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ERRATA.

P. 106, Reference to Note 1 to be removed to 'law of the land, at

1. II from the bottom of the text. P. 169, in heading of No. 43, for 'ordinances' read ordinance.' P. 180, 1. 21, for ‘Huntington' read • Huntingdon.' P. 203, 1. 5, for tension’ read ' pension.' P. 226, 1. i of heading, for of the King to the Propositions drawn up

by'read to the Propositions drawn up for the King by.' 1.7 of heading, for 1646 read 1649 1. 3 of text, for qu'elle' read' quelle.'

1. 25 from bottom of text, for ben' read et.' P. 280, 1. 11, for some read save.'

INTRODUCTION.

I. To the meeting of the Long Parliament.

[ -1641.] REVOLUTIONS, no less than smaller political changes, are to be accounted for as steps in the historical development of nations. They are more violent, and of longer duration, in proportion to the stubborn resistance opposed to them by the institutions which stand in their way; and the stubbornness of that resistance is derived from the services which the assailed institutions have rendered in the past, and which are remembered in their favour after they have ceased to be applicable to the real work of the day, or at least have become inapplicable without serious modification.

On the other hand, many, whose minds throwing off the conservatism of habit, have bent themselves to sweep away the hindrances which bar the path of political progress, show an eagerness to put all established authority to the test, and to replace all existing institutions by new ones more in accordance with their ideal of a perfect State an ideal which, under all circumstances, is necessarily imperfect. Revolutions, therefore, unavoidably teem with disappointment to their promoters. Schemes are carried out, either blundering in themselves or too little in accordance with the general opinion of the time to root themselves in the conscience of the nation ; and, before many years have passed away, those who were the most ardent revolutionists, looking back upon

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