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Official Department.

JOSEPH W. SOUTHALL, Superintendent Public Instruction, EDITOR.

The Journal is sent regularly to County and City Superintendents and Clerks of District School Boards, and must be carefully preserved by them as public property, and transmitted to heir successors in office.

Uniform Examinations. The uniform examinations for county and city certificates will be held this year probably during the second or third week in June. Those who expect to take these examinations should bear in mind that civil government has been added to the list of subjects on which all candidates for teachers' license are required to be examined. Any approved text-book on this subject will enable candidates to answer the questions to be propounded; but Peterman's Elements of Civil Government is recommended as the most practical and suitable book for teachers preparing for this examination. It is a book of about 200 pages, can be easily mastered, and costs only sixty cents. It is published by the American Book Company, New York. It would be well for superintendents and other school officials to call the attention of all who expect to stand the uniform examinations next summer to the fact that civil government is now included among the subjects on which they will be examined.

Examinations for State and Professional Certificates.

Some misapprehension seems to exist among school officials and teachers in regard to the examinations for State and professional certificates. It is not intended that the professional course of study outlined in Circulars 183 and 190 shall take the place of the course that has heretofore led to the State Professional Certificate and the Life Diploma.

In the January number of the JOURNAL attention was culled to the comparatively small number of teachers that have taken the examinations for State certificates, owing doubtless to the fact that these examinations are held only at the summer normal schools. This combined with other reasons to convince the Department of Public Instruction that an additional course should be provided for ambitious teachers who might not be able to attend the summer schools, but desire a higher certificate than that granted by a county or city superintendent; and accordingly the professional course covering three years was outlined.

This course is open only to those who hold a first-grade certificate. It must be pursued in a fixed order, and examinations on the various subjects will be held at the same time and places as the uniform examinations for teachers in cities and counties. The studies for the first year are general history, civil government, and English literature through the reign of Queen Anne; for the second year, physical geography, elementary algebra, and English literature completed ; for the third year, pedagogy, school law, and American literature. Those desiring to do so can distribute the general history through the three years, dividing the book into three equal parts. Those who wish to take only a part of the subject this year should be prepared to be ex'amined from the beginning of the book to the period of the Gracchi in Roman history.

Those who take the old course for State certificates will be examined on orthography, reading, arithmetic, grammar, geography, history of the United States, general history, algebra, physiology, civil government, Virginia school laws, theory and practice of teaching. This course must be completed in two consecutive years; the subjects may be taken in such order as the candidates may elect; and the examinations will be held at the summer normal schools as heretofore. No teacher's certificate is required for admission to these examinations, since they include all the subjects required for a first grade certificate. It is, however, the opinion of all who have taken these examinations, as well as of those who have conducted them, that the subjects should be pursued systematically in a given order, and that those who intend to stand the examinations should make careful and thorough preparation for them, and be required to give notice some weeks in advance of the examinations of their intention to take them. Only by complying with these conditions can the best results be obtained.

In preparing for all examinations teachers should as far as possible select the text-books authorized for use in the public schools.

The School Census. This is the year for taking the school census, and the special attention of district school boards and superintendents is hereby called to the provisions of the law governing this important matter.

1. District boards are required “to see that the census of children required by section 25 (of school laws) is taken in the proper time and in proper manner.”

2. “The clerk of each district school board, during the months of June or July, 1890, and every five years thereafter, shall take a census of all persons between the ages of five and twenty-one years residing within the school district, and gather statistics relating to the interests of educa. tion in said district, according to the forms furnished by the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The lists thus prepared shall be submitted for careful revision to the district school board, as soon as may be after their completion, and shall at all times be open to the inspection of any citizen. When so revised, they shall be submitted, along with the other papers of the district, to the county board at its annual meeting, and immediately, thereafter delivered to the county superintendent. For said service the clerk shall receive compensation out of the district school fund at the rate of three dollars per hundred of the children listed by him, subject to abatement, on the discovery, before or after the settlement of the account, of errors or omissions in the list, or to a fine by the district board, as provided in section 99. All errors in the lists shall be rectified by the clerk without extra compensation. He shall, in proper person, take the census of the school population; and the county superintendent of schools shall exercise special care in securing a prompt and accurate discharge of this duty.

