who was not far off, could country, that Rome may subdue come up to affift bis brocher, he Alba, and give laws to it. Cu. killed in alfo.

riatius being scarce able to carry *g. There remained now but his arms, the other thrusts bis one combatane on each side; buc sword into his breast, and after tiiough their number was equal, wards cakes his spoils. their strengch and hope were far P11. The Romans receive Hofrom being so. The Roman, ratius in their camp with a joy without a wound, and Authed and acknowledgment propor: with his double victory, advances tioned to the danger they have with great confidence to chis third escaped. combat. His antagonift, on the

412. After this, each party ap. contrary, weak from the loss of ply themselves in burying their blond, and spent with running, dead, but with sentiments widely fcatce drags bis legs after him; and different; che Romans having en already vanquished by the deach of larged their empire, and the Al. bis brothers, encounters the vic- bans become the subjects of a fotor. But this could not be called reign power. F 2

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I believe nothing is more capable of forming the taste of young people both for reading authors and compofition, than to propose such papages as these to them; and to habituate them to discover their beauties without any affiftance, by stripping them of all their embellishments, and reducing them to fimple propositions, as we have done here. This method will teach them how to find out and express thoughts.

I shall add several reflections from father Bouhours, most of them, with examples from Latin and French authors, taken from his Maniere de bien penser, &C..

Different reflections upon thoughts. 1. Truth is the first quality, and in a manner the source of thoughts. The most beautiful are vicious; or rather, those which pass for beautiful, are not really fo, unless founded in truth. pag. 9.

Thoughts are the images of things, as words are the images of thoughts; and to think, generally speaking, is to form in one's self the picture of an object either of the senses or the understanding. Now images and pictures are only true from the resemblance they bear to their objects. Thus a thought is true, when it represents things faithfully; and false, when it represents them otherwise than as they are in themselves. Ibid.

Truth, which is indivisible in other respects, is not fo in this case. Thoughts are more or less true, as they are more or less conformable to their object. Entire conformity forms what we call the justness of a thought; that is, as clothes fit, when they fit well on the body, and are completely proportioned to the person who wears them; so thoughts are just when they perfectly agree with the things they represent: fo that a just thought, to speak properly, is a thought true in all respects, and in every light we view it. p. 41.

We have a beautiful example of this in the Latin epigram upon Dido, which has been so happily tranflated into the French language. For the better un


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