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others having power from them for that effect, shall judge convenient.

V. And whereas the happiness of a blessed peace between these kingdoms, denied in former times to our progenitors, is by the good providence of God granted to us, and hath been lately concluded and settled by both Parliaments : we shall each one of us, according to our places and interest, endeavour that they may remain conjoined in a firm peace and union to all posterity, and that justice may be done upon the wilful opposers thereof, in manner expressed in the precedent articles.

VI. We shall also, according to our places and callings, in this common cause of religion, liberty and peace of the kingdom, assist and defend all those that enter into this league and covenant, in the maintaining and pursuing thereof; and shall not suffer ourselves, directly or indirectly, by whatsoever combination, persuasion or terror, to be divided and withdrawn from this blessed union and conjunction, whether to make defection to the contrary part, or give ourselves to a detestable indifferency or neutrality in this cause, which so much concerneth the glory of God, the good of the kingdoms, and the honour of the King; but shall all the days of our lives zealously and constantly continue therein, against all opposition, and promote the same according to our power, against all lets and impediments whatsoever; and what we are not able ourselves to suppress or overcome we shall reveal and make known, that it may be timely prevented or removed : all which we shall do as in the sight of God.

And because these kingdoms are guilty of many sins and provocations against God, and His Son Jesus Christ, as is too manifest by our present distresses and dangers, the fruits thereof: we profess and declare, before God and the world, our unfeigned desire to be humbled for our own sins, and for the sins of these kingdoms; especially that we have not as we ought valued the inestimable benefit of the Gospel ; that we have not laboured for the purity and power thereof; and that we have not endeavoured to receive Christ in our hearts, nor to walk worthy of Him in our lives, which are the causes of other sins and transgressions so much abounding amongst us, and our true and unfeigned purpose, desire and endeavour, for ourselves and all others under our power and charge, both in public and in private, in all duties we owe to God and man, to amend our lives, and each one to go before another in the example of a real reformation, that the Lord may turn away His wrath and heavy indignation, and establish these Churches and kingdoms in truth and peace. And this coyenant we make in the presence of Almighty God, the Searcher of all hearts, with a true intention to perform the same, as we shall answer at that Great Day when the secrets of all hearts shall be disclosed : most humbly beseeching the Lord to strengthen us by His Holy Spirit for this end, and to bless our desires and proceedings with such success as may

be deliverance and safety to His people, and encouragement to the Christian Churches groaning under or in danger of the yoke of Antichristian tyranny, to join in the same or like association and covenant, to the glory of God, the enlargement of the kingdom of Jesus Christ, and the peace and tranquility of Christian kingdoms and commonwealths.

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50. THE ORDINANCE APPOINTING THE FIRST COMMITTEE

OF BOTH KINGDOMS.

[February 16, 1644. Journals of the House of Lords, vi. 430. See Great

Civil War, i. 359.) An Ordinance for the appointing a Committee of both Houses of

Parliament, to join with the Committees and Commissioners of Scotland, for the better managing the affairs of both nations in the common cause, according to the ends expressed in the late covenant and treaty between the two

nations of England and Scotland. Whereas, by the covenant and treaty ratified and established between the two kingdoms, both nations are engaged in one common cause against the enemies of their religion and liberties, and, by the late entrance of the Scottish forces into this kingdom in pursuance hereof, are firmly united in a joint posture of arms for their own necessary defence, and for the attaining of the ends pressed in the covenant and treaty.

And whereas both kingdoms have thought it necessary that they should be joined in their counsels as well as in their forces, and, in pursuance thereof, the Convention of the Estates of Scotland have appointed Committees, residing in Scotland and in the Scottish army, and have sent some of the said Committees? as Commissioners for the purposes aforesaid, to repair unto and to reside near the Parliament, who, since their arrival, have presented their commission and powers, with their earnest desire that the Parliament would lay down some speedy and constant way of communicating the desires and joining the counsels of both kingdoms, in pursuance of the covenant, treaty and common interest of His Majesty's dominions.

In consideration hereof, the Lords and Commons do nominate, ordain and appoint Algernon Earl of Northumberland, Robert Earl of Essex (Lord General), Robert Earl of Warwick (Lord Admiral), Edward Earl of Manchester, William Viscount Say and Sele, Philip Lord Wharton, John Lord Robarts, William Pierpoint, Sir Henry Vane (senior), Sir Philip Stapleton, Sir William Waller, Sir Gilbert Gerrard, Sir William Armyne, Sir Arthur Haslerigg, Sir Henry Vane (junior), John Crewe, Robert Wallop, Oliver St. John (Solicitor-General), Oliver Cromwell, Samuel Browne and John Glynn (Recorder), or any six of them, whereof one Lord and two Commoners, to treat with the Committees and Commissioners appointed by our brethren of Scotland, in such things as shall by them be propounded from and in the name of the kingdom of Scotland, for the ends aforesaid; as likewise to propound to the Committees and Commissioners of Scotland whatever they shall receive in charge from both Houses, and, from time to time, to advise and consult concerning the same, and report the results to both Houses.

