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which is not to overthrow and carry away every thing, as it were, by main force; but to affect and foften, by infinuating itself gently into the most inward receffes of the auditors hearts. Thefe paffions are natural to those who are united in fome ftrict union; a Prince and his fubjects, a father and his children, a tutor and his pupils, a benefactor, and those who receive the effects of his beneficence. Those paffions confift, with fuperiors who have been injured, in a certain character of mildnefs, goodness, humanity, and patience, which is without gall and bitternefs; can bear injuries, and forget them, and which cannot refift prayers and tears: and with the culpable, in a readiness in being made fenfible of their faults, acknowledging them, teftifying their grief for them, humbling and fubmitting themselves, and giving all the fatisfaction that can be defired. All this must be done after a plain and natural manner, without study and affectation; the air, the outward behaviour, the gefture, tone of voice, ftile, and every thing, must
rumque blandum & humanum & audientibus amabile atque jucundum. In quo exprimendo fumma virtus ea eft, ut fluere omnia ex natura rerum hominumque videantur, quo mores dicentis ex oratione pelluceant & quodammodo agnofcantur. Quod eft fine dubio inter conjunctas maximè perfonas, quoties perferimus, ignofcimus, fatisfacimus, monemus, procul ab ira, procul ab odio... Hoc omne bonum & comem virum pofcit. Quintil. 1. 6. c. 3.
Duo funt, qua bene tractata ab oratore admirabilem eloquentiam faciunt: quorum alterum eft quod Græci xor vocant, ad naturam, & ad mores, & ad omnem vitæ confuetudinem accommodatum: alterum quod idem arxiv nominant, quo perturbantur animi & concitantur, in quo uno regnat oratio. Illud fuperius come, jucundum, ad benevolentiam conci liandam comparatum; hoc, vehe
mens, incenfum, in citatum, quo caufæ eripiuntur: quod cùm rapidè fertur, fuftineri nullo pacto poteft. Orat. n. 128.
Non femper fortis oratio quæritur, fed fæpe plac da, fummiffa, lenis, quæ maximè commendat reos.... Horum igitur exprimere mores oratione, juftos, integros, religiofos, timidos, perferentes injuriarum, mirum quiddam valet: & hoc vel in principiis, vel in re narranda, vel in perorando tantam habet vim, fi eft fuaviter & cum fenfu tractatum, ut fæpe plus quàm caufa valeat. Tantum autem efficitur fenfu quodam ac ratione dicendi: ut quafi mores orationis effingat oratio. Genere enim quodam fententiarum, & genere verborum, adhibita etiam actione leni facilitateque fignificandi, efficitur ut probi, ut bene morati ut boni viri effe videantur. 2. de Orat. n. 183, 184.
breathe fomething inexpreffibly soft and tender, which proceeds from the heart, and goes directly to it. The manners of the perfon who speaks muft fhew themfelves in his difcourfe without his obferving it. "Tis well known, that nothing is more amiable than fuch a character, not only for eloquence, but in the ordinary commerce of life; and we cannot prompt youth too much to be attentive to it, to ftudy and imitate it.
* We find a beautiful example of this in a homily of St. John Chryfoftom to the people of Antioch. As this paffage is very eloquent, and very fit to form the tafte of youth, fuffer me to expatiate a little more upon it, than perhaps the matter I am now difcuffing requires; and to make a kind of an analysis and epitome
The Emperor Theodofius had fent fome officers and foldiers to Antioch, in order to punish that rebellious city for a fedition, in which his own ftatues and those of his deceafed confort Flaccilla were thrown down. Flavian, Bishop of Antioch, notwithstanding the inclemency of the feafon, notwithftanding his very advanced age, and though his fifter was dying when he left her, fet out immediately to implore that Prince's clemency in favour of his people. Being come to the palace, and admitted into the Emperor's presence, he no fooner perceived that Prince, but he ftopped at a distance, with down-caft eyes, fhedding tears, covering his face, and ftanding filent as though himself had been guilty. This is an artful exordium, and this filence is infinitely more eloquent than all the expreffions he could ufe. And indeed St. Chryfoftom obferves, that by this mournful and pathetick exterior, his defign was to prepare the way for his oration, and to infinuate himself into the Emperor's heart infenfibly, in order that fentiments of lenity and compaffion, which his caufe required, might fucceed to thofe of anger and vengeance.
x H: mil. 20.
