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Puis soudain comme foudre il deschargea sa dextre,
Mais en vain : car Pollux d'une cautelle adextre
A chef baissé coula sous luy si finement

Que le bras ne toucha que le dos seulement.

ostendit dextram insurgens Entellus et alte
extulit; ille ictum venientem a vertice velox
prævidit celerique elapsus corpore cessit ;
Entellus viris in ventum effudit... 1

Amycus falls with a great noise, as falls a huge pine tree:

Il fist en trebuchant un grand bruit au rivage,
Non autrement qu'un Pin, quand le venteux orage
Deracine sa souche, et le fait trebucher

Tout d'un coup lourdement du feste d'un rocher :
Ce grand Pin en tombant, d'une longue traverse
Avecques un grand bruit tous les buissons renverse.

ipse gravis graviterque ad terram pondere vasto
concidit, ut quondam cava concidit aut Erymantho
aut Ida in magna radicibus eruta pinus 2.

In the Dialectique of Pierre de La Ramée 3 there are translations by Ronsard of brief selections from a number of classic authors among whom Virgil naturally has a prominent place. The first translation from Virgil is of the passage of the Eneid in which sailors are said to have made offerings to the gods who brought them safely to port :

Là de fortune estoit un olivier sauvage,
Bois jadis venerable, où sauvez de naufrage
Les mariniers souloyent leurs offrandes ficher,
Et leurs habitz voüez au Dieu Faune attacher 4.

Other translations are :

The words of Menalcas and Damoetas describing cups:

1. Lau., IV, 292; Æn., V, 443-446.

2. Lau., IV, 292; Æn., V, 447-449.

3. Paris, A. Wechel, 1555. Ronsard's name is printed on the margin either at the end of the first verse, at the end of a verse in the middle of the citation, or at the end of the last verse.

4. Lau., VI, 396 ; En., XII, 766-769.

Je mettray deux hanaps, qu'Alcimede au burin
A gravez au fouteau un ouvrage divin...

Ce mesme Alcimedon d'un ouvrage divin
Deux hanaps au fouteau m'a gravez au burin 1.

The power of the winds rushing over the seas :

Tout aplat sur la mer les ventz couchez se sont,
Toute la renversant du hault jusqu'au profond,
L'Est, ensemble, le Sud, l'Ouest impetueux :

Et font rouller au bort les grandz flots escumeux 2.

The instructions given by Anchises to Æneas in the underworld:

Aie tousjours souvenance, ô Romain,

De gouverner les peuples soubz ta main
Par un tel art : en paix faire des loix,
Les glorieux vaincre par le harnois,
Et aux vaincus soumis à ta puissance
User benin, d'une doulce clemence 3.

Rome's greatness to be:

Ceste Rome fameuse,

Laquelle esgallera au grand tour spacieux
Du monde son empire et son courage aux cieux 4.

The riddles asked by Damoetas and Menalcas :

Dy moy en quelle terre on ne voit seulement
Que trois brasses de ciel, et me seras vrayment
Un certain Apollon en choses difficile...
Dy moy en quelle terre on voit naistre les fleurs
Ayantz le nom des roys escript sur leurs couleurs,
Et tu auras tout seul Phyllis, la belle fille 5.

Corydon's warning to Alexis :

O bel enfant, ne te fie

Par trop en ta belle couleur,

1 Lau., VI, 397; Ec., III, 36-37, 43-44.

2. Lau., VI, 397; Æn., I, 84-86.

3. Lau., VI, 398; Æn., VI, 851-853.

4. Lau., VI, 400; En., VI, 781-782.

5. Lau., VI, 400-401; Ec., III, 104-107.

Souvent on cueil' la noire fleur,
Et la blanche chét fanie 1.

The beginning of the second Georgic:

Jusqu'à ces vers icy nous avons par nos chantz
Dict les astres du ciel et le labeur des champs :
Or Bacchus je te chante, et les saulvages plantes,
Et tardement aussi les olives naisçantes 2.

The fact that these passages, most of which may be found incorporated in various poems of Ronsard, are so widely scattered throughout Virgil is further proof that Ronsard was familiar with all parts of Virgil.

1. Lau., VI, 402; Ec., II, 17-18.

2. Lau., VI, 404; Geor., II, 1-3.

STORER

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IV

THE EGLO GUES

1

The section of the 1584 edition of Ronsard's works which contains the eclogues 1 consists of a dedicatory poem to the Prince, François, Duke of Anjou; five eclogues, the first of which is the Bergerie; a chant pastoral; and the poem, Le Cyclope amoureux. The dedication begins with lines which recall the end of the fourth Georgic:

Tandis que la vaillance, ame d'un bon courage,
Vous pousse à regaigner l'ancien heritage
Des Princes vos ayeuls, et qu'ami du harnois
Vous marquez plus avant les bornes des François,
Aimant mieux la sueur, la poudre et la prouësse,
Que roüiller au Plessis vos beaux ans de paresse :
Paris me tient ici, où par l'impression

J'envoye mes enfans en toute nation

Conceus de mon esprit par une ardente verve 2,

In the sources of the eclogues proper, Virgil occupies a very important position. But since Ronsard knew the neolatinist and Italian pastoral poets, who were imitators of Virgil, not to mention Theocritus, Virgil's own model, it is not always possible to say when he is borrowing directly from Virgil. It can be said, however, that Ronsard knew

1. Lau., III, 351-457. There are many other pastoral poems in Ronsard, the Virgilian elements of which are considered elsewhere in this article. 2. Lau., III, 353; Geor., IV, 559-566.

Virgil first and more thoroughly than the others 1, that he admired him more, and that when he was imitating the others he knew exactly how much of Virgil he was imitating indirectly. Virgil under the name of Tityre, is mentioned oftener in the Eclogues than any other pastoral poet :

J'ay veu le fleuve d'Arne et le Mince cornu,
Qui est par le berceau de Tityre cognu,
Où le Duc Mantouan ennemy de tout vice
Aux peuples ses sujets administre Justice 2.

There is scarcely a page of Ronsard's eclogues which does not have some idea or expression corresponding to one in . Virgil, but since Ronsard's first eclogue has more lines than all ten of Virgil's together, there is of necessity much development of ideas not found in Virgil and also a great repetition of details which are in Virgil. The Georgics, too, are frequently used. As has been said before, Virgil's Eclogues are among those poems which in the Défense et Illustration are specifically named to be used as models. Aside from the translations of passages of the Eclogues quoted above from the Dialectique of la Ramée, Ronsard himself refers directly to them in a letter to Antoine de Baïf where a line of the fifth Eclogue is quoted 3.

The Bergerie, first published in 1565, is a dramatic pastoral, the principal characters of which are members of the royal family under disguised names. The setting is in a cave like the fifth Eclogue 4. After the various, shepherds and shepherdesses have offered stakes for a song contest, Orleantin sings of the sorrow and grief attendant upon the death of the prince, there are bloody wars, the sun refuses to

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1. As mentioned above (p. 25) Ronsard probably imitated the Eclogues at an early age.

2. Lau., III, 385. Other references to Tityre are in Lau., III, 381, 386, 406, 409, 420, 434. Virgil speaks of himself as Tityrus in Eclogue I and in Geor., IV, 566 mentions his eclogues as the songs of Tityrus.

3. Lau., VII, 132; Ec., V, 64.

4. Ec., V, 6, 19.

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