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Common Council may add to or repeal the said Ordinances from time to time, as they shall see cause.

That such other propositions as shall be made for the City, for their further safety, welfare and government, and shall be approved of by both Houses of Parliament, may be granted and confirmed by Act of Parliament.

19. That all grants, commissions, presentations, writs, processes, proceedings, and other things passed under the Great Seal of England, in the custody of the Lords and others Commissioners appointed by both Houses of Parliament for the custody thereof, and by Act of Parliament with the royal assent, shall be declared and enacted to be of like force and effect to all intents and purposes, as the same or like grants, commissions, presentations, writs, processes, proceedings, and other things under any Great Seal of England in any time heretofore were or have been : and that for time to come, the said Great Seal, now remaining in custody of the said Commissioners, continue and be used for the Great Seal of England : and that all grants, commissions and presentations, writs, processes, proceedings, and other things whatsoever, passed under or by authority of any other Great Seal since the 22nd day of May, anno dom. 1642, or hereafter to be passed, be invalid, and of no effect to all intents and purposes ; except such writs, process and commissions, as being passed under any other Great Seal than the said Great Seal in the custody of the Commissioners aforesaid, on or after the said 22nd of May, and before the 28th day of November, anno dom. 1643, were afterwards proceeded upon, returned into, or put in use in any of the King's Courts at Westminster; and except the grant to Mr. Justice Bacon to be one of the Justices of the King's Bench; and except all acts and proceedings by virtue of any such commissions of gaol-delivery, assize, and Nisi Prius or Oyer and Terminer, passed under any Great Seal than the Seal aforesaid, in the custody of the said Commissioners, before the ist of October, 1642.

And that all grants of offices, lands, tenements or here. ditaments, made or passed under the Great Seal of Ireland, unto any person or persons, bodies politic or corporate, since the cessation made in Ireland the 15th day of September, 1643, shall be null and void : and that all honours and titles conferred upon any person or persons in the said kingdom of Ireland, since the said cessation, shall be null and void.

58. THE KING'S FIRST ANSWER TO THE PROPOSITIONS

PRESENTED AT NEWCASTLE. (August 1, 1646. Journals of the House of Lords, viii. 460. See Great

Civil War, ii. 514.] Charles R. The propositions tendered to His Majesty by the Cómmissioners from the Lords and Commons assembled in the Parliament of England at Westminster, and the Commissioners of the Parliament of Scotland (to which the Houses of Parliament have taken twice so many months for deliberation, as they have assigned days for His Majesty's answer), do import so great alterations in government both in the Church and kingdom, as it is very difficult to return a particular and positive answer, before a full debate, wherein these propositions, and the necessary explanations, true sense and reasons thereof, be rightly weighed and understood; and that His Majesty (upon a full view of the whole propositions) may know what is left, as well as what is taken away and changed: in all which he finds (upon discourse with the said Commissioners) that they are so bound up

from any capacity either to give reasons for the demands they bring, or to give ear to such desires as His Majesty is to propound, as it is impossible for him to give such a present judgment of, and answer to these propositions, whereby he can answer to God that a safe and well-grounded peace will ensue (which is evident to all the world can never be, unless the just power of the Crown, as well as the freedom and propriety of the subject, with the just liberty and privileges of Parliament, be likewise settled) to which end His Majesty desires and proposeth to come to London, or any of his houses thereabouts, upon the public faith and security of the two Houses of his Parliament, and the Scots Commissioners, that he shall be there with freedom, honour and safety; where by his personal presence he may not only raise a mutual confidence between him and his people, but also have these doubts cleared, and these difficulties explained unto him, which he now conceives to be destructive to his just regal power, if he should give a full consent to these propositions as they now stand : as likewise, that he may make known to them such his reasonable demands, as he is most assured will be very much conducible to that peace which all good men desire and pray for, by the settling of religion, the just privileges of Parliament, with the freedom and propriety of the subject : and His Majesty assures them, that as he can never condescend unto what is absolutely destructive to that just power which, by the laws of God and the land, he is born unto; so he will cheerfully grant and give his assent unto all such Bills (at the desires of his two Houses), or reasonable demands for Scotland, which shall be really for the good and peace of his people, not having regard to his own particular (much less of anybody's else) in respect of the happiness of these kingdoms. Wherefore His Majesty conjures them as Christians, as subjects, and as men who desire to leave a good name behind them, that they will so receive and make use of this answer, that all issues of blood may be stopped, and these unhappy distractions peaceably settled. At Newcastle, the ist of August, 1646.

Charles R. Upon assurance of a happy agreement, His Majesty will immediately send for the Prince his son, absolutely answer. ing for his perfect obedience.