3. ^ He (the clerk) shall, at the same time, also take a separate census of all deaf mutes and blind persons, between said ages, residing within the said school district, giving the sex, age, and residence of each, and return a copy thereof to the county superintendent. For this service he shall receive a similar compensation to that allowed for listing other children, and out of the same fund. The superintendent shall consolidate the reports of his county, and transmit the same to the

principal of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind,

Blank forms for the use of district clerks and superintendents will be sent to the superintendents in due time.

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.03

6

.01

....

Average Number Months Taught......

Nuinber Teachers Employed : White

116 Colored

Teachers' Average Monthly Salaries: Males.........

.96 Females Cost of tuition per month per pupil enrolled ......

.04 Cost of tuition per month per pupil in attendance.........

.11 Whole cost of public education per month per pupil enrolled ..........

.06 Whole cost of public education per month per pupil in attendance

.14 Whole number of schoolhouses..

45 Number schoolhouses built during the year ...

22 Number volumes in school libraries...... 6,216 Value of school property owned by districts .....

$142,820.86 Revenue of the school system

State funds..... {

$1,797.00

$87,839 88 Current expenses of the system. $35,481.59 Permanent improvements...... $89,656.66 Total expenditures....

.$125,138.25

This increase in expenses is to be attributed to the unfortunate tendency to multiply the number of small and inefficient country schools, which is the most serious problem that presents itself for solution in connection with the public school system of the State; and the problem is not peculiar to Virginia alone.

The trouble caused by the multiplication of rural schools had become so serious throughout the country in 1895, that it was one of the most potent reasons that induced the National Educational Association to appoint a committee of twelve of the most experienced superintendents and teachers of the country to make a thorough study of the needs of rural schools and submit a report at a future meeting of the Association. After two years of patient investigation the committee submitted a report that is justly considered one of the most valuable educational documents of the age. Among the various subjects discussed in this admirable report none received more attention than that of the consolidation of the smaller rural schools into larger schools, with longer terms and better salaries for teachers. Attention was called to this report by my predecessor in the last biennial report, and a significant paragraph from this publication was quoted to indicate the opinion of the distinguished educators who framed it. This evil seems to be greatest in the Southern States, where the combined county and district system prevails. Matters have been going from bad to worse for so many years that it is now exceedingly difficult to remedy the evil. The result is that the revenues have not kept pace with the number and needs of the schools, and Virginia is confronted with the alternative of reducing the number of the rural schools, or of having shorter sessions and paying poorer salaries to her already underpaid teachers.

This lamentable state of affairs exists in many of the oldest, richest, and most densely populated commonwealths of the Union. In 1893, Vermont had more than one hundred and fifty schools in which there were six pupils or less; and the State Superintendent of Maine reported in 1892 that the average enrollment of pupils in that State was less than twenty-five per school, including cities; that there were probably between one thousand and twelve hundred schools in that State, with an average enrollment of pupils that did not exceed twelve; and that about eight hundred schools could be abolished with profit to the educational interests of the State.

In 1894-1895 there were in the great Empire State of New York 7,529 rural schools, in each of which the average attendance during the year varied fro:n one to twenty pupils, while the average daily attendance in each of 2,983 schools was less than ten pupils. In his report for 1897, State Superintendent Skinner says:

“In 1870, there were no fewer than 1,500 school districts in New York with an average daily attendance of less than ten pupils each, while the reports for 1896 show more than 3,500 such districts, and it is safe to estimate that the average daily attendance for all strictly country schools in the State does not exceed ten pupils for each school. In hundreds of districts the number of school district officers exceeds the number of pupils in average attendance. Under such conditions, it is practically impossible to maintain interest in the school work, either in the community or among the pupils and patrons; the school is conducted in a perfunctory manner, and school-spirit is at a minimum."

Statistics might be quoted to show the prevalence in former times of the same condition of affairs in the rural districts of Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and other rich and densely populated States, but it is needless to multiply instances of the general prevalence of this unwise policy. Here in Virginia, where we are maintaining a dual system of schools, made necessary by the presence of a large population of colored people, who contribute but a small amourt of the taxes required to support the schools for colored chil.

RURAL SCHOOLS.