And further power and authority is hereby given to them, or any six of them, whereof one Lord and two Commoners as a joint Committee with the Committee and Commissioners of Scotland, to advise, consult, order and direct, concerning the carrying on and managing of the war for the best advantage of the three kingdoms, and the keeping a good intelligence between the three kingdoms, their forces, committees and counsels; and likewise with power to hold good correspondence and intelligence with foreign States; and further to advise and consult of all things in pursuance of the ends in the late covenant and treaty.

Provided always, that nothing in this Ordinance shall authorise the Committee hereby appointed to advise, treat

1 As we should now say, 'members of the Committee,'

or consult concerning any cessation of arms or making peace, without express directions from both Houses of Parliament.

And lastly, the said Committee are to observe such orders and directions as they, from time to time, shall receive from both Houses of Parliament; provided also, that this Ordinance shall continue for three months and no longer.

51. AN ORDINANCE APPOINTING THE SECOND COMMITTEE

OF BOTH KINGDOMS. (May 22, 1644. Journals of the House of Commons, iii. 504. See Great

Civil War, i. 404.) An Ordinance for the appointing a Committee of both Houses,

to join with the Committees and Commissioners of Scotland, for the better managing of the affairs of both nations, in the common cause, according to the ends expressed in the last covenant and treaty between the two nations of

England and Scotland. Whereas by the covenant and treaty ratified and established between the two kingdoms, both nations are engaged in one common cause against the enemies of the religion and liberties; and by the late entrance of the Scottish forces into this kingdom, in pursuance hereof, are firmly united in a joint posture of arms for their own necessary defence, and for maintaining of the ends expressed in the covenant; and forasmuch as nothing can be more advantageous and conducible to the purpose aforesaid than that the conduct of the affairs of both kingdoms, in prosecution of the ends before mentioned, be managed by the joint advice and direction of both nations or their Committees authorised in that behalf; that is, not only the counsels, resolutions and forces of both kingdoms may be to the utmost improved to the common good, and a right intelligence and firmer unity held and preserved between and within themselves, but also a good correspondency may be set on foot and maintained abroad with other States in a joint way, to countermine the wicked confederacies and designs of the Popish and Antichristian faction in all parts against the true Protestant reformed religion, and the welfare of His Majesty's three kingdoms : and whereas the Convention of the Estates of Scotland have appointed Com. mittees residing in Scotland and in the Scottish army, and

Scotland and in the Scottish army, and have sent some of the said Committeesas Commissioners for the purposes aforesaid, to repair unto and to reside near the Parliament, who, since their arrival, have presented their commission and powers, with their earnest desire that the Parliament would lay down some speedy and constant way of communicating the desires and joining the counsels of both kingdoms, in pursuance of the covenant, treaty and common interest of His Majesty's dominions.

In consideration hereof, the Lords and Commons do nominate, ordain and appoint Algernon Earl of Northumberland, Robert Earl of Essex (Lord General), Robert Earl of Warwick (Lord Admiral), Edward Earl of Manchester, William Viscount Say and Sele, Philip Lord Wharton, John Lord Robarts, William Pierpoint, Sir Henry Vane (senior), Sir Philip Stapleton, Sir William Waller, Sir Gilbert Gerrard, Sir William Armyne, Sir Arthur Haslerigg, Sir Henry Vane (junior), John Crewe, Robert Wallop, Oliver St. John (Solicitor-General), Oliver Cromwell, Samuel Browne and John Glynn (Recorder), or any six of them, whereof one Lord and two Commoners, to treat with the Committees and Commissioners appointed by our brethren of Scotland, in such things as shall by them be propounded from and in the name of the kingdom of Scotland, for the ends aforesaid ; as likewise to propound to the Committees and Commissioners of Scotland whatever they shall receive in charge from both Houses, and, from time to time, to advise and consult concerning the same, and report the results to both Houses.

And further power and authority is hereby given to them, or any six of them, whereof one Lord and two Commoners as a joint Committee with the Committee and Commissioners of Scotland, to advise, consult, order and direct, concerning the carrying on and managing of the war for the best advantage of the three kingdoms, and the keeping a good intelligence between the three kingdoms, their forces, committees and counsels; and likewise with power to hold good correspondence and intelligence with foreign States; and further to advise and consult of all things in pursuance of the ends in the late covenant and treaty.

Provided always, that nothing in this Ordinance shall authorise the Committee hereby appointed to advise, treat

As we should now say, 'members of the Committee,'

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