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Jalousie to attack Clymene (En., VII, 341-355). The nurse bears Clymene's letter to Francus who rejects it. Clymene denounces him (Æn., IV, 305-330) and joining a Bacchic revelry (En., VII, 385-405) dashes headlong into the sea.

Book IV. While Dicée hesitates to turn against his guest (Æn., VII, 586-600), Francus courts Hyante. He has a rendezvous with her near Hecate's temple, where he promises to mairy her if she will reveal his future to him, She agrees and gives him instructions for the sacrifices (En., VI, 133-148). Near a frightful cave (En., VI, 237-242) she works herself into a divine frenzy (Æn., VI, 46-51, 77-80, 257-263) and begins the prophecy of Francus' deeds. She describes the process of metempsychosis (Æn., VI, 724-751) which takes place in the lower world and to the frightened Francus names his descendants (En., VI, 756-886) as they appear in the sulphur and flame at the mouth of the cave.

It will be noted from the summary that the rôle of the gods is practically the same as in the Eneid, with the exception of Neptune the same deities are friendly and the same hostile. They assume human forms, appear in dreams, or send messengers to the human beings in whom they are interested. The heroes of both epics act in accordance with fate and not with their own volition. But the summary affords no idea of the stylistic similarities. There is an almost countless number of epithets, similes, paraphrases, metaphors, examples of metonymy, synecdoche, hyperboles, and alliteration like those in Virgil 1. It is these figures together with the argument which make it possible to state that the Franciade owes more to Virgil than to any other poet.

1. These figures are discussed in detail by Lange.

VI

REMINISCENCES

There are numerous passages in Ronsard parallels for which may be found in Virgil, but which may not always with certainty be ascribed to borrowing from Virgil. However, when one considers Ronsard's thorough and intimate knowledge of Virgil and his very great admiration for him and at the same time remembers that the phraseology is often very similar in both poets, the passages will be seen to deserve mention and at times quotation in this article. They assuredly are reminiscences of Virgil and whether they represent direct imitation on the part of Ronsard or not, they are identical ideas and subject matter employed by both poets.

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Of the almost unlimited number of classical allusions in Ronsard, only those are mentioned here which are combined with similar descriptive clauses or phrases in Virgil : Mad Coroebus, Lau., I, 5; En., II, 341, 386, 407. Amphrysus river, Lau., VI, 124; Geor., III, 2.

The punishment of the Locrois (= Ajax), Lau., I, 49; En, I, 41.

Andromache at Buthrotum, Lau., II, 83; Æn., III, 293 ff. Pentheus' seeing two suns, Lau., VI, 123; Æn., IV, 469-473.

Hippolitus' return to the upper world, Lau., II, 175; En., VII, 764-773.

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Tritonienne Pallas, Lau., II, 262; Æn., II, 171 and 226. Sailors make vows to Glaucus and Melicerta, Lau., II, 218; Geor., I, 436-437.

Orpheus and Eurydice and the latter's death caused by a snake, Lau., I, 37; Geor., IV, 457-459.

Orpheus' grief, Lau., I, 361-362; Geor., IV, 507-510, 522. Like Orpheus in a long white robe, Lau., V, 261; Æn., VI,

645.

Discord and Bellona on the battlefield stirring up strife, Lau., VII, 468; V, 202; Æn., VIII, 700-703 :

Au milieu des soldats la sanglante Bellonne
D'un fer rouillé portraite horriblement felonne
Erroit avec Discorde, et d'un foüet sonnant
Alloit de ses guerriers les cœurs époinçonnant.

...

sævit medio in certamine Mavors

cælatus ferro, tristesque ex æthere Diræ,

et scissa gaudens vadit Discordia palla,

quam cum sanguineo sequitur Bellona flagello 1.

Taygetian hounds on Mænalus, Lau., V, 38; Geor., III,

42-45.

Like Orestes driven by the Furies, Lau., V, 344; Æn., III, 331.

The Sibyl's words on leaves, Lau., VI, 254; Æn., III, 444-446.

The cruelty of the Myrmidons and the Dolopians, Lau., I, 4; Æn., II, 7.

