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The apron to be made is to have skirt, bib, and shoulder straps, in order to be a protection to both dress, skirt, and waist.1

METHOD OF WORK.

As soon as the class meets, the girls should make the measurements for their aprons. One measurement should be assigned at a time and the reason for each measurement given. The girls should follow the measurements explicitly, as they are apt to become confused if directions are complicated. They should work carefully so that the material does not become mussed or soiled, and at the conclusion of the lesson they should fold it carefully and put it away neatly. All threads and scraps of material should be carefully picked up off the floor, and the room left in order.

FIG. 14.-Uneven basting.

LESSON XII. APRONS OR UNDERGARMENTS (Continued).

Basting the hem for hemming on the machine or by hand.

basting.

SUBJECT MATTER.

Uneven

An uneven basting forms the better guide for stitching. In uneven basting the stitches are made about twice as long as the spaces between. The stitch should be about one-fourth of an inch on the upper side of the material and one-eighth inch on the under side.

1 If the girls are very inexperienced and find the sewing difficult, it may be advisable to omit the bib and straps and to make the simple full-skirted apron. If a machine is not at hand to use for the long seams, the limits in time may make the simpler apron necessary. This will give more time for the various processes. Lessons XIV and XV can then be omitted, Lesson XVI made simpler, and less outside work required.

PRELIMINARY PLAN.

In addition to the apron material which has been cut out in the previous lesson, each girl should provide her own spool of thread (number "Sixty" white thread will probably answer for all the work), a piece of cardboard 5 inches wide to use for marker, and pins to use in fastening the hem.

METHOD OF WORK.

As soon as the class meets, the girls should prepare a 5-inch measure of cardboard to guide them in turning the hems of the skirts of their aprons. They should make a half-inch notch in the measure for the first turn in the material. A one-half inch edge should be turned up from the bottom of the skirt, then a 5-inch hem turned, pinned, and basted carefully with uneven basting. The card board marker should be used for both measurements.

X

FIG. 15.-Gathering.

LESSON XIII. APRONS OR UNDERGARMENTS (Continued).

Gathering the skirt and stitching to the belt.

SUBJECT MATTER.

In gathering, the running stitch is employed. Small stitches are taken up on the needle with spaces twice as great between them. The top of the skirt should be divided into halves, and gathered with two long double threads, using fine stitches and placing them onequarter inch from the edge. The center of the belt and the center of the top of the skirt of the apron should be determined upon. The belt should be pinned to the wrong side of the apron at these points, and the fullness drawn up to fit (approximately one-half of the waist measure). The skirt and belt should be pinned, basted, and sewed together.

PRELIMINARY PLAN.

If the hems have been completed in the skirts, the girls are ready to gather the skirts and attach them to the belt. It will be well to have pins on hand to use in fastening the skirt and belt together.

METHOD OF WORK.

The teacher should first demonstrate the method of gathering and assign that portion of the lesson. When the skirts have all been gathered she should show the girls how to measure, pin, and baste the skirt to the belt.

FIG. 16.-Sewing on the belt of the apron. From Junior Circular No. 26, Agricultural Extension Department, Ames, Iowa.

LESSON XIV. APRONS OR UNDERGARMENTS (Continued).

Making the bib.

SUBJECT MATTER.

A 2-inch hem should be turned across one short end of the bib. This should be basted and hemmed.

The bottom of the bib should

be gathered, using the method employed for the top of the skirt, and leaving enough thread to adjust the gathers easily.

PRELIMINARY PLAN.

If the girls have completed the skirts and attached them to the belts, they are ready to make the bibs. They should be provided with a 2-inch marker for use in making the hems in the top of the bibs.

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METHOD OF WORK.

The teacher should guide the girls carefully in the making of the bibs, reviewing their knowledge of basting, hemming, and gathering.

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LESSON XV. APRONS OR UNDERGARMENTS (Continued).

Making the straps.

SUBJECT MATTER.

One end of one of the straps should be placed at the bottom of the bib. The side of the strap should be pinned, basted, and sewed to the right side of the bib with a running stitch. The other long side of the strap should then be turned in one-quarter of an inch and the ends turned in one-half of an inch. The strap should then be folded through the center for its entire length and the free side basted to the wrong side of the bib and hemmed down. The remaining edges of the strap should be overhanded together. The other strap should be sewed to the other side of the bib in the same way.

PRELIMINARY PLAN.

The bibs should have been completed before the girls report for this lesson.

METHOD OF WORK.

As soon as the girls report for the lesson, the teacher should explain the method of attaching the straps to the bib and tell them how to finish the straps. As they proceed with their work, she should supervise them carefully and assign the unfinished portion of the work for completion outside of the class.

LESSON XVI. APRONS OR UNDERGARMENTS (Continued).

Putting the bib and skirt on the belt.

SUBJECT MATTER.

The center of the bottom of the bib should be determined, and pinned to the upper edge of the belt, to which the skirt has already been attached. The belt should be fastened to the wrong side of the bib. The gathering string of the bib should be drawn up, leaving 2 inches of fullness on each side of the center. The bib should be pinned, basted, and sewed to the belt. The remaining long edges of the belt should be turned in one-fourth inch, and the ends onehalf inch. The edges of the other belt piece should be turned in the same way, and should be pinned over the belt to which the skirt and bib have been attached (with all the edges turned in), and basted carefully to keep the edges even. The skirt and bib should be hemmed to this upper belt, and all the remaining edges should be overhanded.

PRELIMINARY PLAN.

The bib and straps of the apron should be completed before the girls report for this lesson.

METHOD OF WORK.

The teacher should guide the girls carefully in the various steps necessary in fastening the bib to the belt and in completing the belt. If the hemming and overhanding is not completed during the class hour, they can be assigned for outside work.

LESSON XVII. METHODS OF FASTENING GARMENTS.

Sewing buttons on the aprons, petticoat, or other garment.
SUBJECT MATTER.

This lesson should teach neatness in dress through a consideration of the best methods of fastening garments. The position of the but

FIG. 18.-Sewing on buttons.

From Junior Circular No. 35, Agricultural Extension Department, Ames, Iowa.

ton is measured by drawing the right end of the band one inch over the left end. The location of the button should be marked with a pin on the left end of the band. A double thread is fastened on the right side of the band, drawn through one hole of the button, and back through the other, taking it through the band close to the first stitch. A pin should be inserted on top of the button under the first stitch, and left there until the button is firmly fastened in place; then removed. Before fastening the thread, it should be wrapped two or three times around the threads holding the button, between the button and the cloth, then fastened neatly on the wrong side with a few small stitches one on top of the other.

PRELIMINARY PLAN.

Each girl should come to the class with her apron as nearly completed as possible, and with three buttons to sew on it for fastening the belt and straps.

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