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To Cook Bacon.
Place thin slices of bacon (from which the rind has been removed) in a hot frying pan and pour off the fat as fast as it comes out. When the bacon is crisp, drain on paper. Keep hot. Or lay bacon on a rack in a baking pan and bake in a hot oven until crisp.
Wipe the chops with a damp cloth, sprinkle with salt and pepper, place in a hot frying pan, and cook slowly until tender and well browned on each side. Pour the fat out of the pan as fast as it is melted.
Wash apples and slice to the center, removing the core. Roll in flour if very juicy. After the chops have been removed from the pan, lay the apples in and cook till tender. Serve around the chops.
See Farmers' Bulletins No. 34, Meats: Composition and cooking; No. 391, Economical use of meat in the home.
METHOD OF WORK.
If the meat is to require two or three hours' cooking, arrange to have the lesson divided and given at two periods through the day. A half hour before opening the morning session or a portion of the morning or noon recess may be sufficient to put the meat on to cook and to prepare the vegetables. When the second class period is called, the vegetables should be added to the partially cooked meat and the dumplings made. It would be well to serve the completed dish at the lunch period. There should be as much discussion of the kinds of meat, their food value, and methods of cooking as time permits, but it may be necessary to complete these discussions at some other class periods.
Should it be possible for the teacher to give additional lessons on meat, it may be well to devote one lesson to the preparation and cooking of poultry, directions for which can be easily secured from reliable cookbooks.
LESSON XVI. BAKED PORK AND BEANS, OR BAKED COWPEAS CORNDODGERS.
Peas, beans, and lentils which are dried for market contain a high percentage of protein, carbohydrate, and mineral matter. They form an excellent substitute for meat and are much cheaper in price. Their digestion proceeds slowly, involving a large amount of work; so they are not desirable food for the sick, but are satisfactory for those who are well and active. The dried legumes must be soaked overnight in water, when cooked for a long time, to soften the cellulose and develop flavor.
It will be necessary to plan this lesson several days in advance if the beans are to be baked. As they will be prepared and put on to bake before the lesson period, the corndodgers can be made to serve with them.
2 cups fine white corn meal. Boiling water to moisten.
1 teaspoon fat.
1 teaspoon sugar.
2 or 3 tablespoons milk.
Pour boiling water over the meal so that it is all wet but not soft; add fat, sugar, salt, and milk; when cold add the eggs, yolks and whites beaten separately. The batter should drop easily from the spoon, but it should not be thin enough to pour nor stiff enough to require scraping out. It should be shaped in oval shapes on a pan that is well greased and hissing hot, and the oven should be as hot as possible. Bake until brown and puffy.
1 quart navy beans.
1 tablespoon salt.
3 tablespoons sugar.
Boston Baked Beans.
2 tablespoons molasses.
pound fat salt pork. Boiling water to cover.
Look over the beans and soak in cold water overnight.
In the morning drain, cover with fresh water, and heat slowly until skins will burst, but do not let beans become broken.
Scald one-half pound fat salt pork. Scrape the pork. Put a slice of pork in bottom of bean pot. Cut the remaining pork across top in strips just through the rind, and bury pork in beans, leaving rind exposed.
Add one cup boiling water to seasonings and pour over the beans. Cover with boiling water. Bake slowly, adding more water as necessary. Bake from six to eight hours, uncover at the last, so that water will evaporate and beans brown on top. Serves 12.
See Farmers' Bulletin No. 256, The preparation of vegetables for the table.
Cook 1 quart of large white cowpeas slowly in water until they begin to soften. This will require five or six hours. Put them into a bean pot, add one-half pound of salt pork and one tablespoonful of molasses. Cover with water and bake slowly six or seven hours. It is well to have the pot covered except during the last hour. See Farmers' Bulletin No. 559, Use of corn, kafir, and cowpeas in the home.
METHOD OF WORK.
Have the beans washed and put to soak the night before the lesson is to be given. Assign to one of the girls the task of putting them on to boil early the next morning. Call the class together for a few moments when the beans are ready to put in to bake. Assign one of the girls to attend to the fire and the oven. Let the beans bake all
day. If the lesson is to be given late in the afternoon, the beans may be ready to serve, or the cooking may be continued the second day and the lesson completed then. It would be well to serve the dish at the lunch period. Have the corndodgers prepared to serve with the baked beans or cowpeas.
LESSON XVII. BUTTER CAKES-PLAIN
Cakes. Cakes made with fat resemble other batters, except that the fat, sugar, and eggs are usually larger in amount and the texture of the baked batter is much finer and more tender.
When preparing cake, first get the pans ready, greasing them with the same kind of fat that is to be used in the mixture, or sprinkle with flour, or line with greased paper. Make sure that the oven is at the proper temperature. For a small cake the oven should be hot enough to brown a small piece of unglazed paper or a tablespoon of flour in three minutes. Bake a small cake 20 to 30 minutes. When done, the cake will shrink from the sides of the pan; the crust will spring back when touched with the finger; the loud ticking sound will cease; a needle or straw will come out clean if the cake is pierced, and the crust will be nicely browned. When the cake is removed from the oven, let it stand in the pan about three minutes, then loosen and turn out gently. Do not handle while hot. Keep in a clean, ventilated tin box in a cool, dry place.
