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vivacity of these lines. The objects we describe may be painted in this manner with infinite variety, of which I shall give several examples, that the reader may apply to the rule I have already given.
Tendit ad vos virgo veftalis manus fupplices easdem, quas pro vobis diis immortalibus tendere confuevit, Profpicite ne ignis ille æternus, notturnis Fonteica labosibus vigiliisque servatus, facerdotis Vefiæ lacrymis extinctus effe dicatur.
* Hæc magnitudo maleficii facit, ut, nisi pene manifellum parricidium proferatur, credibile non fit. . . Pene dicam refperfas manus sanguine paterno judices videant oportet, si tantum facinus, tam immane, tam acerbum credituri sint.
“ í What nation has not felt the effects of his va , lour; and which of our frontier towns has not served as a theatre to his glory?
“ In the tumult and noise of armies, he used to " entertain himself with the sweet and secret hopes " of his folitude. With one hand he fell upon the “ Amalekites, while the other was lifted up to draw “ down upon himself the blessings of heaven.
“ It taught him to lift up his pure, his innocent " hands to heaven.
“ Before he accepted of any post or employment, “ he would know the duties of it. The first tribu“ nal he ascended, was that of his conscience, there
to examine his intentions thoroughly.
" When he restored God's worship, in his con“quests; and as he was marching upon those ram
parts he had a little before demolished, his firit ho. mage was his offering to God the laurels he had won, at the foot of his altars which he restored.
“ I am not afraid of blending her praises with the “ sacrifice offered for her; and I take from the altar “ all the incenfe I burn upon her tomb... . Why < fhould I take off the veil which the threw over her " actions? a Pro M, Fort. n. 37, 38. ? Pro Rosc, Amer, n. €8.
3166 He made it his study to discover truth, throug! sol the veils of falfhood and impofture with which hu
man lufts cover it. 7.66.1 Aré such truths learnt at court; in the army " under the helmet, and the coat of mail? si". You think then, that anxiety and the mos "deadly sorrows, are not to be hid under roya
Tobes; or that a kingdom is an universal remedy “S' against all evils ? 314 Methinks I ftill see that flower falling." Speaking of the death of an infant princé.
" When all things submitted to Lewis, and we be6. lieved the miraculous times were returning, when 6 walls fell down at the found of trumpets; the ve whole nation cast their eyes on the Queen, and
thought they saw the e many cities, Ay from her oratory.
w With a calm and serene aspect, he (Lewis XIV.) 6 formed those thunderbolts which were heard through« out the world, and those which still remain to be 6 hurled.
* Pour comble de prospérité
Hopes to revive in his pofterity: « Fancies his children are converfing with him, “ And Aufh'd with joy smiles o'er the flowing bowls.
Before I conclude this article, I must obferve in general, y that figures ought to be applied with great
formati sermonis faftidium lever, u Bofluer.
& nos à vuigari dicendi genere dew Peliffon.
feodai. Quo fi quis parcè, & cùm X Racine.
res pofcet, uretur, velut »sperso quo. y Una in re maximè utilis, ut dam condimento), jucund or erit. quoridiani & se nper eodem modo At qui vimium affuáaverit, ipfam
discernment and prudence. They are like seafoning to an oration ; they raise the stile, make us quit the
vulgar and common way of speaking, prevent the dirI taste which a tiresom uniformity would occafion; but
then they must be employed sparingly, and with difcretion: for if they are used too often, they lose the grace of variety, in which their principal merit confifts; and the more they shine, the more they disguft, and tire, from a vicious affectation, which shews they are not natural, but far fetched with too much care, and, as it were, forced in.
It is not necessary to observe, that some figures are fo common and trivial, they have lost all their beauty, especially when they are too long. Miferum eft exturbari fortunis omnibus: miserius est injuria. Acerbum eft.... acerbius. Calamitofum eft .es . calamitofus. Funeftum eft .... funestius. Indignum eft , . ., indignius. Luctuofum eft .... luctuosius. Horribile eft... borribilius. The auditor anticipates the answer, and is tired of this burthen of a fong always in the same Atrain. The same may be observed of the other figure, which is still more tedious. Qui funt qui foedera sæpe ruperum? Carthaginienfes. Qui funt qui in Italia crudele bellum gefferunt? Carthaginienfes. Qui sunt, &c.?
