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to lull them asleep? Is that the language of grief and indignation, which put lively and animated complaints into the mouths even of children? These two examples fhew that we must be moved ourselves, if we would move others, and feel the fame emotions in our own breafts, with which we would infpire others. * Si vis me flere, dolendum eft primùm ipfi tibi.
The per-oration is the proper place for the paffions. It is there the orator displays all that is powerful, tender and moving in eloquence, according to the importance and nature of affairs, in order to complete his conqueft over the hearts of the auditors, and to extort their consent.
Sometimes he does not ftay till the conclufion, to raife the paffions in this manner; but places them after every narrative, when the cause comprehends feveral of them; or after every part of the narrative, when it is to long; or, laftly, after the proof of every fact, and it is that we call amplification. The invectives against Verres furnish a great many examples of this kind.
The orator likewise moves the paffions in the other parts of the oration, but more concisely, and with much greater caution and reserve. Omnes hos affectus-alia quoque partes recipiunt fed breviores. And this is what Anthony obferved with fuch fuccefs in his fine oration for Norbanus: Ut tu illa omnia odio, invidia, mifericordia mifcuifti! fays Sulpicius, after he had run through and pointed out the whole feries, and all the feveral parts of the oration.
"I wonder at thofe, fays Quintilian, who pretend "that the paffions are not to be raised in narration. If they mean only by this, that we are not to dwell "long upon them, as is practifed in the per-oration, "they are in the right; for there we must avoid pro
Y Quint. 1. 6. c. I.
2 Deguftanda hæc miferatione) proœmio, non confumenda. Quint.
1. 4. c. I.
b Cic. lib. de Orat. n. 203.
હૃદ lixity. But I do not fee the reafon why endeavours "fhould not be used to affect the judges while the ora"tor is informing them of the ftate of the cafe, fince "if we have then been able to inspire them with senti"ments of anger of compaffion, they will be much bet❝ter difpofed to receive and relifh the proofs. Cicero "used this method in defcribing the punishment of a ❝e Roman citizen, and in relating, in another place, co the cruelty of Verres to Philodamus," Quid? Phitodami cafum nonne per totam expofitionem incendit invidia? (words that fhew the whole narration is moving and pathetick.) "Indeed, to wait till the end "of the oration, in order to draw compaffion for things " which we had related with dry eyes, is a little too "late." A relation of grave and moving fubjects would be very imperfect, if it were not lively and paffionate.
The paffage relating to Gavius's punishment in the laft invective against Verres, would alone be fufficient to juftify the rules we have now laid down. After Cicero had prepared for the fact by a kind of exordi um which is very vehement, 'and related the manner of, and the reason why, Gavius was carried to Meffina before Verres, he comes to the defcription of the punishment. He infifts at firft upon thefe two circumftances, viz. whipping a Roman citizen in the middle of the Forum at Meffina, and fixing him on a Crofs. Thefe circumftances are not related coldly or without paffion, but after a very lively and moving manner, Cadebatur virgis in medio foro Meffanæ civis Romanus, judices, cùm interea nullus gemitus, nulla vox alia illius miferi inter dolorem crepitumque plagarum audiebatur, nifi hæc: civis Romanus fum. Hac fe commemoratione civitatis omnia verbera depulfurum, crucia
Verr. 7. n. 171.
e Verr. 3. n. 76.
f Serum eft advocare his rebus affe&tum, quas fecurus narraveris.
EN. 157, 171.
tumque à corpore dejecturum arbitrabatur. Is non modò hoc non perfecit, ut virgarum vim deprecaretur: fed, cum imploraret fæpius ufurparetque nomen civitatis, crux, crux, inquam, infelici & ærumnofo, qui nunquam iftam poteftatem viderat, comparabatur.
This narrative, which is very pathetick in itself, is followed by the amplification, 'in which Cicero, with his ufual eloquence, difplays all the indignity of this ill ufage of Gavius. O nomen dulce libertatis! O jus eximium noftræ civitatis! &c.
