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brains are‘often much larger, and always ‘of a form different frein real
brains, and that they are merely bony excrescences formed in the slut I. This discovery is important
to the Professor’s physiognomical system, as he makes the brain not only the seat of mind, but of all the moral sentiments and alfections. It is not the viscera, but the brain, in which feeling exists; and, al~ though all languages have the expression “ a nod heart,” feeling is in the head. 8 ame manifets itself by the skin of the face, yet we never say that shame exists in'the skin; sorrow, by tears, yet we never suppose its seat to be in the lachrymal glands; and so of all the other affections, the effects of which are produced by sympathy ; consequently the brain is t e seat of both intellect and moral feelings. Dr. S. then refuted the common errors of artists, respecting the proportions of»the head; proved that size furnishes no rule, as elephants have larger brains than men; that Camper’s facial angle is erro-neous ;' and that women, having generally less powers of reason and more feeling, have also less brain in front and more behind than men. Dr. S. then' explained the phenomena of Sleep: when all the organs are at perfect rest, then is complete sleep; when only a part, then dreaming takes place; somnambulism occurs when more ofthe organs are awake, but not suflicient to‘give a will to the person, who sometimes can see and hear as well as walk. Dreams are most common in the morning ~when all the organs have had some repose. ‘Visions are occasioned by transferring internal sensations to external objects; this practice, if permanent, becomes actual disease, real insanity. This diseased state, when Ulc- patient is rational on every subject but one, proves the plurality of the organs, and at the same time the necessity of them all to make a perfectly rational being. Here Dr. 5. related a number of cases illustrative of his general principle.
Lect. 11. This lecture was chiefly ~ anatomical, and the lecturer demonstrated, even to those but little versed in such researches, the errors of nearly all preceding anatomists, when dissecting the brain. The professional gentlemen present (being all
the best anatdmists and most distinguished physicians in the metropolis) admitted thejustness and originality of the Professor’s observations. The error of dissectors, who have hitherto made sections of the brain, instead of tracing every organ through all its ramifications, the same as in other parts of the body, appears e‘xtraordinary. No inferences, said Dr. S. can be drawn from partial sections of the living brain, as the animal is thereby injured and cannot evince its natural functions. No general or- gans of feeling and sensation can be indicated; yet the functions of the brain and the signs ofthe disposition of the mind are the same. Every thing in nature is powerful in proportion to its mass; the more considerable the nerve, the more energetic the function. But we must distinguish betWeen functions and their conditions, as they may be active or pas sive; temperament adds to energy, exercise improves the faculties, consequently the general principles of judging are very compound and com. plex. We must always observe individuals of the same species, and also the same individual. All the organs may be discovdred by the functions, and pointed out by the external characters. Skulls too large or too small, indicate disease or idiotisin. The size of the antique not found in nature. The configurations of the skull are solely to be relied on; but bony projections, such as those at the back of the head, are not to be confounded with organic developements, which consist of little elevations'on the different parts of the cranium. Every man has all the organs, but some with one more de
-Ve|oped than another, according to
the peculiar bias of mind. In ex-J' amining a skull, notice the most prominent parts, if there he only one prominence or roundish elevation, it is easily discovered; if many, greater attention is necessary; according as the convolutions of the brain are transverse or lateral, so are the elevations on the skull; and its most elevated point, when placed in different positions, is always the centre of the organ. Great elevations on the skull always indicate some great bias of
the mind. Let-t. lll. Dr. 5. observed, that there'are thrce states to which this physimvnomical system cannot be rigorouil applied: infancy, disease, and 0 age; in children, the brain
rows like the other parts of the
ody; in disease, such as in chronic insanity or in hydrocephalus, its form is changed by the water interposing in the ventricles; and in old age the brain is partially absorbed. He exhibited a variety of skulls to prove that insane persons have the skull generally thicker and denser than sane people; suicides have often the same character; the latter is sometimes a disease. and occasionally an epidemic. in Austria last year only 38 suicides existed, in Paris there were more every month. The Lecturer then proceeded to detail the process by which the bone of the sknl is formed, its radiations from a centre, dzc. With respect to the cause of c'anial configurations, it was foreign to his inquiry: it is immaterial to the physio nomist whether these forms be pro uced by the muscles, brain, &c. it is enough that he knows such and such appearances are always accompanied by such and such characters of mind. It is, however, certain that the muscles cannot produce these configurations of the skull, as they are found in children before birth, and consequently before the muscles come into action. Nor can mechanical pressure produce the peculiar configuration in the skulls of Caribs, as reported by travellers: the figure of the skull is admirath contrived to resist all external injuries, and it would require a very great force to modulate into any other form than that of nature. The Leeturer here related the circumstances which led to the discovery of this new system. Dr. Gall, while he followed the opinions of the schools, laboured in vain to acquire any p0sitive knowledve; there is no organ of instinct, an .the language of philosophers respecting memory, judgment, imagination, passions, and atfections, is very erroneous. His greatest difficulty was to ascertain the real faculties of the human mind: he hegan by studying man, as a botanist does a new plant, or a naturalist a new animal; he observed men’s ac_ tions, and compared them with their cerebral organization; he examined an individual who excelled in some one thing only, and endeavoured to trace
