« PreviousContinue »
of the precious metals, is certain ere Times' Correspondent, dated San long to receive a large influx of those Francisco, May 2, which states that roving Celestials; but at present it is immigrants “ are continually arriving in the Eldorado of California that they in batches of 500 to 1000 in every are to be seen in the greatest numbers vessel from China, and 10,000 are and to the best effect. The latest intelli- reported as ready to come forward in gence from China shows that the fame a fleet of merchantmen from Canton of the American gold-region has al- and other ports." ready become widely diffused through- One circumstance connected with out the south-eastern provinces of this Chinese emigration to California, China. “During the past month," is peculiarly favourable to the carrysays a letter dated from Canton on the ing trade between these two countries, 27th of March last, " there has been namely, that the men who emigrate not a little excitement among people intend to return, and will probably go connected with foreigners, and who to and fro. In no case, as yet, have have means of learning anything of Chinese families removed from the the 'gold bills,' — more especially country, and all the social habits and among those whose acquaintances in national feelings of that people are California have described the advan- opposed to such a step: Almost tages of the country, or, on returning to without exception the emigrants are China, have spread the report of their adult males, and their purpose is good fortune. Letters from Chinese simply to gain something by their in San Francisco and further in the labour in California, with which to country, have been circulated through return to their native country. It is all this part of the province; and the thus that emigration begins in all accounts of the successful adventurers countries. The young and strong, who have returned would, bad the the restless and buoyant, are the class inhabitants possessed the means of to whom the aids and comforts of paying their way across, have gone home are least necessary, and on far to depopulate considerable towns. whom its ties hang lightest. It is The number of men that have gone, amongst them, accordingly, that the and that are now preparing to embark, first emigrants are found ; but seldom is so considerable, and the employ- do even they, on embarking, resign ment which has been thus unexpect the prospect of revisiting the land of edly afforded to shipping, at a moment their birth and the home of all that of great depression of freights, is so the heart holds dearest. Even when remarkable, that we have no doubt such pioneers of civilisation were the the subject will excite the attention bold sons of our own land, and when of all who are interested in the trade the region they steered for was the of the East.” The writer then gives distant Antipodal settlements of New a detailed list of the ships dispatched Zealand and Australia, how few of from Hong-Kong, Macao, and Wham- them went out otherwise than with poa, with Chinese passengers, between the view of accumulating a hard-won the 1st of January and the 27th of competency, and returning with it to March this year; and another list of spend his after-life amidst the merry vessels which had not then sailed, but "homes of England.” A majority of which were under engagement to go, them failed, indeed, and remained in -- with the number of men taken by the land of their adoption ; but the each. The total number of emigrants recollection of our readers will, we gone and going amounts to 16,807, doubt not, fully corroborate our statewhich, taking the average passage- ment when we say, that it is only money at forty dollars a-head, would within the last few years—and, more give a passenger-freightage of 672,280 peculiarly, since the monetary and dollars. The total number of ships commercial difficulties of 1847—that gone and going was sixty, of which whole families bave begun to forsake one-half had sailed before the date of our shores, or that the mass of our the letter. The details which accom- emigrants have gone forth with the pany this statement leave no doubt resolution of never again setting foot of its accuracy, and it is still further upon the soil of Britain. Toborated by the last letter of the As it has been with us, so will it, in good time, be with the Chinese. and occupying a large portion of the Once the tide of emigration has set in mining lands in this vicinity, to the steadily and strongly, in any country, injury and disadvantage of American men throw themselves into the stream citizens; and whereas we hold that as into a Lethe,-become oblivious of the mineral lands of California by the past and all its enchaining asso- right should belong to and be held ciations, and think only of the future solely by American citizens, thereand of the land whither they are fore" no Chinaman was to be thencegoing. The Chinaman reverences his forth allowed to hold any mining Sycee silver as heartily as the Yankee claim in the neighbourhood. And worships the “ almighty dollar;" and from a letter in the Sacramento Union, the inducements for him to exchange of date May 2, we learn that "the his own densely-peopled country for excitement in regard to the Chinese the gold-producing region of Califor- is rapidly extending along the banks nia are manifest and manifold. If we of the North Fork of the American contrast the gains of labourers, me- River, and daily expulsions are taking chanics, and miners in California, place. This morning some sixty with the wages received by the same Americans ranged down the river classes in China, the disparity in some four miles, driving off two hunfavour of the former is prodigious. dred--quietly removing their tents, In January last, the wages of day- strictly respecting their persons and labourers at San Francisco were at property — except in one instance, * five to eight dollars per day, or one when a Celestial seemed inclined to dollar per hour;" whilst on the Canton be obstreperous, his cradle' was side of the Pacific, the earnings of a thrown into the river.
