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Fisher himself was prevented only‘by age from being of the number. Erasmus took the degrees of B. I). as incipient in Theology. 1506; and in I510 was made Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity. He wrote upon all subjects, and in all styles, but always in Latin, and always well ; his powers of composition being proportioned to the vast riches and variety of his knowledge. With the minuteuess of a gr'ammarian, the sagacity of a critic, the subtlety of a metaphysician, and the ecision of a. logician, he combined 1 e eloquence of a rhetorician, the solemnity of a theologian, the profundity of a philosopher, and the gaiety, and the ease, and playfulness of a poet: for all these dili‘erent qualities he ma be justly praised: but his principal force was III irony, in which he cannot be iarpassed; perhaps is not equalled. This machine, supported with his more weighty artillery of solid literature, he played off with admirable efi'ect against the follies, the vices, the superstitious, and ignorance of his age: for, having translated some of Lucian’s Dialogues, he had caught much of hismanner, ot'which his Collaea, his Praise'qfll'olly, and Letters II Epistolary Writing, are admirable specimens. In his Adagia, writton It'lore immediately for the use of the English Nation, are ideposited great treasures of classical literature. Be edited many of the Greek and Latin Classics, with some of the Fathers : but his more splendid, elaborate works, are Pliny’s Natural History, Aristotle's Works, and an edition of the Greek Testament; and to all of which he has admirable prefaces: the latter was accompanied with a new Latin Translation and Notes. His Commentary, translated into English, was appointed by public authority to be placed in all our churches. In his Treatise on Episte

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lary Writing, he not only deliver!_ general rules for epistolary compo; sition, but a most rational plea for acquiring the learned languages :" hastily sent forth, as it was, it' yet reached many important points. In an Epistle to Nicholas Beraldus, he says, it was written in twenty days; and that, in consequence of the treachery ofa friend, who published it without his Consent, he gave an edition himself: but had it been the labour of as many weeks, or months, it would have been labour well he'stowed *.

Erasmus's works made ten volume. in folio, and were edited by Le Clerc? whence it appears, though he was uni-.cquainted with Hebrew,and never acquired a thorough knowledge of the English language, he may be pronounced the greatest genius,"and the

rofoundest scholar, of his age; not ess successful, than indefatigable, in his studies. He was an advocate for free-will, against predestination. 0hnoxious as he was to some of'the Red formers, for his book de Servo Anbitrio, against Luther, whom he treated somewhat sharply, still his literary authority was appealed to by all parties. He lived at large, for he would be shackled by no theologues; and while some objected to him his conformity, he knew he had to do with men, though Reformers, who were politicians and conformists in various ways themselves i': against their bigotry and intolerance be was as serious as they‘ could be against his temporizing, and love of literary ease. After all, he did more in the cause of real reformation i, than any man of his age, and carried its spirit up to some points, where no one durst follow him. But, to close all, and to say what is immediately to our punpose,—-in the wise and critical use of ancient manuscripts, in liberalizing our universities §, and in hreali.~

‘ Erasmus’s Letter relating to this work is dated Basil, I522. It is prelier to the edition, Lugduni, I536. But there was a much earlier edition printed“


1- See John Milton's Five Tracts, in his Prose W'orks.

Milton does not: except

Cranmer, Rillley, nor Latimer, from this number. Erzisinus‘s principles went so the»

root, even to customs and corrugations, which pervaded all nations. 1 What is here alluded to may be seen in Erasnius’s f‘ Conscribcndarum Epito

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Linguis ing the long-riveted shackles of their superstitions and ignorance, by writing, no one did so much as this great man—and as to other matters—Homo t'uit atquc humanus Erasmus. *— Mr. Uansa, Sept. 8. NOTICED in your last Number, (p. “8.) a very interesting and accurate Architectural description of the fine monastic Ruins at Worksop, and likewise several severe reflections upon the state in which it appeared when your Correspondent‘s remarks were taken. Doubtlcss at that time the gateway was in the ruinous condition he mentions; but, having not long since had occasion to pass through that town, I have an oppor' tunit of informing him and your Rea ers,that within these few months it has undergone a substantial and thorough repair. Great labour has been bestowed to clear the ornaments of the whole, particularly the beantiful and unrivalled porch; and no reparations have taken place which are not consistent with the old work, excepting the roof, which is covered with common house tiling. The room has again been converted into a school, consisting at present of I50 boys, and is, i believe, not to exceed 800. The East entrance of the porch has been walled up for greater security, and the window in front boarded. With respect to the latter, 1 hope I may be ermitted to suggest a restoration o the tracery and mullions: it is the principal feature in the front of the porch; and in its present condition is inconsistent with the rest of the building. The fragments left are sufficient to prove what the design originally was; and, with the assistance of some person who has drawn the parts and mouldings with accuracy, it might easily be accomplished, and at a trifling expence; nor should this work be executed in

