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8. The spinal cord is the path of communication 3. School discipline consists in bringing the pupils
between the muscles and skin and the brain, into a condition of prompt, regular, and cheerfor both voluntary motion and sensation; and ful obedience to properly constituted authorit is the great seat of reflex action, as cough
ity. ing and winking.
4. (a) No. (b) All are not equally influenced by 9. The temperature of the body (99.6°F.) is main
the same motives. The peculiarities of the tained in all climates by the heat set free by individual child must be considered, and such exercise being balanced in the healthy body by punishments inflicted as will produce the best the loss of heat through perspiration and
results. respiration. This balance is regulated by the 5. To the highest which he is capable of appreciatnervous system.
ing. 10. Scented particles of matter in passing through 6. Should become acquainted with them, treat them
the nostrils are brought in contact with the courteously, and seek to interest them in the filament of the nerve of smell, and the im
work of the school; should keep them advised pression made is carried by them to the brain. of the progress and conduct of their children;
should frankly state defects and commend ex
cellencies, and should seek to secure their coTHEORY AND PRACTICE OF TEACHING.
operation. 1. Name some of the qualities (not less than 3)
7. The following are some. There are, of course, which a teacher must have in order to give the
others, and answers will vary : Approbation of best instruction.
conscience, of the teacher, of parents and 2. What physical conditions are necessary that the
friends, and of the community; desire of schoolroom may be best suited for comfortable gaining knowledge; pleasure of overcoming and effective work ?
difficulties ; gratification of curiosity; hope of 3. Define school discipline.
success in the school, in life, &c.; duty of self4. [a] Would you use the same method of dis
development; &c. cipline with all pupils ? [b] Give reasons for
8. By calling attention to the geographical elements your opinion.
existing in the neighborhood, by good pic5. To what class of motives would you appeal in the
tures, and by the molding board. case of any individual pupil ?
9. (a) Perceptive powers (observation). (6) Mem6. Name some of the duties of the teachers to the
ory. (c) Reasoning powers. patrons of the school.
10. The necessary basis of grammar and essential to 7. Name some proper school incentives.
a proper preparation for it. 8. How would you develop in the mind of a little
child geographical ideas ?
1. Under how many constitutions do you live? 10. What relation does language teaching bear to
Name them. 2. How is the President of the United States elected ?
and for how many years ? THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TEACHING
3. [a] Name the two branches of Congress.  ANSWERS.
How many members has Virginia in each
branch? [C] How long is the term of the 1. A clear comprehension of the subject matter;
members of each branch ? the ability to adapt instruction to the capaci- 4. [a] Name the present Governor of Virginia.  ties of the children; the ability to secure the
How is the Governor elected ? and for how cheerful and interested attention of the pupils
many years? by the exhibition of sympathy, kindness, jus- 5. [a] What is the law-making body of Virginia tice, helpfulness, and consideration of their called ?  Of what branches is it composed ? feelings and wishes.
[c] How and for what term of years are the 2. It should be properly heated; it should have
members of each branch elected ? comfortable seats and desks; the light should 6. [a] Name all the State Courts, beginning with the so enter the room as to be pleasant, and not highest. [b] How are judges elected in Virinjurious to the eyes of the children; and there ginia ? should be a plentiful supply of pure, fresh air, 7. [a] What are the duties of the Lieutenant-Govso admitted as not to produce unwholesome
ernor of Virginia ?  Under what circumdraughts.
stances would he become Governor ?
8. What are the legal qualifications of a voter in 4. Mention three important duties of the Board of this State ?
Education. 9. [a] In what Congressional district do you re
5. State fully the qualifications that a teacher must side?  Who represents that district at
possess to obtain a first grade certificate unpresent?
der the uniform system of examinations. 10. Name the county officers chosen at the last elec
6. What are the provisions of the law relative to tion.
the visitation of schools ?
7. Under what circumstances may a legal contract CIVIL GOVERNMENT.-ANSWERS.
to teach be made with two or three trustees ?
8. (a) For what purpose was the State Female 1. Two. The Constitution of the United States and
Normal School established ? (b) By what the Constitution of Virginia.
authority is it governed ? 2. (a) By electors chosen by the people of the
9. Name two causes for which a district board may several States. (6) Four (6) Four years.
dismiss a teacher. 3. (a) The Senate and House of Representatives.