The same man belonging to the class now emis company intend to proceed en masse grating to San Francisco would not to Horseshoe Bar this afternoon, to be more than four or five dollars a concert measures with the miners month. In other words, a day's work there to 'start' some four hundred in California would earn equal to a located at that place. A band of month's wages in China ! In such music is engaged to accompany the circumstances, unless some unforeseen expedition ! Nearly all of the eighty difficulty should arise, there is little thousand or ninety thousand Ameriprospect of any diminution in the can miners are fully determined to Chinese emigration across the Pacific. submit no longer to have the public Accustomed to the simplest mode of lands robbed of their only treasure." living, having few wants, and more- The letter of the Times' Corresponover actuated by the strongest passion dent, published in that newspaper on for gain, it is probable that success the 18th ult., states that the assumed will continue to attend them in the evil which the Chinese inflict upon Western Eldorado ; and so long as California is, the carrying away nearly the rates of wages there continue all the gold which they amass, with high, and toleration is extended to out any commensurate expenditure them by the jealous and domineering in the country; and that the Governor Americans, we see nothing to check has thought fit to address a special the emigration - movement in that message on the subject to the Legisdirection.
lature. The argument for the expulSince the above was written, news sion of the Chinamen is founded on has arrived from California which, the narrowest principles, and will for the moment, give a new com- soon be reversed; for, whatever may plexion to affairs, by informing us that be the interest of the Americans to the Americans have grown jealous of expel them from the mines, for the the money-making Chinese, and are sake of the gold, it is still more their commencing a species of proscription interest to keep them in the country, against them. The Marysville Herald in order that, by cheapening labour, of 4th May states that a meeting of they may give to gold an additional miners had been held in that town, at value. Moreover, not to mention the which it was resolved, that's whereas indirect advantages of this immigralarge numbers of foreigners, and tion in extending the commercial reChinese especially, are overrunning lations of California with China, there falls to be considered the direct bene- patient people among us. Perhaps the fit to American shipping afforded by citizens of no nation, except the Germans, their passage-money; the money they are more quiet and valuable. They seem expend in rents, purchase of land, and to live under our laws as if born and bred building of houses; the taxes which under them, and already have commenced they pay, the large sums contributed an expression of their preference by apby them to the Custom-house in duties intentions in our courts. What will be
plying for citizenship, by filing their upon imported goods; the cost of the extent of the movement now going on their outfit for the campaign in the in China and here, is not easily foreseen. mines, and the travelling fare they we shall undoubtedly have a very large pay in getting transported to diggings. addition' to our population ; and it may
But the Chinese know what they are not be many years before the Halls of about as well as most men, especially Congress are graced by the presence of where money is in question; and ac- a long-queued Mandarin sitting, voting, cordingly, through some of their and speaking beside a Don from Santa spokesmen, among whom a Celestial Fé, and Kanaker from Hawaii. rejoicing in the name of Hab-Wa is from a Chinese at home to a China 'boy?