The foregoing figures show that while there was a falling off in the attendance of pupils last year as compared with the year before, due in large measure, if not entirely, to the terrible winter and the prevalence of measles and small-pox, which necessitated the closing of many schools, yet there was an increase in the number of schools and in the amount of money expended for public education. It is true that this increase is largely covered by the large amount of money invested in permanent improvements-the largest ever spent for this purpose in any previous year--yet the fact remains that with this item of expenditure left out of account, the public schools of the State, in spite of the decreased number of pupils in attendance and the shortening of the school term, cost $35,481.59 more than was spent for the running expenses of the schools for the preceding year,

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dren, the wonder is that our public schools possess so many Committee of Fifteen on this subject, from which it will be excellencies and are doing such valuable work for the State. seen that the adoption of the policy of consolidating small But it is not our object to point out the excellencies of our rural schools and transporting pupils has resulted in securing public school system : these will speak for themselves. It better schools and in reducing the cost of maintaining them rather becomes us to discover the weaknesses of our system, --in some instances the expense of educating a given numand to suggest remedies for existing defects.

ber of pupils under the consolidated system being about ne The Committee of Twelve, in their report on rural schools, half of what it was under the discarded system of small, unhave plainly and powerfully set forth what seems to me to graded schools. be the only cure for the evils of which I have spoken above. The chief objection to such a proposition is that it smacks That remedy is the consolidation of the smaller schools and somewhat of paternalism and socialism, and that it would the transportation at local or public expense to and from the establish a dangerous precedent in the direction of relieving schools of those children who live too far away to walk. the parent of the burdens and responsibilities of his position. This movement, beginning in Massachusetts a quarter of a

It cannot be denied that all such legislation has a tendency century ago, has spread to many other States, in which in that direction ; but this objection applies with equal force hundreds of small rural schools hay been consolidated with to almost every feature of the public school system. The the most gratifying results. This reform cannot be brought transportation scheme is simply an application of the prinabout at once, but it must come gradually, if it is to come at ciple to a new state of affairs. In multiplying country all. The law of evolution is nowhere more forcibly exem- schools we have been acting on the assumption that it is the plified than in the working out of a system of public schools. duty of the State to carry the schoolhouse to the children. Virginia may profit by the example of her sister States that The question we are now called on to consider is, whether it have older and more thoroughly developed systems of public is not cheaper and better to carry the children to the schooleducation, and thus aid by wise legislation the natural evo

house. lution of our public school system. It is not contended that the adoption of the policy of consolidating the small rural

HIGHER INSTITUTIONS. schools can be effected in every community, or that, if ef- What has been said above regarding the tendency to mulfected, it would cure all the evils of the system. The fact

tiply schools applies with equal force to our so-called higher is, that whatever may be done in the way of consolidating

institutions of learning. According to the report of the the country schools, a large proportion of the children of

United States Commissioner of Education, Virginia has ten the State, for obvious reasons, will have to be taught in

degree-conferring institutions for men and fifteen for women, little ungraded rural schools, or they will not be taught at

not including agricultural, military, and professional instituall. But if the tendency to multiply small schools can be

tions. Massachusetts, with about one-third more people arrested, and a sentiment created in favor of the establish

and seven times more wealth, has nine degree-conferring ment of good graded schools, with longer terms and better

institutions for men and five for women, or just eleven fewer teachers, in every neighborhood, the way will be paved to

than Virginia, and yet Massachusetts ranks first among the the accomplishment of a great educational reform in Vir

commonwealths of the Union in respect to its educational ginia. Longer school terms, better teachers, better grading,

advantages and the intelligence of its citizens. Of the fifteen better teaching, better supervision, better schoolhouses,

degree-conferring colleges in Virginia for women, only one greater physical comforts for the pupils, and increased inter

is placed in the first rank by the United States Commissioner est in the schools on the part of both pupils and patrons,

of Education, while only one out of the five in Massachusetts are some of the claims that are justly made for the new de

is denied a place in the first rank. Of the fifty-four higher parture that is here advocated.

institutions in this country, possessing as much as one milIt will doubtless be contended by some that the condition

lion dollars' worth of property, only four are in the South ; of our country roads in the winter season would render the

and yet Harvard, in Massachusetts, Columbia, in New York, consolidation of schools impracticable, and there is some

and Girard, in Pennsylvania, are each worth seven times as strength in this contention, especially as applied to certain

much property as all these four Southern institutions comsections of the State ; but it must be admitted that if the

bined. The Right Honorable James Bryce, the distinconsolidation of rural schools is to lead to better roads, the

guished historian and member of the English Parliament, movement should commend itself to the approval of all pro- who has made an exhaustive study of our institutions, says gressive and public spirited men.

in his monumental work, “The American Commonwealth,'

that of the 114 degree.conferring institutions of learning for TRANSPORTATION OF PUPILS.

