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Member Educational Press Association of America.

J. A. McGILVRAY, Editor.



$1.00 a year in advance.


“The Three H's"—National Institute of Arts

Arithmetic Methods—Child Study- About
and Letters-Examinations-N. E. A. in 1900... 67-68 Teeth-Song of the Snow Stars—Bird Tal-s-

Care of Animals-A Patriotic Song and March.. 77-81


The Best Education-No Royal Road to Leart.

ing-What the Editors Say-Items of Interest.. 82-83
The High School or Acadamic Course as a Con-
tinuation of the Grammar School and a Prepa-

New Books......

.......... 80, 85, 95
ration for College–The Kindergarten-Lynch-

LITERARY NOTES............
burg's Art Loan Exhibition-College Education
in the North and in the South........



Third Annual Normal Review at William and

College - Extracts from Virginia School Report
The Prince Edward County Rally-Craig Coun-

for 1898 and 1899—Examination for State Cer-
ty Teachers' Association-Pan



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In corresponding with advertisers, please mention the Virginia School Journal.

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Educational Evolution.

Are you interested in the Proper Intellectual, Moral, and Physical

Training of the Rising Generation ? JOHNSON'S RÉADERS are based on the right principles. SOUTHERN LITERATURE, LITTLE LESSONS IN PLANT A carefully graded series prepared with the co-operation and

LIFE, MANUAL OF BIBLE MORALITY, JOHNSON'S PẦYSICAL aid of the ablest and best teachers in the country. Beautifully illustrated and sâbstantially bourd, meeting in every

CULTURE, WILLIAMSON’S LIVES OF LEE, JAČKSON, AND respect the requirements of a first-class series of readers. WASHINHT"n, and other text-books along this line, form an LEE'S SERIES OF HISTORIES make the study of history series of books that have proved eminently satisfactory.

admirable combination, the whole combining a remarkable one of the most attractive and popular' in the school-room, the only histories that fully and fairly present the facts in connection with the history of the whole country, by Mrs.

HART'S GRMAMARS combine in two books carefully and SUSAN PENDLETON LEE, of Lexington, Va.

locically arranged plans for the thorough mastery of the

English languge. These books are wonderful in strong, SMITHDEAL'S SLANT-WRITING BOOKS are prepared by a teachable points and striking features that rivet the attenman who has given the best energies of his life to the teach- tion of the pupil. ing of writing. These books from every standpoint fully meet the requirements of the hour; high in quality—low in CARR'S ARITHMETICS are the most carefully graded series price.

of arithmetics that have ever been published They possess THE THOMAS WRITTEN SPELLING BLANKS possess the the happy coinbination of featurs that will insure their highest elements of success, and greatly aid in enabling general use as the standard arithmetics of the rising generapupils to learn to spell correctly. They are very important tion. adjunct to every school-room.

PARENTS especially enjoy and appreciate the advantages of their children studying these books. They are so arranged as to prove interesting to the parents, thus bringing them in close and sympathetic touch with the work done in the school-room.

Many other new and valuable text-books in course of preparation. A postal card will give you a wealth of information on the text-book question. Never mind about sending stamp for reply. Address

B. F. JOHNSON PUBLISHING CO., 901-903-905 East Main Street,

Richmond, Virginia.

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Discontinuances.–Subscribers wishing the Journal stopped should notify us to that effect; otherwise it is understood that they wish

NATIONAL INSTI- The organization of a “ Nait to continue.

tional Institute of Arts and Address all remittances and communications to


York recently, with Mr. P. O. DRAWER 926,

AND LETTERS. Charles Dudley Warner as its Richmond, Va.

president, argues well for the

interests of art and literature in this country. 1. Better salaries for teachers, The trend of the age towards co-operation among and prompt payment.

every class of workers makes itself felt even in 2. A longer school term for chil

that group of subjects which concerns itself with dren, and more effective

the higher side of lite, and we believe that Mr. The teaching

Warner voiced the feeling of all interested in the

advancement and systematic development of art Virginia 3. Life diplomas, issued by the State and worthily won.

when in his opening address he said : School 4. A deliverance from annual ex- “ The association of persons having this comaminations, after compe

mon aim cannot but stimulate effort, soften unJournal

tency has been once estab- worthy rivalry into generous competition, and lished.

promote enthusiasm and good fellowship in their Stands

work. The mere coming together to corapare 5. A Teachers' Reading Circle, views and discuss interests and tendencies and For with no fees attache l.

problems which concern both the workers and 6. A Virginia Chautauqua, with the great public cannot fail to be of benefit to

both. a permanent home.