The Emperor feeing him in this condition did not employ any harfh reproaches, which Flavian might naturally expect. He did not fay to him: What! are you come to crave pardon for rebels, for ungrateful wretches, for a people unworthy of life, and who merit the fevereft punishments? But affuming a foft tone of voice, he made a long enumeration of all the good offices he had done the city of Antioch; and upon mentioning every one of thofe favours, he adds: Is this the acknowledgment I was to expect? What cause of complaint had its citizens against me? What injury had I done them? But why fhould they extend their infolence even to the dead? Had they received any wrong from them? What tenderness did I not fhew for their city? Is it not notorious, that I loved it more than my own country, and that it gave me the greatest pleasure to think I fhould foon be in a condition of taking a journey to see it?
Then the holy bifhop, being unable to bear fuch moving reproaches any longer, fays with deep fighs: It is true, Sir, the goodness you have vouchfafed us could not be carried higher, which enhances our crime and our grief: whatever punishment you may inflict upon us, it will ftill fall fhort of what we deferve. Alas! our prefent condition is no common degree of punishment; to have the whole earth know our ingratitude!
If the barbarians had demolished our city, it would ftill have had a resource and fome hopes, whilst it had you for a protector. But to whom fhall it now have recourfe, fince it has made itself unworthy of your protection?
The envy of the devil, jealous of her happiness, has plunged her into this abyfs of evils out of which you alone can extricate her. I dare fay it, Sir, it is your very affection that has brought them upon us, by exciting the jealousy of that wicked fpirit against us. But, like God himself, you may draw infinite good out of the evil which Satan intended against us.
Your clemency on this occafion will be more honourable to you than your moft celebrated victories. Your ftatues have been thrown down. If you pardon this crime, we will raife others in your honour, not of marble or brafs, which time deftroys, but fuch as will exift eternally in the hearts of all thofe who fball hear of this action.
He afterwards proposed the example of Conftantine to him, who being importuned by his courtiers to difplay his vengeance on fome feditious people that had disfigured his ftatues, by throwing ftones at them, did nothing more than stroke his face with his hand, and told them fmiling, that he did not feel himself hurt.
He fets before him his own clemency, and puts him in mind of one of his own laws, in which, after having ordered the prifons to be opened, and the criminals to be pardoned at the feaft of Eafter, he added this memorable faying; Would to God, I were able in the fame manner to open the graves, and restore the dead to life! That time is come, Sir, you can now do it, &c.
He makes the honour of religion concerned in this affair. All the Jews and Heathens, fays he, have their eyes upon you, and are waiting for the fentence you will pronounce. If it is favourable to us, they will be filled with admiration, and cry out, Surely the God of the Chriftians must be very powerful! He checks the anger of those who acknowledge no mafter upon earth, and can transform men into angels.
After he had answered the objection that might be made with regard to the unhappy confequences which were to be feared, if this crime fhould efcape with impunity; and likewife demonftrated, that Theodofius by fuch a rare example of clemency might edify the whole earth, and inftruct all future ages, he proceeds thus:
It will be infinitely glorious for you, Sir, to have granted this pardon at the request of a minifter of the
Lord; and mankind will fee that without confidering the unworthinefs of the ambaffador, you refpected nothing in him but the power of the Mafter who fent him.
For it is not only in the name of the inhabitants of Antioch that I appear in this place, I am come from the fovereign Lord of men and angels to declare to you, that if you pardon men their faults, the heavenly Father will pardon yours. Call to mind, great Prince, that tremendous day, when you will appear before the King of Kings, to give an account of your actions. You are going to pronounce your own sentence. Other ambaffadors ufe to difplay magnificent presents before the Princes to whom they were fent: as for me, I offer nothing to your Majefty but the holy book of the Gofpels; and I dare exhort you to imitate your Mafter, who does good every day to those who infult him.
He at length concludes his difcourfe, by affuring the Emperor, that if he refused that unfortunate city the pardon fhe fued for, he would never return to it, nor ever confider that city as his country, which the mildest Prince upon earth looks upon with indignation, and could not prevail with himself to pardon.
Theodofius was not able to refift the force of this fpeech. He could fcarce fupprefs his tears, and diffembling the emotion he was in, as much as poffible, he spoke these words to the Patriarch: If Jefus Christ, God as he is, was willing to pardon the men who cru. cified him, ought I to make any difficulty to pardon my fubjects who have offended me, I who am but a mortal man like them, and a fervant of the fame Mafter? Upon this Flavian proftrated himself, wifhing him all the profperity he deferved for this noble action. And as that prelate expreffed a defire of paffing the feaft of Eafter at Conftantinople: Go, father, fays Theodofius, embracing him, and do not delay one moment the confolation which your people will receive by your return, and the affurances you