ARTICLE the SIXTH.
Of oratorial Precautions.
or of whom, he is speaking, and the studied
and artful turns which he employs to express some things, that would otherwise appear harsh and offensive. I call this oratorial precautions, because it contains an art and address, certainly eflential to rhetorick, and for that reason deserves the attention of youth. Some examples will render the thing more obvious.
Chryfogonus, Sylla's freed-man, was in such credit with his master, (who was then absolute in the commonwealth) that no lawyer durft plead against him in behalf of Roscius. Cicero only, though very young, had the courage to undertake so delicate a cause. b He is very careful throughout the whole speeeh, to observe in several places, that Sylla was a stranger to all the villainies of his freed-man; that great industry had been used to conceal them from him; that those who could have informed him of them, were denied all access to him ; that, on the whole, it was not suprizing that “Sylla, who alone had the care of re-establishing and governing the commonwealth, should not know or neglect several things, fince a great many escaped the knowledge and attention of Jupiter himself in the government of the universe. It is very obvious that such precautions were absolutely necessary.
Cicero, in his pleading, called Divinatio in Verrem, is obliged to shew that he is fitter to plead against Verres than Cecilius. Such a cause was to be managed with great address and conduct, to avoid giving offence; for self-praise is always odious, especially when it turns on wit and eloquence. After Cicero had proved that Cecilius had none of the qualifications necessary for a cause of so much importance, he is far from. ascribing them to himself: so gross a vanity would have set every body against him, He says only, that he had laboured all his life to acquire them and b Pro Rosc. n. 21, 22, 25, 91, molellissima, n. 36.
e Fortalle dices: Quid ? Frgo
hæc in te funt omnia? Utinam d Intelligo quàm fcopuloso diffi quidem essent! veruntamen ut elle cilique in loco verser. Nam cùm possent magno studio mihi à pueomnis, arrogantia odiofa eft, cum ritia elt elaboratum, 1o 40. illa ingenii atque eloquentiæ mulco
c N. 131.
that if he was not able to succeed, notwithstanding his great pains and industry; it is not surprizing that Cecilius, who never had any idea of this noble profeffion, fhould be absolutely incapable of it.
When he pleaded for Flaccus he was to invalidate the testimony of several Greeks, who had swore against his client. To do this ihe more effectually, he attempts to depreciate the nation itself, as not over fcrupulous in matters of veracity land sincerity. He does not begin abruptly with fo harth a charge. At first, he sets apart, as it were, a real number of worthy persons, who are far from being carried away with the blind paffion of fome of their countrymen. He afterwards gives great encomiums to the whole nation, highly magnifying their genius, abilities, politene's, their taste for arts, and their marvellous talent for eloquence: but he adds, that the Greeks never piqued themselves upon being exact or fincere in giving evidence. Verumtamen hoc dico de toto genere Græcorum: tribuo illis litteras; de multarum artium difciplinam; non adimo sermonis leporem, ingeniorum acumen, dicendi copiam; denique etiam, fi qua fibi alia fumunt, non repugno : teftimoniorum religionem & fidem nunquam illa natio coluit, totiufque hujůs-ce rei quæ fit vis, quæ auctoritas, quod pondus, ignorant.
We know Cicero excelled chiefly in moving the pasfions, and that he often drew tears from the
of his auditors, by the soft and affecting discourse he put into the mouths of his clients, in the conclusion of his pleadings. The greatness of foul and noble pride upon which Milo valued himself, deprived his advocate of so powerful a resource. g But Cicero had the art of making even his courage of service towards gaining the favour of the judges ; and he himself affumed the character of a petitioner, which he could not give to
f Pro Flacco, n. 9.
locum lachrymarum ejus ipfe sucErgo & ille capravit ex illa cellit. Quintıl. 1. 6. c. 1. præftantia animi favorem, & in