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2. To beighten low and common thoughts. The eagle had already winged to the mountains to fave herself, whose beld and rapid fight had at forft tere rified our provinces; that is, the German army. Those brazen thunderbolts, which bell invented for the destruction of men, thundred on all fides ; that is, the cannon.

3. To foften harsh expreffrons. Cicero finding himself obliged, in his defence of Milo, to acknowledge that his Naves had killed Clodius, does not say, interfecerunt, jugularunt Clodiam ; but, by making use of a circumlocution, he conceals the horror of this murder under an idea which could not offend the judges, but seemed rather to engage them : Fecerunt id fervi Milonis (dicam enim non derivandi criminis caufa, fed ut factum eft, neque imperante, neque fciente, neque presente domino, quod fuos Quisque fervos in tali re facere voluiset.

When Vibius Virius exhorted the senators of Capua to poison themselves, to prevent their falling alive into the hands of the Romans, he describes, by an elegant periphrafis, the misfortunes from which this draught would deliver them ; and by this figure conceals from them the horror of death, instead of saying, the poison would procure them a sudden one. Satiatis vino ciboque poculum idem quod mihi datum fuerit, circumferetur. Ea potio corpus ab cruciatu, ani. mum à contumeliis, oculos, aures, à videndis audiendisque omnibus acerbis indignisque quæ manent vietos, vin. dicabit.

Though Manlius knew very well how odious the bare name of a King was to the Romans, and how likely to spirit them up to rebellion, he endeavoured nevertheless to prevail with them to give him that title. He did it very dexterously, by contenting « Filch.

e Liy. Lib. 26. D. 1305 Pro Mil, n, 29.


himself with the title of protector ; but insinuating, at the same time, that that of King, which he was very careful not to name, would enable him to do them greater service. Ego me patronum profiteor plebis, quod mihi cura mea & fides nomen induit. Vos, la quo infigni magis imperii honorisve nomine vestrum appellabitis ducem, eo utemini potentiore ad obtinenda ia que vultis.

Some have justly taken notice of 8 certain turns, which the ancients employed to soften harsh and shocking propositions. When Themistocles saw Xerxes approaching with a formidable army, he advised the Athenians to quit their city; but he did it in the softest terms, and exhorted them to commit it to the care of the Gods. Ut urbem apud Deos deponerent ; quia durum erat dicere, ut relinquerent. Another was of opinion, they should melt down the golden statues raised to victory, to answer the exigencies of war. He used a turn of expression, and told them it was recessary to make use of victories. Et qui victorias aureas in ufum belli conflari volebat, ita declinavit, victoriis utendum effe.

Repetition is a pretty common figure, which has different names, because there are various kinds of it. 'Tis very proper to express lively and violent paflions, such as anger and grief for example, which are strongly employed on the same object, and see no other ; and therefore often repeat the terms which represent it. Thus Virgil paints Orpheus's grief after the death of Eurydice.

Te dulcis conjux : Te solo in littore secum Te veniente die, Te decedente canebat.

Pliny the younger uses the same figure in bewailing the death of Virginius, who had been his tutor, and

Liv. Lib. 6. n. 18.

Gigaificant. Qu. 1. 9. C. 2. 8 Celebrata apud Græcos sche- * Lib. 4. Georg. ver. 465.

i Lib, 2. Ep. 1. mata, per quæ res asperas molliùs

H 2


whom he considered as his father. Volui tibi multa alia fcribere, fed totus animus in hac una contemplatione defixus eft. Virginium cogito, Virginium video, Virginium jam vanis imaginibus, recentibus tamen, audit, alloquor, teneo. ,

"Cicero furnishes us with a prodigious number of examples. Bona, miferum me! (consumptis enim lacrymis tamen infixus animo hærét dolor) bone inquam, Cn. ·Pompeii acerbiffimæ voci subjecta præconis,

Vivis, & vivis non ad deponendam, fed ad confirmandam audaciam.

m Cædebatur virgis in medio foro Messana civis Romanus, judices,

Cum ille imploraret fæpius ufurparetque nomen civitatis, crux, crux, inquam, infelici & ærumnofo, qui nunquam iftam poteftatem viderat, comparabatur.