the relation between his peculiar character and some prominent part of his head. Having continued his observations on an immense number of heads, be ascertained that the same external configuration of the head is uniformly accompanied by sameness of character. He next directed his attention to negative characters, and by multiplying his observations on the developed organ and the intellectual faculties, he succeeded in forming his physiognolnical system, which may be learned and improved by every succeeding student of human nature, who should alwa s begin with the most simple an pro~ ceed to the more complex, from a head which has only one highly developed organ, to that which has many, and finally to those whose songuns are all equally developed. EIperience and incessant observation, assisted b numerous collections of skulls an busts, are necessary to make an expert physiognomist. This science is also improved by a knowledge of the anatomy and physiologyof the brain, by comparative anatomy, by partial insanities, and by mimickry, or those insensihle motions of the body whenever experiencing any lively emotion. Hence this system has assumed all the characters of a regular science, and rests on the basis of experience and observation, the foundation of nearly all our knowledge. If such an energy or faculty of mind he always attended, as it unquestionably is, by certain organs or configurations of the skull, then we lnust draw the same conclusion, by induction, as in every other branch of natural science, that the characters of the mind are deducihle from the organization of the head. These principles are equally applicable to men and to animals, according to their respective faculties. lt is not, however, expected that the physiognomist should hea prophet, or that he should tell by the skull whether a man may ever become mad; madness is merely a disease, which may and does occur without any change of configuration, the same as the e e, the thorax, or any part of the ho y maybe inflamed without necessarily Changing its form. But, if one faculty, such as self-love or pride, be indulged more than all the others, and the person
hocome-dileased, insanity may be the consequence.
Lect. IV. After observing that the brain is an aggregation ofo rgans which grow from birth to the age of puberty, and decline in old age, he proceeded to detail his new divisions of the intellectual faculties. Gall denominated the organs according as they indicated men’s characters; thus, in a mathematician, he called the prominent part of the skull, the organ of mathematics, and hence his nomenclature is defective. Dr. Spurzheim proceeds dilferently; he considers the human mind, like naturalists, as a class, which he divides into two orders, or faculties; the first, intellect or understanding; the second, moral feelin s. - These orders he subdivider into our genera, which have each their respective species or organs.
lst. Propensities, of which there are nine species, or oi'gans.
2d. Sentiments, the like number.
3d. Knowing or perceiving facule tics, eleven species.
4th. Reflecting faculties, only four species.
This classification consists of 33 or ans, all of which manifest themle vos by little eminences on the outside of the skull from the ears upwards. Every faculty has a propensity, but not vice versa, nor has every sentiment a propensity. Organic life is one, but composed of many parts; hence very few actions are the result of one faculty alone. By the laws of reason and observation we may confirm the fact, that every faculty has its corresponding organ; that all the faculties are necessary to the perfectly organized being; and that in every faculty, its aim, abuses, and effects of its activity or inactivity are to ‘be considered, with respect to the discovery of the name and place of its organ. When one propensity predominates, its organ becomes more conspicuous. This led to the discovery that the cerebellum or little brain is the seat of sexual appetite. Dr. S. detailed a great variety of obaervations and circumstances interesting to the anatomist and physician respecting the cerebellum and spinal marrow; related the effects of wounds received in the neck of a young French soldier, whose beard never grew, our voice became masculine, in consequence -, stated that the au
tients were acquainted with this fact;
that they cured erotic madness b
bleeding behind the ear; and that the cerebellum in all males is larger than in females, demonstrating that this propensity, from the mouse to the elephant and man, is much greater in the male than the female sex. The dimensions of the cerebellum are ascertained by the distance between the ears, and the breadth of the back part of the head and neck. Dr. S. answered the objections made to this opinion, that animals have fixed periods of rotting, by observing that. the same argument applies to the whole faculty, and consequently cannot overturn facts, however inex~ plicahle in themselves. This propel!i sity to propagate the species, he de¢ signates by the organ of Amativencu or physical love; he was obliged to make a new word to express his idea, and therefore proposed a Latin 0! Greek root, amativeness or emotiveness, formed from onto, and the par~ ticle if, and substantive termination tress, agreeable to the genius of the English language.