“While writing the above, a letter chief
, have published a letter in reply in this country has been shown us by Mr to the Governor's message. “Hab- Gregory, and it will be forwarded by his Wa and his friends' letter," says the express to its destination at the Indian Times' Correspondent, “is a most Gülh, where its Celestial recipient is excellent production, and full of sly digging gold, and will feel himself happy humour. They tell the Governor that by the news from home. Many letters in their country all great men are pass to and fro between China and Calilearned men, and that a man's rank fornia ; and at each departure of ships for is just according to his education. the Celestial Empire, its children here The inference is obvious, that the send off to their friends beyond the PaGovernor, being a great man by virtue It may be seen from this how intercourse
cific, great numbers of California papers. of his high office, must of course be is increasing and knowledge extending. also a learned man. This is a The day of fencing the world and inforsevere hit. There is another, of a mation out of China has for ever passed more generic character. "We do not away. The glitter of our gold has passed deny that many Chinese tell lies; and the gates of the Cousin of the Sun and so do many Americans, even in courts the Moon, and the disciples of Confucius of justice.' Hab-Wa evidently thinks are coming, and have come, to qualify his the latter failing something worse philosophy with the wisdom of Washingthan a white lie.' The tenor of this ton and the utility of Franklin. letter has turned the tide a good deal
“Gradually their wooden shoes give in favour of the Celestials, and it is sin- way to the manufactures of Lynn, and cerely to be hoped that the prejudice The long queue eventually passes away
kindle a fire for barbecuing a rat dinner. against them will soon die away." before the tonsorial scissors, and stuffs a
The character of the Chinese who saddle or is woven into a lariat. The have settled in various parts of the yard-wide nankeen unmentionables are Indian Archipelago, seems to vary found unsuited to our windy climate from peaceful to turbulent according neater fashions, and are succeedel to the rule they are under ; but we much better fit. Hats and oth believe our readers will peruse with rican garments succeed; interest the following creditable testi- chief distinction consists monial to their conduct, and highly colour, the now angul amusing description of their habits, in
“Through their chief here, and agent, Mr Woodworth," says a San cisco journal," they have got por of a large tract of land on the lumne, which they have com tivating, and are fast sett are among the most
birth (22d of February) is a great day bnt one which the Great Exhibition in California, as it deservedly is in of last year served rather to corroboother parts of the Union; and from rate than refute. The products of a chit-chat letter of a Philadelphian China, indeed, occupied a by no means settled at San Francisco, we give an insignificant place in that marvellous amusing account of the part which collection, but they consisted chiefly long-tailed Celestials took in this of articles drawn from private collecyear's ceremonial, which seems to tions, with which our home public have been quite a World's Fair sort was already pretty familiar. To this, of thing:
however, at the ceremonial of the “All countries and ages were repre- Opening, there was one illustrious sented in the ceremonies of the day. exception,-a living product of China Scarcely had the French, Spanish, and
set off by its manufactures, which, Hebrew societies passed from the view, next to Royalty herself, proved the before some two hundred Celestials, or, greatest attraction on that ever-meas their banner termed them, 'China morable day. Now, who was this Boys of San Francisco,' came before the Celestial cynosure of all eyes ? Was admiring gazer. To describe their ap- he a Mandarin of the red button or pearance fully is out of the question, of the blue? How many little packets Preceded by their mandarins and a band of ginseng had he been complimented of music, straggling and evidently amused with by the old Emperor ? Or had with their position, came this large dele- he ever been permitted the rare disgation of our most orderly and industrious citizens. Long tails and short tails, tinction of riding on horseback within plaited and falling down the back from the precincts of the Imperial palace ? beneath the fancy East Indian felt or Finally, had he ever been presented straw hat—white, blue, green, red, yels with a three-eyed peacock's feather, low, and every imaginable colour of pan- that ne plus ultra of Celestial taloons, some loose and only to the knees, celebrity, or with a pavonian feather the nether part of the limb covered with with any eyes at all? Not he! a long nankeen stocking, and others made he was no other than a Coolie or tight to the form and fitting closely, by artisan, who had been playing the the aid of strings, to the Chinese shoe. part of a Mandarin on board the Many other characteristics might I men
Chinese junk in the Thames — or, tion, but no single one excited the risibilities of the concourse of spectators the “ Imperial junk Keying" - and
as some of the newspapers styled it, more than the music. Seated in an express waggon were six musicians, playing who, like a pig in rich trappings, had tunes which to them seemed most soul- impudently thrust himself upon the stirring, although to us most heart-rend- elite of nations assembled within ing. One air (if so it may be called) was the fairy-like walls of the Crystal martial, and its efficacy in peace or war Palace ! The novelty of the sight, must be about the same as the sounds hiş droll deportment and bizarre cosproduced by a stick with smooth surface rubbed across one with the edges liveliest interest of the general au
tume, naturally enough excited the notched."