men in the Southern States, the University of Virginia is

the only one that attains to the first rank. This dispersion The question of transporting pupils is a difficult one to

of energies, resources and patronage among so many institudeal with, and must be left to be settled by individual dis

tions prevents Virginia from gaining that primacy in educatricts in accordance with local conditions. I would, there

tional matters in the nation to which she might otherwise fore, renew the recommendation of my predecessor that the

attain. In discussing this subject in his last report, the General Assembly enact a law permitting district school

United States Commissioner of Education says: boards to consolidate rural schools that have less than the

"One of the most discouraging features in our system of legal average of pupils in attendance, and to provide for the

higher education is the lack of definite, or, in fact, in a transportation of children to and from school under such

large number of States, the lack of any requirements or conregulations as the State Board of Education may preseribe.

ditions exacted of institutions when they are chartered to Such a law would not be binding on any community, but it

confer degrees. This condition of affairs is largely, if not

entirely, responsible for the large number of weak so-called would afford encouragement to school officials to put into colleges and universities scattered throughout our country, operation an experiment that is no longer an experiment institutions that are no better than high schools, and in a wherever it has been fairly tried, and which has the en

large number of cases do not furnish so good an education

as may be obtained in good secondary schools. Neverthedorsement of such men as Hon. William T. Harris, the dis

less, these institutions are chartered and granted authority tinguished Commissioner of Education of the United States, to confer all degrees usually conferred by colleges and uniand Dr. William H. Ruffner, the founder and organizer of

versities in the United States. The chartering of such insti.

tutions has been rendered impossible in the States of New the public school system of Virginia. Elsewhere in this re

York and Pennsylvania, and the subject of restricting to port will be found the results of the investigations of the well-equipped institutions the authority to confer degrees is

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being agitated in several other States. That such action is desirable, if not absolutely necessary, may be seen froin the fact, as stated in the report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Pennsylvania for 1896, that more than 120 institutions in that State have been empowered to confer degrees.

The Pennsylvania law provides that-

“No institution shall hereafter be chartered with power to confer degrees unless it has assets amounting to $500,000 in buildings, apparatus, endowments for the exclusive purpose of promoting instruction, and unless the faculty consists of at least six regular professors who devote all their time to the instruction of its college or university classes,” and that “no baccalaureate degree in arts, science, philosophy or literature be conferred upon any student who has not completed a college or university course covering four years.''

Such a restriction as that contained in the foregoing law might be too drastic for Virginia ; but it is generally conceded by all the friends of sound learning that something should be done towards limiting the authority to confer scholastic degrees. Such a restriction would prove a blessing to the colleges and universities already in existence by stimulating their friends to increase their endowments to the point of bringing them up to the standard of the best institutions in the country, and by protecting the public against the imposture of educational mountebanks, who, having secured charters for the establishing of so-called colleges, scam per off to the North on begging expeditions for institutions that exist only on paper.

hind many of the States of the Union in the matter of manual training in her common schools. Some years ago Superintendent Bader succeeded in introducing manual training into the schools of Staunton, where three competent and experienced teachers are employed in giving instruction in cooking, drawing, wood-work, and other related subjects; and Superintendent Glass informs me that the school board of Lynchburg will probably introduce manual training into the schools of that city at the beginning of the next session.

The nature and value of this kind of training are so fully and so strongly set forth in an address, delivered last summer before the School of Methods at Roanoke, by Inspector Hughes, of Toronto, and published elsewbere in this report, that it is needless to enlarge upon this subject. It is, however, very certain that our public schools cannot fulfill their mission in the education of the children of the Commonwealth until provision has been made for the introduction of manual training into these schools. We are still following very largely the old traditional methods in regard to the subjects taught in our primary and grammar schools, and are giving but little, if any, attention to those matters that tend to increase the power of young people to make the best use of the circumstances surrounding them when they enter on the duties of life. This is especially true of the schools for colored children. Dr. Frissell, the able Principal of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, who has made a thorough study of the educational needs of the Negro, says in his admirable report for 1897–98 that the young Negroes are coming out of the public schools of Virginia cities and counties with some slight knowledge of books, but with no handicraft. Unfitted for the menial pursuits in wbich their parents engaged, and in which, from the nature of things, they must also engage if they are to work at all, they gravitate to the cities, and in many instances become vagabonds and criminals. There is something radically wrong about any system of public education that does not elevate the standard of citizenship and increase the living power of those educated in the public schools.