new stone. Though I am very far from bein an advocate for making quarries 0t our venerable ruin, yet I trust, that a few pieces might be taken ’ for this necessary repair from the; relics which adjoin the church, without demolishing nny curious fragment, or offending the zealous antiquary; but on no other account would lhave a stone of ancient work removed from the spot in which it was first placed, or had been levelled by merciless and destructive hands at the general wreck; for if, by this tritiinl7 innovation, we preserve to osterity thelittle thatdevastation has eft to admira, the alternative is not; painful to our reflection. A farther reparation might be made, which perhaps would be doino- as much as propriety and examplis will admit. I allude to the parapet of the East side of the porch: onestoue of the old. work remains; and that on the West side is entire, with its small decorative battlements. This too should be done in old stone; and two pieces only would be necessary, following in every particular the parapet that is left. These are the only restorations necessary, and sufficient to show its pristine elegance: then may we hope that it will subsist for ages, and excite the admiration of posterit . It is an unexampled remain ofnovelgy and beauty; and, while Architecture continues to be admired, will claim its share of notice. It is but justice to observe that what has already been done in the preservation of this gates way was through the indefatigable exertion of an individual in the neighbourhood, a gentleman of considerable taste, and a real antiquary, one who can discern the beauties, and estimate the value of ancient architecture. To him are our thanks due, and may this example be followed by every one in whose hands power rests to show a like zeal. J. C. B.


Linguis 'enim et optimis artibus, quasi postliminio, restitutis, barbaries ex Europzeis Academiis magna ex parte protligata est, et ex sacris istis virtutum ec doctrinarum Gymnasiis, tanquaru Trojauo, quod aiunt equo, subito in philologia: proscenium progressi sunt ingenio, eloquentia, et doctrine liberalis ingenuaeq. icognitione celebers'imi viri, qui Erasmi, velut Egryodmx'ru exemplo et institutione moti, suam singuli Spat-ram exornare, doetrinaq. Lampada, non modo in Philologiaa studio aliis preferre, sed etiam studio vigilantiaq. sua egregie illustratam posteris tradere studuerunt.’ Gryumi Epist. Nuucnpatoria in Erasmi Adagia, &c.-Another, while characterizing some of Erasmns's particular works, wracks his invention to illustrate them, not knowing how to panegyrize them enough. Bir

dsei Epist- inter Erasmianas, Lib. 2, Epistotarum.

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Mr. Unasn, Aug. 15. WAS extremely surprized, and I may add, indignant, when I per

used the '“ Strictures on the Laws against Vagrants,” as you have been pleased to entitle the communication of your Correspondent W. B. inserted in your valuable Magazine, in the Supplement to vol. LXXXIV. Part I. pages 649, 650, 65] , inclusive. ‘ Your Correspondent would have acted wisely if he had read before he wrote, and thought before he had made his writing pawn.- since then, perhaps, he would not have committed himself so egregiously as he now has done; our ave misconceived and misrepresented so greatly the subject he undertook to discuss. But, that I may not be thought, like your Correspondent, to deal in unfounded censure,l will first, in his own Words, state his objections to what you have called “the Laws against Vagrants,"-—though he himself, except by his general reasoning, has not distinctly mentioned them,-—~ ' and then will proceed to shew how ill-fimnderl are the objections which he has brought against them.

After first stating, that “ he does not mean" (although he has actually done so, we will suppose without intending it) “ to ad vucatc the cause of common beggars, 81c.” and achnowledging, that “the greater part of them do literally and truly come under that description of Rogues and Yagahonds in which the Law has indiscr'ilninalely classed them,” (which,

- however, I shall shew is a direct mis-

conception of the Writer) he “ considers it" (by which we must infer, I think, the System of the Poor Laws as now established in England) “a discredit to the Legislature, as far as it" (viz. our Poor Laws, the Laws against Vagrants, or the “ Vagrant Act,” as it is called) “ creates a power to persecute the Poor,” (than which assertion nothing can possibly be more unjust or untrue) “ and casts,‘ adds he, an indiscriminate imputation on that ‘ rejected part of the species,” by supposing criminality inseparably attached to a wandering state of poverty." The Writer adds, “ it is a plausible argument, but it is not true, that the legal provisions made for the support and settlement of Paupers,vare adequate to the prevention of, Vagrant“, or supersede the necessity of their ch'r. Man. September, ISM.


existence.” Now, Sir, as the argument of your Correspondent turns upon his broad and unqualified assertion, that “ the legal provisions for Paupers are not adequate to the prevention of Vagrants, or do not supersede the necessity of them ;" give me leave to join issue with your Cone-t spondent on that point, and with equal confidence, and I trust with better foundation for it than his, to assert that these “legal provisions,” are fully adequate to this purpose.

