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Teacher or Doctor.
THE scripture doth hold out the name and title of teacher, as well
as of the pastor.' Who is also a minister of the word, as well as the pastor, and hath power of administration of the sacraments.
The Lord having given different gifts, and divers exercises according to these gifts, in the ministry of the word;” though these different gifts may meet in, and accordingly be exercised by, one and the same minister;= yet, where be several ministers in the same congregation, they may be designed to several employments, according to the different gifts in which each of them doth most excel. And he that doth more excel in exposition of scripture, in teaching sound doctrine, and in convincing gainsayers, than he doth in application, and is accordingly em. ployed therein, may be called a teacher, or doctor, (the places alleged by the notation of the word do prove the proposition.) Nevertheless, where is but one minister in a particular congregation, he is to perform, as far as he is able, the whole work of the ministry." are over you in the Lord, and admo- Lord. Ver. 6. And there are diversi. nish you. Heb. xiii. 7. Remember ties of operations, but it is the same them which have the rule over you, God which worketh all in all. Ver. who have spoken unto you the word 7. But the manifestation of the Spirit of God; whose faith follow, consider. is given to every man to profit withal ing the end of their conversation. Ver. * 1 Cor. xiv. 3. But he that prophe17. Obey them that have the rule over sieth speaketh unto men, to edificayou, and submit yourselves: for they tion, and exhortation, and comfort. watch for your souls, as they that 2 Tim. iv. 2. Preach the word; be in. must give account; that they may do stant in season, out of season; reprove, it with joy, and not with grief: for rebuke, exhort, with all long-suffering that is unprofitable for you.
and doctrine. Tit. i. 9. Holding fast vi Cor. xii. 28. And God hath set the faithful word as he hath been some in the church, first, apostles; taught, that he may be able by sound secondarily, prophets; thirdly, teach- doctrine both to exhort and to con. ers; after that-miracles; then gifts of vince the gainsayers. healings, helps, governments, diversi. y [See in letter w immediately preced. ties of tongues. Eph. iv. 11. And he ing.) 1 Pet. iv. 10. As every man gave some, apostles; and some, pro- hath received the gift, even so mini. phets; and some, evangelists; and ster the same one to another, as good some, pastors and teachers.
stewards of the manifold grace of God. w Rom. xii. 6. Having then gifts, Ver. 11. If any man speak, let him differing according to the grace that is speak as the oracles of God; if anyman given to us, whether prophecy, let us minister, let him do it as of the ability prophesy according to the proportion which God giveth; that God in all of faith; Ver. 7. Or ministry, let us things may be glorified through Jesus wait on our ministering; or he that Christ: to whom be praise and domi. teacheth, on teaching; Ver. 8. Or he nion for ever and ever. Amen. that exhorteth, on exhortation : he 2 2 Tim. iv. 2. Preach the word; be that giveth, let him do it with simpli- instant in season, out of season; recity; he that ruleth, with diligence; prove, rebuke, exhort, with all longhe that sheweth mercy, with cheerful. suffering and doctrine. Tit. i. 9.
1 Cor. xii. 1. Now concerning Holding fast the faithful word as he spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not hath been taught, that he may be able have you ignorant. Ver. 4. Now there by sound doctrine both to exhort
and are diversities of gifts, but the same to convince the gainsayers. 1 Tim. Spirit. Ver. 5. And there are differ. vi. 2. And they that have believing ences of administrations, but the same masters, let them not despise them,
A teacher, or doctor, is of most excellent use in schools and universities; as of old in the schools of the prophets, and at Jerusalem, where Gamaliel and others taught as doctors.
the priests and Levites in the government of the church;* so Christ, who hath instituted government, and governors ecclesiastical in the church, bath furnished some in his church, beside the ministers of the word, with gifts for government, and with commission to execute the same when called thereunto, who are to join with the minister in the government of the church.b Which officers reformed churches commonly call Elders.
because they are brethren; but rather ers; after that miracles; then gifts of
the servants of Jesus Christ, to all the
cause so- filthy lucre. [See in the Bible to Ver. ever shall come to you of your brethren 15.] Acts vi. 1. And in those days, that dwell in their cities, between when the number of the disciples was blood and blood, between law and multiplied, there arose a murmuring commandment, statutes and judg- of the Grecians against the Hebrews, ments, ye shall even warn them that because their widows were neglected they trespass not against the Lord, in the daily ministration. Ver. 2. and so wrath come upon you, and up- Then the twelve
called the multitude on your brethren: this do, and ye of the disciples unto them, and said, shall not trespass.