59. THE KING'S SECOND ANSWER TO THE PROPOSITIONS

PRESENTED AT NEWCASTLE. [December 20, 1646. Journals of the House of Lords, viii. 627. See

Great Civil War, ii. 571.] Charles R. His Majesty's thoughts being always sincerely bent to the peace of his kingdoms, was and will be ever desirous to take all ways which might the most clearly make appear the candour of his intentions to his people ; and to this end could find no better way than to propose a personal free debate with his two Houses of Parliament upon all the present differences; yet finding, very much against his expectations, that this offer was laid aside, His Majesty bent all his thoughts to make his intentions fully known, by a particular answer to the propositions delivered to him in the name of both kingdoms, 24th July last : but the more 9 endeavoured it, he more plainly saw that any answer he could make would be subject to misinformations and misconstructions, which upon his own paraphrases and explanations he is most confident will give so good satisfaction, as would doubtless cause a happy and lasting peace. Lest therefore that good intentions may produce ill effects, His Majesty again proposes and desires to come to London, or any of his houses thereabouts, upon the public faith and security of his two Houses of Parliament and the Scots Commissioners, that he shall be there with honour, freedom and safety: where, by his personal presence, he may not only raise a mutual confidence between him and his people, but also have those doubts cleared and those difficulties explained to him, without which he cannot, but with the aforesaid mischievous inconveniences, give a particular answer to the Propositions : and with which he doubts not but so to manifest his real intentions for the settling of religion, the just privileges of Parliament, with the freedom and propriety of the subject, that it shall not be in the power of wicked and malicious men to hinder the establishing of that firm peace which all honest men desire : assuring them that as he will make no other demands but such as he believes confidently to be just, and much conducing to the tranquillity of the people : so he will be most willing to condescend unto them in whatsoever shall be really for their good and happiness : not doubting likewise but you will also have a due regard to maintain the just power of the Crown, according to your many protestations and professions : for certainly except King and people have reciprocal care each of other, neither can be happy.

To conclude, 'tis your King who desires to be heard, the which if refused to a subject by a King, he would be thought a tyrant for it, and for that end which all men profess to desire. Wherefore His Majesty conjures you, as you desire to shew yourselves really what you profess, even as you are good Christians and subjects, that you will accept this his offer, which he is confident God will so bless, that it will be the readiest means by which these kingdoms may again become a comfort to their friends, and a terror to their enemies.

Newcastle, the 20th of December, 1646.

OF

A

60. SUGGESTED ANSWER THE KING TO THE PROPOSI

TIONS DRAWN UP BY THE LEADING PRESBYTERIANS AND
SMALL NUMBER OF THE

INDEPENDENTS,

AND FORWARDED

BY

THE FRENCH AMBASSADOR TO CARDINAL MAZARIN TO BE LAID BEFORE QUEEN HENRIETTA MARIA. [January 29,

1646. Archives des Affaires Étrangères, Angleterre, February 8,

lv. fol. 185.)

Mémoire envoyé par M. de Bellievre au Cardinal Mazarin!

Les sincères intentions du Roy n'ayant pas esté bien entendues par les responses que sa Maté vous a fait cydevant, elle juge à propos de vous faire connoistre qu'elle estoit lors sa pensée, semblable à la résolution en laquelle elle est aujourd'huy, elle estimoit, lorsque vous ayant fait sçavoir en termes généraux qu'elle vouloit establir la religion en les justes privilèges des Parlements avec la seureté de ses sujets, aux desirs desquels elle prétendoit s'accommoder, et faire toutes les choses qui seroient véritablement pour leur bien et leur advantage, vous deviez estre satisfait.

Mais pour vous le faire entendre plus particulièrement, elle vous dit qu'elle est preste de confirmer pour trois ans le Gouvernement Presbytérial puisqu'il a esté pour ce temps estably par les deux maisons : que sa Maté veut approuver ce qui a esté fait par le grand sçeau j'usqu'a ce jour, depuis que les deux maisons s'en sont servy: qu'elle est aussy en volonté de mettre le pouvoir de la milice tant par terre que par mer entre les mains de telles personnes que les deux maisons nommeront, leur donnant pouvoir de changer les dites personnes à leur volonté, et d'en substituer d'autres en leurs places ; et ce pour l'espace de dix années, s'il est jugé qu'il faille tant de temps pour assurer la confirmation de la paix et l'accomplissement des choses qui auront esté agrées.

Sa Maté donnera pareillement pleine satisfaction touchant la conduite de la guerre en Irlande et touchant l'establissement de la religion en la manière qu'elle sera establie en Angleterre, et sa Maté consentira de tout son coeur à l'acte qui sera fait pour la confirmation des privilèges, et des coustumes de la ville de Londres : elle se portera d'autant plus volontiers à accorder ce qui est cy dessus, qu'elle ne

1 This document is only known to exist in the French form.

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