dience; but sundry effronteries were Of this truly remarkable race, which perpetrated by him for which any less have thus, in these “latter days,” celestial visitor would have been put begun to diffuse its myriads over the in the stocks, and an amount of gulworld, it is mortifying to think how libility displayed by the London jourlittle we know with certainty. It is nals for which we did not give them an opinion universal among all who credit. It was provoking enough to have actually been in China, that see so venerable and illustrious a “ people at home know nothing of it, personage as the “Great Duke" except its tea and silk, its porcelain, duped by this impudent Chinese, and japan, and ivory wares. Of the that even around the Queen of Engpeople, the country, the government land there was no one sufficiently inor its policy, from Parliament and formed to save her from being imposed the Ministry downwards, they know upon ; but it was supremely absurd less than the Chinese do of the Eng- and inexcusable on the part of the lish.” A sweeping assertion, not first-class newspapers to speak, and readily to be swallowed by Jobn Bull, that editorially, of " the Mandarin Heshing," " the Chinese gentleman philosophy of the past, it is needless in fall native costume," "his Excel- for us to comment on the remarkable lency the Mandarin," " the Chinese phenomenon which China exhibits in Commissioner, attended by his Secre- the history of the world—of a people tary,” “ the Illustrious Foreigner,” working out for themselves, in the " the Representative of the vast em- earliest times, a civilisation indepenpire of China," and suchlike grandi dent of all foreign aid, and adherloquent and hypothetical titles. And ing to it so steadfastly that, comyet we find one of these same leading paratively, at least, though not morning papers commencing its notice actually, it has remained unaltered of the Chinese department of the Ex- until now. Whatever changes there hibition with the self-satisfied assur- have been in the political admiance that " with no foreign country nistration of the empire, there has are the English more familiar than with been none in the theory of governChina!” Truly, as saith the poet, ment, which regards the sovereign and “ Where ignorance is bliss, 'tis folly to be people in the light of father and chilwise."
dren. To do the Celestial Emperors Without stopping to depict the only justice, the great majority of them other note-worthy specimens of the endeavour to fulfil their heavy paren“ Celestials abroad," with which we tal duties to the best of their abilities. are acquainted-namely, to use the But only consider what it is to be the words of the Canadian Patriot, “ a father of some three hundred and sixty Chinese Lady, said to be the daughter millions of human beings! Such a poof a Canton Mandarin of the third tentate, we should think, can scarcely class, her maid-servant, her musical have a moment of even ordinary satispreceptor, and his daughter and son," faction. A deficiency of the circulatwho were being exhibited to large ing medium, a bad season, an inundacrowds, a few months ago, in the St tion, an epidemic, and suchlike miseLawrence Hall of Toronto - who ries, are ever turning up to disturb his “sang several songs in the Chinese peace of mind, and literally “set him language, and performed several pieces to his prayers.” Old Taou-kwang, of music on a variety of Chinese in the late Emperor, was quite a pattern struments”—who had “ learned to in this respect. “ He was absent on speak English sufficiently to make no festive occasion,” says Mr Gutzthemselves understood," but had un- laff,* and in China festive and religious happily picked up "a low vulgar are synonymous adjectives ; "and esYankee slang,” doubtless from “ the pecially when threatened calamities American gentleman who accompa- seemed to be near at hand, he was nied and described them," but a very careful in the performance of variety of whose statements were his duties. If no rain had fallen for - not to be relied on.” Without stop- many months, he might be seen in ping, we say, to tell anything more sackcloth, like a common penitent, about this interesting quintet, on the approaching the idols, imploring them strength of whose appearance the edi- to look down upon the nation for whom tor of the Patriot proposed “ to write he interceded." He went through the two or three articles upon China,” we regular fastings and preparations ; think it time to conduct our readers and, not to be behind, be often apto the home of this interesting people, peared at the altar to perform the and venture upon a word or two about duties of a high-priest."' One may the Flowery Land ourselves. We smile at these things; but it is a lesson have seen its “blackhaired myriads" even for Christians of all degrees, to very eager and resolute in pushing see a heathen potentate overwhelmed their fortunes abroad, and it is not in cares, and burdened with the turunnatural that we should now desire moil of a constant and all-important to see something as to how matters occupation, yet always finding time are going on amongst them at home. and heart for those rites and austeri
As our remarks in this article refer ties by which he hopes to please heaonly to the present, and not to the ven and benefit his people.
Life of Taou-kwang. By the late Rev. C. GUTZLAFP. London : 1852.