Phoebus wishes the name of the author on the page, Lau., II, 158; VI, 96; Ec., VI, 11-12.

Phœbus' laurel which retains a song by heart, Lau., VI, 98; Ec., VI, 82-83.

Renommée, or Fame, the messenger of the false and the true, Lau., I, 9; IV, 199; VI, 415; En., IV, 188.

1. Lau., VII, 468; En., VIII, 700-703.

Various descriptions of Fame, Renommée, or Opinion, Lau., II, 248; III, 188, 217, 255-256, 509; IV, 218; V, 97, 260, 419, 393,; Æn., IV, 173-190, 666; VII, 512-514, 519-521.

Sur les haut des citez une femme debout,

Qui voit tout qui oyt tout et qui declare tout.
Elle a cent yeux au front cent oreilles en teste :
Dans les voutes du Ciel son visage elle arreste,
Et de ses pieds en terre elle presse les monts,
Une trompette enflant de ses larges poumons.
Je voy le peuple à foulle acourir aupres d'elle.

... sedet custos aut summi culmine tecti,...

monstrum horrendum, ingens, cui, quot sunt corpore plumæ,
tot vigiles oculi subter...

tot linguæ, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit, auris...
ingrediturque solo et caput inter nubila condit.

canit signum cornuque recurvo.....

concurrunt undique.....

indomiti agricolæ 1.

Cybele or the Berecynthian mother in her chariot pulled by lions, Lau., V, 105; II, 236; Æn., III, 111-113; VI, 784787.

Mere des Dieux ancienne
Berecynthe Phrygienne,
A qui cent Prestres ridez
Font avecques cent Menades
Au son du buis, des gambades
Au haut des sommets des Idez :

Laisse laisse ta couronne,

Que mainte tour environne,

Et ton mystere Orgien,

Et plus à ton char n'attache
Tes grands lions, et te cache
Dans ton antre Phrygien 2.

A crop of soldiers and lances springs up, Lau., I, 29; III, 252; V, 432; Geor., II, 142.

Deucalion's tossing of the stones to start the human race

1. Lau., III, 188; Æn., IV, 186, 181-183. 177; VII, 513, 520-521. 2. Lau., II, 236-237.

and Nature's laws decreed at that time, Lau., I, 137; II, 289, 413; III, 344; VI, 133; Geor., I, 60-63; Ec., VI, 41.

Telles loix fit Dame Nature guide,

Lors que par-sur le dos

Pyrrhe sema dedans le monde vuide

De sa mere les os.

... has leges æternaque fœdera certis

imposuit natura locis, quo tempore primum

Deucalion vacuum lapides iactavit in orbem 1.

Sleep, the brother of Death, Lau., II, 324; III, 335; Æn., VI, 278.

Sleep and its manner of working, Lau., II, 324; Æn., V, 854-856.

Somme, le repos du monde,

Si d'un pavot plein de l'onde
Du grand fleuve oblivieux

Tu veux arrouser mes yeux...

deus ramum Lethæo rore madentem

vique soporatum Stygia super utraque quassat.
tempora,..... 2

The Cretan dictamnus as the panacea, Lau., II, 408; Æn., XII, 412.

The Chalcideans who founded a colony at Cumæ, the home of the Siren, Lau., IV, 236; Æn., VI, 2 and 17.

Salmoneus who tried to imitate Jupiter's lightning, Lau., V, 31; VII, 431; Æn., VI, 585-586.

Mercury's wand which awakes and puts to sleep, Lau., VI, 120; Æn., IV, 242-244.

Mercury, the messenger from Jupiter to the people on earth, Lau., VI, 121; Æn., I, 297; IV, 238.

Mercury on wings flies to earth like a bird, Lau., III, 495; IV, 239; Æn., IV, 253-255.

Trees favored by various gods, Lau., I, 35, 154, 299; II, 339; Ec., VII, 61-64; Geor., I, 18; En., V, 72.

1. Lau., II, 289; Geor., I, 60-62.

2. Lau., II, 324; Æn., V, 854-856. Cf. also IX, 436.

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