10. Under the law, what officer is charged with the (6) Two in the Senate and ten in the House
duty of looking after the sanitary condition of of Representatives. (c) Senators for six years;
schoolhouses, etc? members of the House of Representatives
for two years. 4. (a) J Hoge Tyler. (6) By direct vote of the b
READING. people, and for four years. 5. (a) The General Assembly. (1) The Senate
I. (VALUE, 50.) and the House of Delegates. (c) By the di
1. What essentials would you look for in a series of rect vote of the people. (d) Senators for
Readers intended to be used in the public four years; members of the House of Delegates
schools ? for two years.
2. What are the qualities of good reading ? 6. (a) Court of Appeals, Circuit Courts, County
Courts, Magistrates' Courts. (b) The judges 3. What are the requisites for correct expression in of the first three courts are elected by the Gen
reading ? eral Assembly; the magistrates or justices of
II. (VALUE, 50.) the peace are elected by the people.
Read Paul's Defence before Agrippa. Acts 26: 7. (a) To preside over the Senate of Virginia. 1-23.
(6) In case of the death, resignation, or re-
1. (a) Describe a cell; and state what vital protrict in which he offers to vote for three months;
perties it possesses. (6) State what part the and must have not been convicted of any
cells play in forming tissues, organs, systems. crime.
2. Describe the simpliest form of animal life, and 9. (Answers will vary according to the residence
illustrate by the amoeba, as example. of the person examined). 10. Commonwealth's Attorney, County and Circurt 3. (a) Explain the mutual dependence of plants Court Clerks, Treasurer, Supervisors.
and animals. (6) State what general conditions influence or determine the habitat of
plants and terrestrial animals. EXAMINATION QUESTIONS FOR TEACHERS'
4. Name some representative animal and plants
found in the several zones. STATE CERTIFICATES.
5. Describe, in outline, the respiration of (a) Birds, VIRGINIA SCHOOL LAW.
6. Give the principal differences between Rumin1. What are the limits of school age in this State ?
ants and Carnivera. 2. What conditions are necessary that a school dis- 7. (a) Are Radiates terrestrial or marine? (6) trict may receive money from the general
For what general uses are the arıns and the State school fund ?
legs of the following animals adapted : man, 3. During a term of school, who is the legal custo
monkey, dog, bird, fish ? dian of the school register and responsible for 8. (a) Give some of the marked characteristics its safe keeping ?
which distinguish the Insects, as a class. (6) Give the stages of life of a mosquito, defining 4. (a) What relative position does water hold as a lava, pupa, imago.
food. (6) What is considered the most 9. Give the life history of an oyster, and name
healthful diet? (c) Of what value is milk as some of its enemies.
a food ? 10. Define a fossil, and give examples.
5. (a) Describe the evil effects of rapid eating.
(6) State properties and uses of the gastric
juices. (c) What circumstances of emotions PSYCHOLOGY.
affect digestion ?
6. (@) Why is the blood called “the vital fluid”? 1. (a) What is a mental faculty ? (6) State whether
(6) Through what mediums is the blood proor not consciousness is one, and why? (c)
vided with new material and relieved of the What are its relations to the other mental
old ? (c) State a remarkable property of faculties?
the tissue of the heart. 2. (a) What is perception? (6) What is a precept?
7. (a) What is the object of respiration? (6) (c) Distinguish the two elements recognized
State general effects of breathing any impure in perception?
atmosphere. (c) Prove that cleanliness, not 3. (a) What is mental recognition ? (6) The effect disinfectants, is the sum total of hygiene.
of the invention of printing on memory? 8. (a) State fully what is meant by the term vege(c) How can it be judiciously trained? (d)
tative function. (6) State the special funcState its uses and abuses in the schoolroom.
tion of the cerebrum. 4. (a) The uses of the imagination. (b) Distin
9. (a) State the effects of alcohol upon the brain. guish it and fancy. (c) State three vocations
(6) How does it affect the mind? Does
c) or arts in which the function of the imagina
tobacco affect the sense of sight? tion is the most conspicuous and elevating.