It is not reason that we should leave 6. Rom. xii. 7. Or ministry, let us the word of God, and serve tables. wait on our ministering; or he that Ver. 3. Wherefore, brethren, look ye teacheth, on teaching; Ver. 8. Or he out among you seven men of honest that exhorteth, on exhortation: he report, full of the Holy Ghost and that giveth, let him do it with simpli. wisdom, whom we may appoint over city; he that ruleth, with diligence; this business. Ver. 4. But we will he that sheweth mercy, with cheerful give ourselves continually to prayer, ness. 1 Cor. xii. 28. And God hath and to the ministry of the word. set some in the church, first, apostles; e Acts vi, 1-4. [See before in leta secondarily, prophets; thirdly, teach- ter d.]
Of particular Congregations. T is lawful and expedient that there be fixed congregations, that is,
a certain company of Christians to meet in one assembly ordinarily for publick worship. When believers multiply to such a number, that they cannot conveniently meet in one place, it is lawful and expedient that they should be divided into distinct and fixed congregations, for the better administration of such ordinances as belong unto them, and the discharge of mutual duties.'
The ordinary way of dividing Christians into distinct congregations, and most expedient for edification, is by the respective bounds of their dwellings.
First, Because they who dwell together, being bound to all kind of moral duties one to another, have the better opportunity thereby to discharge them; which moral tye is perpetual; for Christ came not to destroy the law, but to fulfil it.&
Secondly, The communion of saints must be so ordered, as may stand with the most convenient use of the ordinances, and discharge of moral duties, without respect of persons."
Thirdly, The pastor and people must so nearly cohabit together, as that they may mutually perform their duties each to other with most conveniency. In this company some must be set apart to bear office.
Of the Officers of a particular Congregation. MOR officers in a single congregation, there ought to be one at the It is also requisite that there should be others to join in government.
'1 Cor. xiv. 26.-Let all things be Ver. 25. Not forsaking the assembling done unto edifying. Ver. 33. For God of ourselves together, as the manner is not the author of confusion, but of of some is; but exhorting one another: peace, as in all churches of the saints. and so much the more, as ye see the Ver. 40. Let all things be done de- day approaching. James ii. 1. My cently, and in order.
brethren, have not the faith of our 8 Deut. xv. 7. If there be among Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory, you a poor man of one of thy brethren with respect of persons. Ver. 2. For within any of thy gates, in thy land if there come unto your assembly a which the Lord thy God giveth thee, man with a gold ring, in goodly apthou shalt not harden thine heart, nor parel, and there come in also a poor shut thine hand from thy poor brother. man in vile raiment.-Ver. 11. For the poor shall never i Prov. xxix. 18. Where there is no cease out of the land: therefore I com, vision, the people perish: but he that mand thee, saying, Thou shalt open keepeth the law, happy is he. 1 Tim. thine band wide unto thy brother, to v. 17. Let the elders that rule well be thy poor, and to thy needy, in thy counted worthy of double honour, land. Matt. xxii. 39. And the second especially they who labour. in the is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy word and doctrine. Heb. xiii. 7. Reneighbour as thyself. Matt. v. 17. member them which have the rule Think not that I am come to destroy over you, who have spoken unto you the law or the prophets: I am not the word of God; whose faith follow, come to destroy, but to fulfil. considering the end of their conversa
b1 Cor. xiv. 26.-Let all things be tion. done unto edifying. Heb. x. 24. And * 1 Cor. xii. 28. And God hath set let us consider one another, to pro- some in the church, first, apostles; voke unto love, and to good works: secondarily, prophets; thirdly, teach
And likewise it is requisite that there be others to take special care for the relief of the poor.'
The number of each of which is to be proportioned according to the condition of the congregation.
These officers are to meet together at convenient and set times, for the well
ordering of the affairs of that congregation, each according to his office.
It is most expedient that, in these meetings, one whose office is to labour in the word and doctrine, do moderate in their proceedings.m
Of the Ordinances in a particular Congregation, THE ordinances in a single congregation are, prayer, thanksgiving, immediate explication of what is read,) the word expounded and applied, catechising, the sacraments administered, collection made for the poor, dismissing the people with a blessing. Of Church-Government, and the several sorts of Assemblies for the same. CH HRIST hath instituted a government, and governors ecclesiastical
in the church: to that purpose, the apostles did immediately receive the keys from the hand of Jesus Christ, and did use and exercise them in all the churches of the world upon all occasions.
And Christ hath since continually furnished some in his church with gifts of government, and with commission to execute the same, when called thereunto.