From the history of the Poor Laws it appears, that prior to the Reformation there was no regular provision for the poor, but they were in great measure left to such relief as the hu‘manity of their neighbours would atl'ord them. If this, Sir, were the situation of the Poor in England at the present day, I would readily conl cede to your Correspondent hispostulatam; hutwhen I wonder the numerous laws which/have from time to time been made for their maintenance and provision, and the peculiar care', humanity, and fatherly attention, with which the Legislature has aftended to their interests, I am lost in astonishment that such a calutnny should be niblished seriatim by your Correspondent, and I feel myself called upon as an acting Magistrate to endeavour to repel it.

During the existence of the‘Monas~ teries, Priories, and Hospitals, they supported and fed a very numerous and idle Poor, who depended for sustenance upon nhat was daily distributed in Aims at the gates of such religious houses. In the reign, however, of IIen.VllI. when these Monasteries were suppressed, and their very' ample revenues were confiscated, the inconvenience and nriscliiq‘s'of supporting the Poor in habits ol indd-~ lent-e and beggary were felt quickly throughout the Kingdom; and many statutes were made in the reign of that King for providing for the Poor ‘ and impotent, which have been altered, improved, and greatly multiplied, since that period. The Poor have been, with great propriety, by these laws,divided into two principal classes 9—the old, sick, and impotent, who were totally unable to Work; and the idle and sturdy, who were well able but unwilling to work, or to exercise any lawful employment whereby they


might be enabled to gain an hortest livelihood. The existing laws, which are in force at this day, have, in the 'iutlc-st and most etfectual manner, provided for the necessary maintenance and support of the former class of‘honest and meritorious pooalp'ersons: and the “ Vagrant Act,” ich your Correspondent so severely condemns, has provided an adequate punishment, for the “idle and disorderly” persons, the “ Rogues and Va'gahonds.” which are the pests of society, and the terror of sober and worthy men.

With regard to poor persons, who are merely such from old age, sickncss, or any other calamity, and not from any vice or fault of their own, so far is the Law from either “ classing them indiscriminately with rogues and vagabonds," or “ creating in any case a power to persecute them,” that they are expressly under the protection of the Law, and of the Justices of the Peace, who are the adininis~ 'trators of the Law; and who are armed with very sufficient powers, in the-most prompt and efi‘ectual manner, both to protect and relieve them. ,No honest poor person, who in the days of his health and Vigour, has been sober, industrious, and of good report, and such the courtesy of our English Laws vvill consider him to have been if nothing be proved to the contrary,needs to “beg his bread," or can want any of those necessaries and comforts which the exigencies of his case may require. The Magistrate. are furnished with the must Complete power of doing right to every poor person, by the provisions and clauses of 'existing Statutes; and, by the tenour oi their conioiis‘ion, they are sWorn “ to do equal right to the 'poor and to the rich :” and, consequently, the bold but unfounded assertion of your Correspondent falls _to the

round. Allow me to cite an instance in point, which may be applied, I think, in every case that can occur, and which, unless 'I am mistaken, will ' bring very complete conviction to your m nd, and to the mind of every nnprcjudiced Reader of your useful Miscellany. A few days ago, an inhahita'ut of the immediately adjoining ‘parish came before me, and, on his 'oath, complained that his son, by trade a blacksmith, was now, and for some timepast, violently afiictcd with

'his necessities known.

sickness. and, as he believed, with an incurable and-painful bodily disorder. Medical advice, doc. were under these circumstances absolutely necessary; and the present allowance of the parish, w ich he stated to me, and which the Overseers had refused to increase, was insufficient. [therefore ' cited the Overseers to appear before me at a certain time and place, together with the Complainant: and on e their appearance convinced them that; a farther relief was necessary, which they consented to give, and with which the Complainant declared he was content. Had not the Overseer agreed to what under existing circumstances I thought reasonable, authority was vested in my hands by the Statute, to make It“ order upon him for the aymcni, and to punish him if he ha not obeyed it.