Almost every argument in favor of public education rests on the assumption that civic virtue, power for complete living, and the general welfare are thereby enhanced. I do not discredit the practical value of the knowledge that comes from the study of books; but we must remember that the overwhelming preponderance of the children that attend the public schools will never become learned schol

The great majority of them never complete the grammar grades before they pass out to enter on the active duties of life ; and when they take up their life work, they find that what they have learned in the schools is of but little advantage to them. They have not been taught to do any of the things that they now have to do. I know there is danger in making education too utilitarian, but there is also danger in making public education too scholastic and unpractical. This is a practical age, and that which does not administer to the practical needs of life cannot claim a place in a system of public education. The annual expenditure of more than two millions of dollars in support of the public schools of Virginia demands of the law makers and the school officials of the State that they should frame and conduct a system of public instruction that will produce the best results. Other States have led the way, and Virginia should not only follow, but take her place in the forefront of this great educational movement. The introduction of manual training into the schools must be made gradually, if made at all; but it is all-important that steps be taken at once to start this movement in Virginia, unless we are content to lag behind and remain in the rear of the educational forces of the nation.

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MANUAL TRAINING. Herbert Spencer, the foremost thinker and philosopher of modern times, declares that the chief function of education is to prepare man for complete living, and this is coming to be generally accepted as the proper definition of public school education. And yet, we find that those things that most nearly concern the business of life are almost entirely left out of the courses of study in our common schools. All our industries would soon cease were it not for the information which men begin to acquire only after their education is said to be finished ; and were it not for this information, that has been from age to age accumulated and handed down and spread abroad by unofficial means, these industries would never have existed. “Had there been no teaching but such as is given in our public schools,” says Mr. Spencer, “England would now be what it was in feudal times. That increasing acquaintance with the laws of phenomena, which has through successive ages enabled us to subjugate nature to our needs, and in these days gives the common laborer comforts which a few centuries ago kings could not purchase, is scarcely in any degree owed to the appointed means of instructing the youth. The vital knowledge—that by which we have grown as a nation to what we are, and which now underlies our whole existence, is a knowledge that has got itself taught in nooks and corners, while the ordained agencies for teaching have been mumbling little else but dead formulas."

In the forty years that have elapsed since Herbert Spencer wrote these lines, wonderful changes have taken place in the educational systems of the world. Normal schools for the training of teachers have sprung into existence, college and university courses have been reorganized and enlarged, and common school education modified and enriched to meet the demands of this progressive and practical age. Among the most notable results of this evolution of educational ideas we must place the establishment of industrial and technical schools, and the introduction of manual and industrial training into the public gramınar and high school courses. Virginia has made provision for the training of teachers by establishing and maintaining excellent normal schools for both sexes and both races, and ample provision has been made for technical instruction; but she is far be

ars.

“The flighty purpose ne'er is overtook

Unless the deed go with it."

success.

THE EDUCATION OF THE NEGROES. The most serious and difficult problem with which the South has to deal is the education of the Negroes. The census for 1900 will probably show that we have nearly ten millions of negroes in the United States, about eight millions of whom, it is safe to say, are in the Southern States. They are here among us from no choice of their own. Nearly thirty-five years ago they were emancipated from the condition of slavery, and a few years later they were invested by the XVth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States with the elective franchise, and have subsequently been invested with equal legal rights and privileges with the whites. That the granting of the elective franchise to these people without previous preparation was a colassal blunder, if not a crime, no well-informed and impartial man will hardly dare dispute. It is no exaggeration to say that nearly all the ill feeling engendered between the two races in the Southern States since the close of the civil war has sprung from the fact that the Federal Government succeeded in forcing the States lately in secession to grant to their former slaves and their descendants, as they reached maturity, the right to take part in the direction of public affairs. It was natural and inevitable that this should be so. But these people are here among us, and it behooves us, as long as they remain, to consider the best means of making them useful and upright citizens.

In the light of present information, it must be confessed that the Negroes of the South are not making such progress in moral and material development as the advocates of public education had hoped. The fact is, our common schools are not giving the Negro the right kind of education to aid him in becoming a better and more profitable citizen. As I have said above, we have been giving him a smattering of book knowledge that tends to educate him out of his environment rather than to aid him in making an honest living and becoming a good and profitable servant of the State. The education that we are giving the Negro makes him dissatisfied with the menial pursuits in which his fathers engaged, and in which he must engage, if he is to make an honest living and become a useful member of the community in which he lives. That this is true may be learned from a study of the condition of the race, not only in the South, but also in other sections of the country.