In no other way so well as by association of 7. Closer supervision, with sala

this sort can be created the feeling of solidarity ries that justify it.

in our literature, and the recognition of its We would be glad to receive from our readers power.” statements of views on any of the above subjects. In the names of those composing its memberBe brief and to the point.

ship the Institute carries promise of its success.

EXAMINATIONS. A monograph on “ Examinations as a Test of Fitness" by

TALKS ON SCHOOL LAW AND Mr. F. G. Ireland, chief examiner of the local civil service commission, published by the

SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. New York Schoolmaster Association, is a timely protest against the opposition to examinations. (Continued from February JOURNAL.) While there may be some abuse of the examina

Employment of Teachers— Boards of Reference. — tion, we believe that judiciously used it serves a

III -If the parties who feel aggrieved set forth purpose for which no adequate substitute has yet

in their appeal to the county superintendent the been devised.

specific reasons for asking for a board of referMr. Ireland justly contends that one who, either

ence—and this they should be required to dlothrough stupidity or excessive nervousness, fails the line of evidence to be adduced will be deterin an examination must be regarded as unfit. mined by the character of the specifications re

cited in the appeal. In the absence of any statN. E. A. IN

We have received Official Bul- ute or regulation prescribing the mole of pro

letin, No. 1, of the N. E. Ą., an- cedure, the presumption is that the board of ref1900. nouncing the place and time of erence will determine this according to the cir

its next meeting as Charleston, cumstances of the case before it. The board South Carolina, July 7–13, inclusive, 1900. may, therefore, require the parties to state their

A number of circumstances combined to influ- case in writing, or may hear them orally in perence the committee in the choice of Charleston. son or by counsel. The same rights should, of The following extract from the bulletin shows course, be accorded the district board whose acthe attitude of Charleston and the South in the tion is under review. niatter :

These cases, as a rule, take the form of charges

— The committee were deeply impressed by the against the teacher—as to scholarship, teaching earnest appeal of the citizens of Charleston, en

ability, character, adaptability, or general fitness. dorserl with equal earnestness by the leading ed

The question here arises whether the teacher ucators and the Press of the South, that the pres- should be given a hearing before the board-an ent is a most opportune time for the National opportunity for defence—or whether the district Educational Association to lend its aid in support of the recent revival of educational interests in

board only should defend its action? This may the South, which is no less manifest than is the depend somewhat upon the character of the industrial revolution throughout the same terri- charges made ; but, as a rule, the safe course is to tory.

give the teacher an opportunity for defence. For the benefit of those who may think the se

The law assumes that the county superintendlection of Charleston unwise as a place of meeting ent is the expert to whom the district board in summer, we quote the following from Secre- looks for protectiou against incompetent, ineffitary Irwin Shepard's accompanying letter:

cient, or muworthy teachers. He is required to

examine applicants, “ and if satisfied as to their If it is thought by any that there are climatic objections to meeting at Charleston in July, it capacity, acquirements, morals, and general fitmay

be answered that these objections do not ex- ness, to grant them certificates," &c. It is, thereist in any greater degree than at Los Angeles; fore, his duty to determine the scholarship and i. e., that they do not exist at all except possibly teaching ability of applicants, and to satisfy himin the imagination of those who do not remember that latitude is not the chief determining fac

self as to their character and general fitness—a tor of the temperature of seaboard cities in July. very grave responsibility. In the case of inexpe

The exceedingly favorable ticket conditions, rienced applicants, the superintendent can only stop over privileges, and arrangements for diverse estimate their promise of usefulness. Keen obroutes, which will be announced in detail at an

servation of the teacher's work in the schoolroom early date, will compensate in a very large degree is the best test of efficiency, and the majority of for any disadvantages in the fact that Charleston is located out of the line of usual summer vaca

superintendents have scant opportunity to employ tion travel.

this method.