The above case had an easy and speedy remedy, and in every case remedies equa ly effectual and prompt maybe applied. We will suppose, for instance, a case which frequently occurs, that a person, born beyond the Seas, or who has not any legal parish to which he belongs, by some of those casualties to which all men are subject, becomes poor, and sick, and wantsrelief. If, on a legal examination before a Magistrate, no parish can be discovered, he must be relieved by the parish where he falls sick and

impotent: and the same speedy and 4\

effectual remedy, if the Overseer refuses assistance, will be given him on applying to a Magistrate, and makin This relie , which is left to the discretion of the Magistrate on a due consideration of ‘the'circuinstanccs of the case, will be continued to the pauper while he or she is incapable of working; so that none need, through necessity; “1m{artfully beg their bread from door to door:" and if they do, from a roguish and unprinciplod motive, presume to do so, they become, if in the parish to which they of right belong, by such begging, “idle and disorderly/f if it be in another parish, they are properly styled “ Rogues and Vagabonds.” The Latvs of England, Sir, in the true spirit of the Gospel precept, are made for the protection and “ reward

'ofthose who do real ,” and also where ‘it is necespary, as in the cases we have

just mentioned, “for the punishment of suit-dons.” What Would become,

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Sir, of our commonJafety, it" the

ltrongarm of the Law did not restrain ,

and punish these “wandering beggars," who, notwithstanding the several statutes made against them, swarm in all parts of the country? The “ Vagrant Act,” Sir, notwithstanding the censure of W. B. is one of the principal safeguards that remain to us; and its operatiOn can by no possibility of fair construction be proved to bear hard in any instance, upon the honest and industrious poor, but only upon those who are vicious and nizprz'ncipled. Of such persons as f-ill 'under the last-mentioned description, we will not suppose W. B. to be the advocate; and indeed he CXpt‘CSQly declares so in his communication to you: he will, therefore, I should hope, withdraw his hasty, and, as 1 hope he will acknowledge, unfounded censure of the ,Act in question, and candidly confess the mistake into which he has thus inadvertcatty fallen.

There is one expression in your Correspondent’s Letter ofso very offensive a nature,that I must call upon him to retract it in the most unqualified manner. In discussing the merits of the above Act, he states expressly, that it “judicially confounds the innocent with the guilty!!!” Be you, Sir, and your Readers, the judges whether this accusation be founded either in candour or in trnlh! Guilt, Sir, we all know, is defined to be, “the transgression of the Law ,-" and here is an express Law made against Beggars, w 0 therefore by begging (for which we have'above amply shows; there is no necessity) become guilty of oflbnding against it, and so are guilty, and not inuocent.--We have already seen, that if, instead of the ample provision for the poor made in England, they had to depend only, as in man ‘other countries even at this day, upon casual bounty, their case mi ht be then represented as hard an severe indeed, if thus restrained from the only means of honestly sup' orting themselves in sickness and infirmity. But, indeed, in the existing circumstances of the Poor in this Kingdom, it isuncandid in the highest degree, and absolutely untrue in fact, as we have fully proved, thus to represent, or rather Misrepresent, their case. The expressions, Sir, of the Poor (the virtuous and honest Porn,


doubtlessW.B. means)being “a rejected part of the speeies”—and “ outcasts qf society”-— or of their being so considered by the operation of the “ Vagrant Act,” is extremely unjust, and can in truth and common caudour, as well as in the contemplation of that Act, only be applied to such persons as do truly deserve them.

i The endeavour also of W. B. to work upon the teelings of the tender and compassionate mind, by setting forth the miseries ot “the destitute and houseless children of want.” is perfectly gratuitous, and altogether unnecessary, since, if there be one virtue which shines with greater brightness than another, it is that unbomided charity, that attention. that pervades every British heart, and makes it willingly stretch out its assistance wherever a lit opportunity presents. Little necessity, therefore, WasthereforyourCorrespondent’selof queutaddress to thosewho “ abouoded in this world’s goods,” to be “ read to distribute, and gladly to give 0% their abundance,” during the unparalleled iuclemency and long - continued severity of the last winter; since in every part of the Island sub-v scriptions on a very extended scale of benevolence were entered into for this pur rose. Sofar were the “ houseless Chi dren ofWant” from being “ likely to perish" in that inclement season, either from forgetfuluess, or from the unfeelingness of the rich, that they were sought out with persevering' love, and their necessities relieved with unwearled affection. In a national point of view, this conduct reflected the highest honour upon us, and will undoubtedly call down the blessing of Heaven upon our heads—,- ~ and to this especial blessing we may attribute that good success, and that glory, which crowned our arms duri v a long and destructive war, and whigl: we hope will not desert us now that we have obtained a Peace 1!

I should ask your pardon, Mr. Urban, for this long, but I hope not mi.interesling Letter, did I not believe that you would have a pleasure in any attempt that “as made to vindicate our Laws, or any one of thens, when attacked: and that you would be desirous to give W. B. an oppor. tunity ofretract ing any hasty assertion 'which he mayhave made i derogation of them. An ACTdNG PENN-“must.

1'. 5. With

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