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A STUDY IN THE EVOLUTION OF DEMOCRACY

AND DIRECT LEGISLATION

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BY

CHARLES SUMNER LOBINGIER, PH.D., LL.M.

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JUDGE OF THE COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS; COMMISSIONER TO REVISE AND EDIT
PHILIPPINE CODES; MEMBER NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF COMMISSIONERS ON UNIFORM
LAWS;

MEMBER OF THE BAR OF THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT
SOMETIME MEMBER NEBRASKA SUPREME COURT (COMMISSION); PROFESSOR OF LAW

IN THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA

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Lex est quod populus jubet atque constituit. - Gaius (ca. 150).

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Leges nulla alia causa nos tenent quam judicio populi receptae sunt.

- ULPIAN (ca. 215).

Tum demum humanae legis habent vim suam, sum fuerint non modo institutae approbatione communitatis. — GRATIAN (ca. 1150).

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“ Every law which the people in person have not ratified is invalid; it is not a law.” — ROUSSEAU (1762).

“ The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government."

WASHINGTON (Farewell Address, 1796).

“ The American Revolution broke out, and the doctrine of the sovereignty of the people came out of the townships and took possession of the state ...; it became the law of laws.” — DE TOCQUEVILLE (1835).

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