This figure is likewise vastly proper for insisting strongly on any proof, or any truth. n The élder Pliny would make us fenfible of the folly of men, who give themseves so much trouble to secure an establishment in this world ; and often take arms against one another, to extend a little the boundaries of their dominions. After representing the whole earth as a small point, and almost indivisible in comparison of the universe; 'tis there, says he, we are endeavouring to establish and enrich ourselves ; 'tis there we would govern and be sovereigns; 'tis that agitates mankind with such frequent violence : This is the object of our ambition, the subject of our disputes, the cause of so many bloody wars, even among fellow.citizens and brothers. Hæc eft materia gloriæ noftræ, hæc sedes : hîc honores gerimus, hic exercemus imperia, hic opes cupimus, hic tumultuatur humanum genus : bic injauramus bella etiam civilia, mut uisque cædibus laxiorem facimus terram. All the vivacity of this passage confifts in the repetition, which seems in every member or part to exhibit this little spot of earth, for which men torment themselves so far, as to fight and

k 2. Philip. n. 64. 11. Catil. n, i.

Verr. n. 161. * Lib. 2. c. 58.

folve ....

kill one another, in order to get some little portion of

it; and at laft, what share have they of it after à death ? Quota terrarum parte gaudeat ? vel, cum ad

menfuram fuæ avaritie propagaverit, quam tandem portionem ejus defunctus obtincat? • Rompez, rompez tout pacte avec l'impieté . . Daigne, daigne, mon Dieu, fur Mathan & fur elle Répandre cet esprit d'imprudence & d'erreur, De la chûte des Rois funeste ayant-coureur

Dieu des Juifs, tu l'emportes!.. David, David triomphe. Achab seul eft detruit...

Englished. “ Your leagues with impious men diffolve, dif“ Deign, deign, my God, on Mathan and on her « To Thed the spirit of imprudent error, “ Fatal forerunner of the fall of Kings . " God of the Jews, 'tis thou who dost prevail ! “ Great David triumphs. Ahab only, dies ....

P L'argent, l'argent, dit-on: sans lui tout eft ftérile. La vertu sans l'argent n'est qu'un meuble inutile. L'argent en honnête homme érige un fcelerat. L'argent seul au palais peut faire un magiftrat, " 'Tis money, money : this alone is merit. « Without it, virtue is a useless toy. "Money proclaims the 'knave a man of honour. « Money, alone, can make a dunce a judge.

. Quel carnage de toutes parts! On égorge à la fois les enfans, les vieillards ;

Et la foeur, & le frere;

Et la fille, & la mere;
Le fils dans les bras de fon pere.

• Racine.

P Despreaux.


H 3


What slaughter's all around us !
The murthering sword kills ancient men and children,

The sister and the brother,

The daughter and the mother ; The son too, clasp'd in his fond father's arms.

To take away the repetition from all these passages, is in reality to diveft them of all their beauty, to weaken all their strength, and deprive the passions of the language natural to them. The Antithess, Distribution, and such like figures.

Antitheses, when artfully employed, says father Bouhours, are extremely pleasing in works of genius. They have pretty near the same effect in these, that lights and shadows have in painting, when the painter has the art of distributing them judiciously ; or that the trebles and bases have in inusic which an able master knows how to blend together. Vicit pudorem libido, timorem audacia, rationem amentia ... Odit populus Romanus privatam luxuriam, publicam magnificentiam diligit...,' Chriftian Generals must be tender and charitable even when their hands are bloody ; and inwardly adore the Creator, when they find themfelves reduced to the melancholy necessity of deftroying bis creatures.

There are other figures which consist chiefly in a certain disposition and relation between words, which being disposed with art, propriety, and symmetry, as it were, in a particular order, correspond with one another; and footh the ear and mind agreeably, by this kind of regular and studied harmony.

u Cicero did not neglect that ornament of speech, which some of the ancients, as Isocrates, were vaftly r Pro Cluent. n. 15.

buit non ingratæ, nig copia rePro Mur. n. 76.

dunder, voluptati ; & rem alioqui - Flechier.

levem, sententiarum pondere imDele&tatus et his etiam M. plevit. Quintil. 1. 9. c. 1.“ Tullius ; verùm & modum adhi.


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