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15. Matthiæ says, that the Greek participle is used “ in interrogatory and relative propositions, which in Latin can only happen in some cases :" and gives the following instances of its force in such propositions.

1. To express a reason, "because."

2. A restriction, "although."
3. Means, “ how.”

Give examples, and translate these into Latin: or give instances of equivalent construction in Latin.

16. Translate

Καὶ δὴ καὶ περὶ τῶν δικαίων καὶ ἀδίκων καὶ αἰσχρῶν καὶ καλῶν καὶ ἀγαθῶν, καὶ κακῶν (ἔλεγετο,) περὶ ὧν νῦν ἡμῖν ἐστὶν ἡ βουλή, πότερον τῇ τῶν πολλῶν δοξῇ δεῖ ἡμᾶς ἕπεσθαι καὶ φοβεῖσθαι αὐτὴν, ἢ τῇ τοῦ ἑνός, εἴ τίς ἐστιν ἐπαΐων, ὃν δεῖ καὶ αἰσχύνεσθαι καὶ φοβεῖσθαι μᾶλλον ἢ ξύμπαντας τοὺς ἄλλους· ᾧ εἰ μὴ ἀκολουθήσομεν, διαφθεροῦμεν ἐκεῖνο καὶ λωβησόμεθα, ὃ τῷ μὲν δικαίῳ βέλτιον ἐγίγνετο, τῷ δὲ ἀδίκῳ ἀπώλλυτο.” Some propose ἐγένετο...ἀπώλετο. Explain the force of the imperfect tense.

17. Οὐκ αὐτοὺς εἰκὸς τὸν ἐκεῖ πόλεμον μήπω βεβαίως καταλελυμένους ἐπ ̓ ἄλλον πόλεμον οὐκ ἐλάσσω ἕκοντας ἐλθεῖν. What is the grammatical peculiarity of this passage? Can you give parallel instances?

18. Δεῖ δὴ ὑμῖν τὴν ἐμὴν πλάνην ἐπιδεῖξαι, ὥσπερ πόνους τινὰς πονοῦντος, ἵνα μοι καὶ ἀνέλεγκτος ἡ μαντεία γένοιτο. What different readings have been proposed? Explain the different uses of the words μαντεῖον, μαντεία, and χρησμός.

19. Explain the various uses of the following words and phrases in the Greek orators:

Διοίκησις. ἐγκαλεῖν. τρισχιλίας ἐγκαλέσας ἀργυρίου δραχμάς. ἀποδίδοναι ἀπολογίαν. εἰσποίειν. καὶ μὴ τῷ τετελευτηκότι, τῷ αὐτῷ εἰσποιητῷ ὄντι, υἷον εἰσποιεῖν, ἐπ ̓ ἀποστερήσει τῶν ἡμετέρων. ἐπίσκηψις. παρανόμων γράφη. ἐξαιτεῖσθαι τὰς γραφὰς τῶν παρανό

μων.

20. What was the συνέδριον at Athens i

21. Explain the following phrases :

Οὐδενὸς ἁμαρτεῖν δίκαιός ἐστιν, οἷς οἱ τοιοῦτοι κολάζονται.
Δικαιότερός ἐστι φονεὺς εἶναι.

̓Απολύειν μᾶλλον ἢ καταλαμβάνειν δίκαιοί ἐστε.

22. Explain the following passage:

οἱ δ ̓ ἀροτῆρες

ἤρεικον χθόνα δῖαν, ἐπιστολάδην δὲ χιτῶνας
ἐστάλατ ̓. αὐτὰρ ἔην βαθὺ λήϊον· οἵγε μὲν ἤμων
αἰχμῇς ὀξείῃσι κορυνιόεντα πέτηλα,

βριθόμενα σταχύων, ὡσεὶ Δημήτερος ἀκτήν.
οἱ δ ̓ ἄρ ̓ ἐν ἑλλεδανοῖσι δέον, καὶ ἔπιπλον ἀλωήν·
οἱ δ ̓ ἐτρύγων οἴνας, δρεπάνας ἐν χερσὶν ἔχοντες·
οἱ δ ̓ αὖτ ̓ ἐς ταλάρους ἐφόρευν ὑπὸ τρυγητήρων
λευκοὺς καὶ μέλανας βότρυας, [μεγάλων ἀπὸ ὄρχων,
βριθομένων φύλλοισι καὶ ἀργυρέῃς ἑλίκεσσιν.

οἱ δ ̓ αὖτ ̓ ἐς ταλάρους ἐφόρευν.] παρὰ δέ σφισιν ὄρχος
χρύσεος ἦν, (κλυτὰ ἔργα περίφρονος Ηφαίστοιο)
σειόμενος φύλλοισι καὶ ἀργυρέῃσι κάμαξι.

[Dean Ireland's Scholarship, 1841.]

Latin Passages and Questions.