It is lawful, and agreeable to the word of God, that the church be governed by several sorts of assemblies, which are congregational, classical, and synodical.
Of the Power in common of all these Assemblies. T is lawful, and agreeable to the word of God, that the several asthem, any person within their several bounds, whom the ecclesiastical business which is before them doth concern.
ers; after that miracles ; then gifts of be made for all men. 1 Cor. xiv. 15. healings, helps, governments, diver- What is it then? I will pray with sities of tongues.
the spirit, and I will pray with the 1 Acts vi. 2. Then the twelve called understanding also; I will sing with the multitude of the disciples unto the spirit, and I will sing with the them, and said, It is not reason that understanding also. Ver. 16. Else, we should leave the word of God, and when thou shalt bless with the spirit, serve tables.
Ver. 3. Wherefore, how shall he that occupieth the room brethren, look ye out among you seven of the unlearned say Amen at thy men of honest report, full of the Holy giving of thanks, seeing he underGhost and wisdom, whom we may ap- standeth not what thou sayest ?! point over this business.
• Matt. xviii. 15. Moreover, if thy mi Tim. v. 17. Let the elders that brother shall trespass against thee, go rule well be counted worthy of double and tell him his fault between thee honour, especially they who labour in and him alone: if he shall hear thee, the word and doctrine.
thou hast gained thy brother. Ver. * 1 Tim. ii. 1. I exhort therefore, 16. But if he will not hear thee, then that, first of all, supplications, prayers, take with thee one or two more, that intercessions, and giving of thanks, in the mouth of two or three witnesses
They have power to hear and determine such causes and differences as do orderly come before them.
It is lawful, and agreeable to the word of God, that all the said assemblies have some power to dispense church-censures. Of Congregational Assemblies, that is, the Meeting of the ruling Officers
of a particular Congregation, for the Government thereof. NHE ruling officers of a particular congregation have power, autho
ritatively, to call before them any member of the congregation, as they shall see just occasion.
To enquire into the knowledge and spiritual estate of the several members of the congregation.
To admonish and rebuke.
Which three branches are proved by Heb. xiii. 17; 1 Thess. v. 12, 13; Ezek. xxxiv. 4.P
Authoritative suspension from the Lord's table, of a person not yet cast out of the church, is agreeable to the scripture:
First, Because the ordinance itself must not be profaned.
Secondly, Because we are charged to withdraw from those that walk disorderly.
Thirdly, Because of the great sin and danger, both to him that comes unworthily, and also to the whole church. And there was every word may be established. Ver. bound up that which was broken, 17. And if he shall neglect to hear neither have ye brought again that them, tell it unto the church: but if which was driven away, neither have he neglect to hear the church, let him ye sought that which was lost; but be unto thee as an heathen man and with force and with cruelty have ye a publican. Ver. 18. Verily I say ruled them. unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind 9 Matt. vii. 6. Give not that which on earth shall be bound in heaven; is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth your pearls before swine, lest they shall be loosed in heaven. Ver. 19. trample them under their feet, and Again I say unto you, That if two of turn again and rend you. 2 Thess. you shall agree on earth as touching iii. 6. Now we command you, brethren, any thing that they shall ask, it shall in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, i be done for them of my Father which that ye withdraw yourselves from is in heaven. Ver. 20. For where two every brother that walketh disorderly, or three are gathered together in my and not after the tradition which he name, there am I in the midst of received of us. Ver. 14. And if any them.
man obey not our word by this epistle, p Heb. xiii. 17. Obey them that have note that man, and have no company the rule over you, and submit your- with him, that he may be ashamed selves : for they watch for your souls, Ver. 15. Yet count him not as an as they that must give account; that enemy, but admonish him as a brother. they may do it with joy, and not with 1 Cor. xi. 27. Wherefore, whosoever grief : for that is unprofitable for you. shall eat this bread, and drink this i Thess. v. 12. And we beseech you, cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be brethren, to know them which labour guilty of the body and blood of the among you, and are over you in the Lord. See on to the end
of the Chapter, Lord, and 'admonish you; Ver. 13. Compared with Jude, Ver. 23. And And to esteem them very highly in others save with fear, pulling them love for their work's sake. And be out of the fire; hating even the garat peace among yourselves. Ezek. ment spotted by the flesh. 1 Tim. v. xxxiv. 4. The diseased have ye not 22. Lay hands suddenly on no man, strengthened, neither have ye healed neither be partaker of other men's that which was sick neither have ye sins: keep thyself pure.