Lect. V. The skulls of males and females are very dilferent in Germany, mnch more so than in England, and still more than in France»; in the latter country the heads of men and women are almost similar. The Second ropensily is denominated the organ oll Philoprogeniliveness, or > love of ofliipring. (English pathologists have naturalized the Greek term storgé for this feeling.) The function of this organ was discovered in monkies, which are exeestively fond of their young; it is situated at the centre of the binder part of the head, and appears much more conspicuous in females than male-i ; even in little girls it 1| apparent. Dr. S. traced its existence through a vast variety of animals and birds; noticed those which neglect their ofl'sprin , like the cuckow, and mothers w kill their children, in all of which it was not deVelopcd; and shewed that by the wise provisions of nature infanticide is very rare in consequence of this feeling, which is also so much stronger in females than males. He observed that some men love children, others are annoyed by them; a tact which is inexplicable without admitting a peculiar and innate propensity. Boys lzke whips, dogs, &c.;
girls prefer babies, dresses, &c. This organ is very conspicuous in negroes, who are greatly attached to their children. The Third propensity is a discovery of Dr. S. which he calls the organ of Inhabits'uencss, or a propensity to live in certain places; ll. appears chiefly in animals: the chamois goat, eagle, lark, &c. delight to roam in high regions far beyond the sphere of their food; there are also two varieties of rats, one inhabits cellars, the other garrets; the garreteer has an elevated ridge on the back of the skull which does not appear in the cellarer. Gall confounded this organ with self-love, and supposed that physical propensities in brutes mig thecome moral ones in man. But the faculties never change; and there is a peculiar proensity for certain situations, which is Indicated by this organ. \Fourth, organ of Adhesiveness, or attachment. 0f animals that live in society some are married, as canary birds, .and others are not; this is not owing to She activity of any faculty, but to a peculiar propensity, adhesiveness. Frienship is a modification of this faculty, which is more extensive, and includes patriotism, national and local attachment, &c. Nostalgia is an abuse of this feeling, a caricature of patriotism. Fifth. Organ of Combalz'vt'ness. Some children are quarrelsome, others pacific; even delicate women sometimes fight with great obstinacy; rabbits fight with and defeat hares, which are generally larger animals; little dogs often chase large ones. These facts evince a peculiar and distinct propensity to combat, the organ of which is situated in the posterior angle of the parietal bone, nearly parallel with the car; it is generally large in proportio‘p to the backward space between t e ears, and in those with thick necks and broad heads behind, it is very conspicuous. Animals having the ears wide are quarrelsome; if narrow or short, they are timid. The ancients knew these distinctions, as they are marked on the heads of their gladitors. Dr. S. opposes the notion of Gail, that a positive sentiment or feeling can result from the want. or absence of another; fear, he contends, is not the want of courage, but a real sentiment. Sixth. Organ of Destructiveness: this propensity is
evinced in various manners; some robbers always murder as well as rob; some soldiers in the field put all to death indiscriminately, others preserve the lives of all they can. This disposition, therefore, is not: ,owing to the particular aliment, as men eat both animal and vegetable food. Nor is it to be ascribed to the having hands or claws, as these serve only as instruments to the destructive propensity. Instances of an apothecary who became an executioner merely to gratify his desire of destroying animal life; merchants who paid butchers for permission to kill cattle. Tygers do not, like men, prey on each other; yet they and all other animals know to attack their prey at the neck, where life is easiest to be extinguished. Men evince this propensity in the pleasure which they derive from torturing animals, breaking lamps, .tables, chairs, &c. Hence it is very happily designated the organ of destructiveness, and is.situated above the ear in a line withthe temples and occiput. Dr. S..exhibited busts or casts of Mitchell and Hollings, the murderers oftheir sweethearts; of M. Ampere, a Frenchwomanrwho murdered her mother and two sisters, and of Bellingham the murderer of Perceval. ( To be continued.) ______. Mr. Una/us, Manchester, Nov.19. MR. Dibdin, in his very excellent edition of “More‘s Utopia,” professes to give a list of all the previous ones; and, in such account, mentions two as havingtappeared in the French language. From a passage, however, in “Memoires pour la Vie de Messieurs Samuel Sorbiere, et Jean Baptiste Cotelier,” prefixed to “ Sorberiana,” aParis, 1694,12m0. it is evident there are two other translations into French ofthis " most pleasant, fruitful, and witty work"-a circumstance which Mr. Dibdin could not have been aware of.
The following is the passage alluded to :
“ ll (Sorbiere) traduisit: aussi en Francois pen de tems apres l'Utopie de Thomas Morus, a la priere de Monsieur le Comte de Rhingrave, Gouvernenr de la Ville de l’Eeluse, qui ne pouvoit sans eela la lire en cette lan'gue qne dans des traductions snrannées, faites bicn avant dans l’autre siecle par