"He relates one of the last circumstances of the execution, and reproaches Verres with having induftrioufly made choice, for putting a Roman citizen to death, of a place, from whence the unhappy wretch might, as he was dying, fee Italy from the top of the gallows: Ut ille, qui fe civem Romanum diceret, ex crute Italiam cernere, ac tlomum fuam profpicere poffet. This thought, which is very moving, though expreffed in two Lines, is immediately after enlarged and explained. Italia confpectus ad eam rem ab isto electus eft, ut ille in dolore cruciatuque moriens, perangufto freto divifa fervitutis ac libertatis jura cognofceret; Italia autem alumnum fuum extremo fummoque fupplicio affectum
■ The amplification follows of course, and it reprefents that circumftance in the moft glaring light poffible. Facinus eft vinciri civem Romanum, &c.
• In fine, Cicero concludes all this paffage with a figure equally bold and pathetic; and by a laft reflection which affects all the citizens, and feems to be a kind of epilogue, by faying that if he should speak in a defart, the hardest rocks would be moved with the relation of fo unworthy a treatment. How much more reason then have the fenators and judges to be affected, who, by their condition and ftations, are the protectors of the laws and defenders of the Roman
IN. 161, 167.
liberty? Si in aliqua defertiffima folitudine ad faxa & Scopulos hæc conqueri & deplorare vellem, tamen omnia muta atque inanima tanta & tam indigna rerum atrocitate commoverentur, &c.
This is a perfect model of the manner how a narration may be vehement, either in the relation itself, or by the reflections which follow it.
PA kind of chance furnished Craffus inftantaneously with a very lively and vehement turn of eloquence. Cicero has preferved it in his fecond book de Oratore. Whilft Craffus was pleading against Brutus, the feneral of a Roman lady, who was related to the latter, came into the Forum, where 'tis known that orators used to harangue. Upon this, he difcontinued his oration, and fays to Brutus : What news СС would you have this lady carry to your father? "What would you have her fay to thofe famous
Romans, whofe images are carried with this funeral; to your ancestors, to that Brutus who deli"vered the people from kingly government? What fhall fhe tell them you are employed in? Upon "what celebrated action, what virtue; on what "kind of glory fhall fhe tell them you value your"felf? "And after he had made a long catalogue of all his faults: "Can you ftill, fays he, after all this, "bear the light of the fun? Shew yourself in the σε "city? Appear before your fellow-citizens? Ought 66 not the very fight of this corpfe and thefe images, "which feem to reproach you with all your extravagancies, fill you with fear and horror?"
P Quas tragoedias egit idem (Craffus) cum cafu in eadem caufa cum funere efferretur anus Junia! Prô, Dii immortales, quæ fuit illa, quanta vis? quàm inexpectata ? quàm repentina? cùm, conjectis oculis, geftu omni imminenti, fumma gravitate et celeritate verborum: Brute, quid fedes? Quid illam anum patri nunciare vis tuo? quid illis omnibus, quorum imagines duci
vides? quid majoribus tuis? quid L. Bruto, qui hunc populum dominatu regio liberavit? quid te facere? cui rei, cui gloriæ, cui virtuti ftudere ? Patrimonio-ne augendo, &c. Tu lucem afpicere audes? tu hos intueri? Tu in foro, tu in urbe, tu in civium effe confpectu ? tu illam mortuam, tu imagines ipfas non perhorrefcis? 2 de Orat. n. 225, 226.
Sometimes only a turn or a fentiment thrown into a fpeech produced this effect. Cicero, in the fhort narrative he made in pleading for Ligarius, might, according to Quintilian's obfervation, be fatisfied with faying: Tum Ligarius nullo fe implicari negotio paffus eft. But he joins an image to it which makes the narrative more probable and moving. Tum Ligarius domum fpectans & ad fuos redire cupiens nullo fe implicari negotio paffus eft.
Virgil, in lefs than a fingle verfe, gives a very moving defcription of the death of a young man, who had left Argos, the place of his birth, in order to attach himself to Evander,
Et dulces moriens reminifcitur Argos.
'This tender regard of a dying young man for his country, which he fhould never fee and melancholy remembrance of what was most delightful and dear to him in the world, form a beautiful picture in three words: dulces. . . . reminiscitur . . . moriens.
These paffages are very moving, because the images they exprefs awaken the fentiments of love and tenderness for one's country, which every man bears in his heart; and they have a nearer relation to that kind of emotions we are going to fpeak of.
"Befides this firft fpecies of the ftrongest and most violent paffions, which the rhetoricians call to there is another fort they call, which confifts in fofter and more infinuating fentiments, and yet are not therefore lefs moving or lively, w the effect of