It has been alleged that some superintendents I am pleased with the JOURNAL, and wish it

have been either so careless or so indifferent in much success.— Miss Kate Robertson, Pittsylvania examining or in licensing teachers that some cercounty.

tificates in force do not in fact represent proper I find the Journal very helpful in my work.- qualification for the work. If such an allegation A. V. Taylor, Caroline county.

should be sustained, we are satisfied that the



Board of Elucation would promptly remove any tessions, there still rem ius for him, two or three Superintendent guilty of so flagrant a violation more years work in the university or the profesof his oath of office.

sional school. Of course, it does not by any As no teacher is eligible to appointment by the means follow that all men entering the professions district board unless she holds a certificate, it is obtain this liberal education, but it is now possiassumed that in every case brought before a board bly to many; certainly so broail and liberal a of reference, the teacher involved holds a certifi- foundation for his lite's work makes a man's cate which covers the legal requirements—scholar- chances for success all the greater in the compliship, teaching ability, character, and general fit- cated and strenuous conditions of modern life.

But it is especially the province of this paper to It is assumed that the district board carefully explain the field covered by the academic, college considers the fitness of the teacher for the preparatory, or high school course, and, as a preparticular school-whether the grade of scholar- liminary to this, a few words relating to the eleship represented by her certificate establishes her mentary school are necessary. qualification for the position, whether she posses- In the first four years of school life, the child ses the ability to manage and control the school, acquires the use of the tools, so to speak, with etc. In determining these questions, the district which he is to work; he learns to read and to board should have the advice and counsel of the write, he learns the elements of numbers, and, in county superintendent. In assigning teachers to schools endeavoring to embody molern iileas in the respective schools, the Superintendent's sound their course, he has training for his perceptive judgment and freedom from partiality should faculties, in elementary science, drawing, and materially aid the board in arriving at wise con

muileling. clusions. In all these matters, vice discrimina- In the next four years, embracing the so called tion is required, and both Superintendent and grammar grailes, the child covers the prescribed the district board are liable to error.

ground in arithmetic and formal grammar, politi[CONTINUED.]

cal geography and U. S. history, he acquires some power of expression in fuirly accurate and Huent English, and an elementary knowledge of physiology, civil government, and drawing.

drawing. This groun is supposed to be covered by the primary

and grammar school in the city, and by the counThe High School or Academic Course as a Continuation

try pulilic schools, though in the case of the latof the Grammar School and a Preparation for College.

ter, it seldom really is covered, owing to the BY MRS. F. B. METZ, MANASSAS, VA.

short terms, want of proper grading, and frequent Ilaving been asked to give a paper to-day on the changes of teachers. relation of the academy to the public school, I

Supposing this elementary work to have been have taken the word academy as synonymous

properly done,and let me say that the mental with the title high school, and have thought it

habits acquired during this period are likely to best to outline the work of the high school as a

determine the student's whole subsequent career, continuation of the grammar school, whether

there still remains four years of thorough solid

work betore the student is prepared to enter upon public or private, and as an adeqiate preparation for real college work—the work of such bigh a full college course in any of the great colleges schools as is represented by the best institutious of of the country, in any college where high school the kind throughout the country, such a course

work and college work are not confused. It ie as we have attempted to give at the Manassas In

this period for which the academy or high school stitute amidst almost overwhelming difficulties provides, and in view of the desire to inaugurate and discouragements.

a high school course here in Ruftner School, it is

deemed advisable to give some summary of the The period of time required to gain a liberal education in the modern sense of the word covers

work for which a good high school provides. the period from the sixth to about the twenty

In large city high schools or in endowed acathird year. The first four years of this period demies, a student may have his choice of several embraces the so called primary course, the next

courses, but the one generally taken comprises four, the grammar school grades, the next, English, mathematics, two foreign languages, some the high school or academic course, and finally branches of science, and history. English is, of comes the four years college course. Should the course, carried throngh the whole four years; the student now wish to enter any of the learned pro- study of literature, begun in the school readers, is


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