Professor Walter F. Wilcox, of Cornell University, now acting as statistician of the census of 1900, in an address lately delivered before the American Social Science Association, at Saratoga, on the subject of “ Negro Criminality,” contends that crime has been increasing much more rapidly among the Negroes than among the whites, and he adduces the following statistics to prove his contention :

“The number of prisoners in the United States was reported at the last census, showing those of African descent and those of pure white blood. In the Southern States there were six white prisoners to every 10,000 whites, and twenty-nine Negro prisoners to every 10,000 Negroes.'

Professor Wilcox, wbo was reared almost under the shadow of Bunker Hill, and who, therefore, has no prejudices favorable to the South, then proceeds to show that this condition prevails in Northern as well as in Southern States. He says:

"In the Northern States in 1890 there were twelve white prisoners to every 10,000 whites, and sixty-nine Negro prisoners to every 10,000 Negroes. In our own State of New York the Negroes, in proportion to their numbers, contributed over five times as many as the whites to the prison population.”

Thus it appears that, while the general percentage of the white prisoners is greater at the North than at the South, due doubtless to the large admixture of foreigners, the preponderance of the Negro criminals is even more marked ; for while there are twice as many criminals in a given number of white people in the North as in the South, there are

more than twice as many among the Negroes. In fact, the figures show not only a higher rate at the North, but a more rapid increase of crime among the blacks.

In considering the causes of this undeniable excess of criminality among the Negro population, Professor Wilcox insists that the explanation is not to be found in any lack of education. He says, as has repeatedly been said, that the Negro and his unthinking friends are too prone to set up mere scholastic acquirement as a fetich, the possession of which is a guarantee of happiness, morality, and material

He then goes further and declares that the desire and ability to support one's self by legitimate industry, and not the smattering tuition of the public schools, furnish the best, if not the only, safeguard against crime. Education that creates wants without enabling the individual to gratify them is not advantageous : it is baneful and demoralizing.

It would be manifestly unfair to expect the Negroes, with all the discouraging circumstances that surround them, to show the same degree of advancement as the whites; and it is doubtless true that their unenviable record in criminal statistics at the North is due very largely to the fact that they have more and better chances of making an honest living in the South than in the North. But however this may be, we are confronted with a condition which we are bound to meet, and there is no escape from the inevitable. From statistics furnished this office by Colonel Morton Marye, the able and accomplished Auditor of Public Accounts, it is safe to say that the Negroes of Virginia cost the State annually about one-half million dollars in excess of the entire amount of taxes paid into the treasury by them. This is not an encouraging state of affairs. We must, however, not forget that the Negroes, in the short period of their free condition, have had to contend in their struggle for material wealth with the most powerful and progressive race of the world. But the fact that they are still making but little progress, and in some instances show evident signs of retrogression, demands that the most enlightened thought and the wisest counsel be employed to find a remedy for the existing evils. All will agree that ignorance is not the remedy.

Among those who have had the largest opportunities to study the subject may be named Dr. J. L. M. Curry, the general agent of the Peabody Education Fund ; Dr. H. B. Frissell, the principal of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute ; and Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. All these agree that the surest road to the regeneration of the Negro race lies through moral and industrial training ; that the three R's should be in large measure supplanted by the three H's—the head, the heart and the hand. Booker T. Washington, in an article published in The Atlantic for November, says that it is a notable fact that no Negro educated in any of the larger industrial institutions of the South has been charged with any of the recent crimes connected with assaults upon women.

Aside from any question of abstract right, we should see to it that these people are educated to a. moderate degree of intelligence, and that they have such instruction in industrial training as to make them thrifty in habits and productive in labor. This much, at least, we owe to them, to ourselves, and to the generations that are to come after us. The remedy proposed may not cure all the evils, but it is the best that has yet been suggested. The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute has been preaching this gospel and practicing this doctrine almost from its foundation ; the Miller School of Albemarle is a living monument to the wisdom of this policy, and I would urge the General Assembly to see that ample provision is made for introducing this kind of training into the Normal and Collegiate Institute at Petersburg. The introduction of industrial training into all the common schools, for white as well as for colored children, should be accomplished as soon as possible. Surely there is salvation in it.

[Continued in March Number.]

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