1. Translate this passage:

Paullus in medio foro basilicam jam pæne texuit iisdem antiquis columnis: illam autem, quam locavit, facit magnificentissimam. quid quæris? nihil gratius illo monumento, nihil gloriosius. itaque Cæsaris amici (me dico et Oppium: dirumparis licet:) in monumentum illud, quod tu tollere laudibus solebas, ut forum laxaremus, et usque ad atrium Libertatis explicaremus, contemsimus sexcenties H-S. cum privatis non poterat transigi minore pecunia. efficiemus rem gloriosissimam. nam in campo Martio Septa tributis comitiis marmorea sumus et tecta facturi; eaque cingemus excelsa porticu; ut mille passuum conficiatur. simul adjungetur huic operi villa etiam publica. Dices, quid mihi hoc monumentum proderit? quid? celabo te res Romanas? non enim te puto de lustro, quod jam desperatum est, aut de judiciis, quæ lege Coctia fiant, quærere.

Explain "Basilica." "Atrium Libertatis." "Septa." "Villa publica." "Lex Coctia."

2. Translate this passage:

Quo quidem in genere familiaris noster M. Bucculejus, homo neque meo judicio stultus, et suo valde sapiens, et a juris studio non abhorrens, simili in re quodam modo nuper erravit. Nam cum ædes L. Fufio venderet, in mancipio lumina, uti tum essent, ita recepit. Fusius autem, simulatque ædificari cœptum est in quadam parte urbis, quæ modo ex illis ædibus conspici posset, egit statim cum Bucculeio, quod, cuicumque particulæ cæli officeretur, quamvis esset procul, mutari lumina putabat.

3. Translate and explain this passage:

Neque vos pæon, aut heroicus ille conturbet: ipsi occurrent orationi: ipsi, inquam, se offerent, et respondebunt non vocati. Consuetudo modo sit illa scribendi atque dicendi ut sententiæ verbis finiantur, eorumque verborum junctio nascatur a proceris numeris ac liberis: maxime

heroo, et pæone priore, aut cretico, sed varie distincteque confidat. Notatur enim maxime similitudo in conquiescendo: et, si primi et postremi illi pedes sunt hac ratione servati, medii possunt latere, modo ne circuitus ipse verborum sit aut brevior quam aures expectent: aut longior, quam vires atque anima patiatur. Clausulas autem diligentius etiam servandas esse arbitror, quam superiora, .quod in his maxime perfectio atque absolutio judicatur : nam versus æque prima, et media, et extrema pars attenditur: qui debilitatur, in quacunque sit parte titubatum. Duo enim aut tres sunt fere extremi servandi et notandi pedes, si modo non breviora et præcisa erunt superiora, quos aut chorios, aut heroos, aut alternos esse oportebit ; aut in pæone illo posteriore, quem Aristoteles probat, aut ei pari cretico.

[blocks in formation]

Neque quadruplari me volo: neque enim decet
Sine meo periculo ire aliena ereptum bona;

Neque illi, qui faciunt, mihi placent: plane loquor.
Nam publicæ rei caussa qui non id facit
Magis, quam sui quæsti, animus haud induci potest
Eum et fidelem, et civem esse, et virum bonum.
Sed legirupam quidem, ni duit in publicum
Dimidium, atque etiam mea lege ascribitor,
Ubi quadruplator quoipiam injexit manum,
Tantidem ille illi rursus injiciat manum,
Ut æqua parte prodeant ad Treisviros.
Correct lines 4 and 5.

5. Explain the term Actio, as applicable to the judicial proceedings of the Romans.

6. Explain the rights and privileges of the two classes of Romans," Optimo jure cives" and "Non optimo jure

cives."

7. State briefly the periods of the several steps by which the right of Roman citizenship was gradually extended.

8. Translate and explain

9.

Omnis in unguem

Arboribus positis secto via limite quadret.

In quo

Donasti Lupe rus sub urbe nobis,
Sed rus est mihi majus in fenestra.
Rus hoc dicere, rus potes vocare?
ruta facit nemus Dianæ,
Argutæ tegit ala quod cicada,
Quod formica die comedit uno,
Clausæ cui folium rosæ corona est :
In quo non magis invenitur herba
Quam costi folium, piperve crudum :
In quo nec cucumis jacere rectus,
Nec serpens habitare tota posset.
Erucam male pascit hortus unam,
Consumpto moritur culex salicto,
Et talpa est mihi fossor, atque arator,
Non boletus hiare, non mariscæ
Ridere, aut violæ patere possunt.
Fines mus populatur, et colono
Tanquam sus Caledonius timetur.
Vix implet cochleam peracta messis,
Et mustum nuce condimus picata.

Translate these lines: into English verse, if you please.

10.

Genio suo qui ubi sacrificat,

Ad rem divinam quibus opus est samiis vasis utitur,
Ne ipse Genius subripiat.

Explain the popular and the poetical belief in the Genius, Lares, Penates. Give an account of the difference between the religious opinions of the Greeks and those of the Romans respecting inferior gods or intermediate supernatural beings. From what sources did the latter derive their ideas on this subject?

11. Compare the Latin and Greek verb with each other.

12. The use of "suus," as distinguished from ejus, ipsius, &c. Give instances.

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