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THE

BUILDER'S PRACTICAL GUIDE:

CONTAINING

A COMPLETE EXPLANATION OF

THE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENCE,

AS APPLIED TO

EVERY BRANCH OF BUILDING:

Comprising an Entire Course of Instruction for
MASONS,

SLATERS,
BRICKLAYERS,

PLUMBERS,
CARPENTERS,

GLAZIERS,
JOINERS,
PLASTERERS,

PAINTERS ;
INCLUDING THE CUSTOMARY METHODS OF ESTIMATING,

MEASURING, AND CHARGING ; WITH TABLES.

AND

TO WHICH IS ADDED

AN APPENDIX,

CONTAINING

AN EASY AND COMPLETE INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

OF

GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION,

SO FAR AS THOSE SCIENCES ARE APPLICABLE

TO THE

USEFUL ARTS.

BY JOHN NICHOLSON, ESQ.

CIVIL ENGINEER.

ILLUSTRATED BY FIFTEEN ENGRAVINGS.

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR SHERWOOD, GILBERT, AND PIPER,

PATERNOSTER-ROW.

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TO

NICHOLSON'S BUILDER'S GUIDE.

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BUILDING.

Page

General Observations, Explanations, Cautions, &c.

529

Necessity of strict attention to Foundations

529

Piling, Ramming, Inverted Arch&c. for Foundations 529

Qualities and Quantities of component Ingredients of Mortar. . 53]

Sand, qualities and proportions of, in Mortar.

531

Lime, sorts of, slacking of, proportions of ...

531

Smeaton's Experiments-on Lime, Mortar, &c.

531

Dr. Higgins on the Ingredients of Mortar

531

Bricks, Materials of, Tempering Clay for making

532

Bricks, Moulding ; burning in Clamps, in Kilns

534

Various Sorts of Bricks, their Names, Qualities, &c.

535

MASONS' WORK.

General Definitions and Observations

536

Rubble Work, coursed, uncoursed; Ashlar Work

537

Explanation of Terms used in Masonry and Architecture

539

Construction and Names of Arches, Vaults, Soffits, Centres, &c. 540

Construction of Spherical Domes, Groined Vaults, Elliptical

Arches, &c. ..

542

ustomary mode of Measuring Masons' Work

543

BRICKLAYERS' WORK.

Observations, Cautions, Remarks on Foundations, &c. .... 547

Cautions relative to walling; English Bond, Flemish Bond .. 547

To guard Brick-work against Frost, Rain, &c.

548

Various methods of steening Wells.

549

Practical Observations on Measuring Bricklayers' Work 550

Various descriptions of Brick-work, Tiling, &c.

554

Useful Tables for Calculating Bricklayers' Work

556

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY.

Explanation of Terms ..

560

Various Methods of Scarfing Beams

561

Various Methods of Trussing Beams, King Bolt, c. .. 561

Various sorts of Joints, Mortice, Tenons, notched, abutting, &c. 564

Flooring ; Partitions ; Construction of Roofs, &c.

569

Timber; strain or tension of ; strength of

570

Explanation and Definition of Terms used in Carpentry

571

Construction of Domes, Niches, &c.

Mensuration of Carpenters' Work

579

JOINERY ; General Definitions, Cautions and Directions 581

ous sorts of Tools used in Joinery

582

Formation of Cylinders, Shafts of Cones, Columns, &c... 587

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Joining Materials in various Angles, Mitres, Dove-tailing, &c. 588

Construction of Doors, Shutters, Flaps, Sash-frames, &c. 589

Stairs, Staircases, Hand-rails, Face-Mould, Falling-Mould, &c. 593

Story Rod, Pitch-board, and Cylinder, to regulate Stairs 595

Measures customary in estimating and charging Joiners'

Work

602

PLASTERERS' WORK.

General Definition of Tools, their names, uses, &c.

606

Lime, properties of different sorts of

607

Various substances usually mixed with Lime, their qualities, &c. 609

Laths, their names, sizes, mode of use, &c.

611

Various termos explained as to different sorts of Plastering

612

Methods of casting Plaster Ornaments in Moulds

616

Methods of working Stucco, Cement, Scagliola, &c.

617

SLATERS' WORK.

Qualities, sizes, and names of Slates

621

Description and Uses of Tools used by Slaters

622

Mensuration of Plasterers' and Slaters' Work

627

PLUMBERS' WORK.

Tools, names, description, and uses of

628

Lead, roasting and smelting from the Ore

629

Casting Sheet Lead, Leaden Cisterns, &c. ..

630

Sheet Lead, Chinese Sheet Lead, Milled Sheet Lead

632

Solder, composition of, uses of

633

Mensuration of Plumber's Work ...

636

GLAZIERS' WORK.

General Definitions and Descriptions of ....

633

Various sorts of Glass : Tools, names, descriptions, and uses. 636

Sash-work, Lead-work, Fret-work

636

Mensuration of Glaziers' Work.

639

PAINTERS' WORK.

General Definitions, Cautions, and Directions...

639

Observations on the use and qualities of Dryers

641

Distemper Painting, Colours for

642

Mensuration of Painters' Work

642

GEOMETRY.

General Explanation of Terms used in Geometry

673

Names of Polygons, Triangles, Parallelograms, Solids, &c. 673

Geometrical Problems, and method of working them. ... 681

MENSURATION.

Mensuration of the Superficies of various figures

688

Mensuration of Solids, Prisms, Cylinders, Cones, Spheres, &c. 697

General INDEX to Nicholson's Builder's Practical Guide .. 707

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