Cocoa.-Chocolate and cocoa are prepared from the bean of a tropical tree. This bean is rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate, mineral matter, and a stimulant called theobromine. The seeds are cleaned, milled, and crushed into a paste in the preparation of chocolate. In the preparation of cocoa much of the fat is removed and the cocoa is packed for market in the form of a fine powder. Cocoa is more easy of digestion than chocolate, because it is less rich. Though the amount of cocoa used in a cup of the beverage is not large, when prepared with milk it serves as a nutritious food. It is slightly stimulating as well, because of the theobromine present and because it is served hot.
Coffee and Tea.-Coffee and tea have no food value when prepared as a beverage. They contain stimulating properties that are harmful to the body if taken in large quantities, hence they should be used with discretion. They should never be given to children or to those troubled with indigestion. If carelessly prepared, both coffee and tea may be decidedly harmful to the body. Coffee should not be boiled for more than eight minutes. Tea should never be permitted to boil. Freshly boiling water should be poured on the res and left for three minutes. It should then be strained off
erving and kept hot until used.
It will be well to plan to give the lesson on some special occasion, as it is well adapted to serve for the refreshments for a mother's club or a little class party.
Cream butter, add sugar gradually, mix well. Add well-beaten yolks of eggs, then flour and baking powder alternately with the milk. Then add flavoring and cut and fold in whites of eggs carefully. Turn into buttered pans and bake at once in a moder
ately hot oven.
For chocolate cake 2 ounces of melted chocolate may be added after yolks of eggs. Serves 16 to 20.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, then well-beaten egg. Add molasses. Sift all dry ingredients together, and add alternately with milk. Bake in a buttered tin or in gem pans in a moderate oven 25 or 35 minutes. Serves 8 to 10.
Mix the cocoa and sugar with the water and boil 10 minutes. Stir into the hot milk and then cook in double boiler one-half hour.
Serves 8 to 10.
1 teaspoon green or 2 teaspoons black
2 cups boiling water (freshly boil-
Scald teapot, put the tea in the teapot and pour boiling water over it; steep 3 minutes, strain, and serve. Serves 4.
Use two tablespoons of ground coffee for each cup of boiling water that is to be used. Put the coffee in the coffee pot and add enough cold water to moisten the coffee and make it stick together, about one teaspoon of water to each tablespoon of coffee. Pour the boiling water over the coffee and boil it for 3 minutes. Place it where it will keep hot, but not boil, for 5 minutes or more, and then serve. (If a small amount of egg white and shell is mixed with the coffee grounds and cold water it will aid in settling the coffee.)
1 The recipes for coffee and tea are given so that the teacher can discuss their preparation with the girls and compare their value with the value of cocoa. If coffee and tea are both commonly used in the homes, it may be well to have the girls prepare them in the class, to be sure that they appreciate the importance of proper cooking.
METHOD OF WORK.
Begin the lesson period with a discussion of the methods of preparing cakes and put the cake in the oven as soon as possible. While it is baking prepare the cocoa. If the cocoa is not to be served for
some time, it can be kept hot or reheated over hot water.
LESSON XVIII. YEAST BREAD.
Yeast bread is made light by the presence of a gas produced by the growth of yeast in the sponge or dough. Yeast is a microscopic plant which grows in a moist, warm temperature and feeds on starchy materials such as are present in wheat. A portion of the starch is converted into sugar (thus developing new and pleasant flavors), and some is still further changed, giving off the gas upon which the lightness of the bread depends. If the yeast is allowed to grow too long a time or the temperature is very hot, a souring of the dough may result. This souring can be prevented by kneading the dough thoroughly as soon as it has risen well or doubled in bulk or by putting it in a very hot oven to bake when it has reached this stage. If the dough becomes chilled, the yeast will not grow so well, and if the temperature of the dough should become hot the activities of the yeast would become arrested. A boiling temperature will destroy the growth of the yeast.
Yeast develops in a natural state on the hops and other plants. It is prepared for market in the form of dry or moist cakes. The moist cakes must be kept very cold. For home use a liquid yeast is often prepared from the dry cakes. This has the advantage of being more active.
When the yeast has been added to a batter it is spoken of as a sponge. When the batter has had enough flour added so that it can be handled it is called a dough. If the bread is to be made in a few hours, the yeast is made up at once into a dough. If it is to stand overnight, a sponge is often started first. More yeast is required for quick rising. Under ordinary circumstances one yeast cake is sufficient for 1 quart of liquid. Thorough kneading and baking are both essential to the success of the bread.
Arrange to have the class meet the afternoon before to start the sponge and come early in the morning to care for the dough. Begin the study of flour, yeast, and bread in a previous class period, correlating the work with geography, nature study, or some other subject. Either white or whole-wheat flour may be used for the breads.