10. (a) How would you treat a person in a faint ? 5. (a) What is abstraction ? (6) Give an illustra
(6) What is the treatment for asphyxia from tion. (c). Distinguish an abstract and a con
inhaling illuminating gas ? (c) How would crete idea.
you relieve a person suffering from an over6 (a) What is generalization? (6) Distinguish a dose of opium ?
particular and a general idea. (c) Illustrate
sythesis in generalization.
I. (VALUE, 10.)
1. What advance has been made up to this time 8. (a) What is intuition? (6) An intuitive truth?
by the advocates of Spelling Reform? (c) State three tests of an intuitive truth.
2. Give three rules for spelling that have proved 9. (a) What is an emotion? (6) An affection? (C) A desire? (d) Illustrate.
DICTATION. 10. (a) What is the motive? (6) What is the
II. (VALUE, 40.)
As soon as my incommodities allowed me to think of past occurrences, I failed not to inquire what had
become of the odd little guest whom Hollingsworth PHYSIOLOGY.
had been the medium of introducing among us. It
now appeared that poor Priscilla had not so literally 1. (a) Describe the structure of the spinal column.
fallen out of the clouds as we were at first inclined (6) What properties and powers does it pos
A letter, which should have introduced sess? (©) Give the composition of the bones.
her, had since been received from one of the city 2. (a) State the difference between voluntary and missionaries, containing a certificate of character and involuntary muscles? (6) Why cannot a
an allusion to circumstances which, in the writer's muscle in life continue contracted a long time? judgment, made it especially desirable that she (c) How can the constant beating of the heart should find shelter in our community. There was a be explained ?
hint, not very intelligible, implying either that Pris3. (a) Give the structure of the skin. (6) What cilla had recently escaped from some particular peril
office does it perform? (c) State the benefi- or irksomeness of position, or else that she was still cial effects of sun bathing.
liable to this danger or difficulty, whatever it might
useful to you.
5. [a] Where is the nourishment stored in the
sweet potato plant ?  In the Irish potato ? [c] In the white lily? [d] In the cabbage ?
[e] In the sugar maple ? 6. [a] Define stipules. [b] Define inflorescence.
Naine and describe two kinds. [c] Define
receptacle. 7. [a] Define a monoecious plant. [b] Why is the
flower of larkspur unsymmetrical ? [c] Why
is it irregular? 8. [a] Why is the honeysuckle diadelphus? [b]
What is an indehiscent fruit? Give an ex
ample. [c] Describe the fruit of the bean. 9. [a] Why do plants imbibe only fluids ? [b]
Where do they obtain their food ? [c] How
do air plants differ from parasites ? 10. Draw a white oak leaf; an apple leaf; any maple
leaf; a red clover leaf; a common locust leaf [Robinia].
WORDS TO BE SPELLED.
III. (VALUE, 50.) 1. beefsteak.
26. vaccinate. 2. surveillance.
27. vying. 3. auxiliary.
28. privilege. 4. occurrence.
29. intercede. 5. centennial.
30. mucilage. 6. colloquy.
31. tranquility. 7. dissipate.
32. licentiate. 8. lilies.
33. supercede. 9. melodeon.
34. quizzical. 10. billiards.
35. millennium. 11. trosseau.
36. connoisseur. 12. inflammatory. 37. dissyllable. 13. exaggerate.
38. trafficking. 14. brilliancy.
39. inseparable. 15. tyrannical.
40. conscientious. 16. numskull.
41. contrariwise. 17. erysipelas.
42. metallic. 18. alpaca.
43. almond. 19. caterpillar.
44. jugular. 20. surcingle.
45. poignant. 21. collision.
46. condolence. 22. valleys.
47. reconnoitre. 23. primer.
48. descendant. 24. luscious.
49. acclimate. 25. acknowledgment. 50. prominent.
1. Two triangles are equal when the three sides of
one are equal respectively to the three sides
of the other. 2. Two angles whose sides are perpendicular, each
to each, are either equal or supplementary. 3. The sum of the angles of any triangle is equal to
two right angles. 4. A parallel to one side of a triangle divides the
other two sides proportionally. 5. Show how to inscribe a circle in a given triangle. 6. If through a fixed point without a circle a secant
and a tangent be drawn, the product of the whole secant and its external segment is equal
to the square of the tangent. 7. Two triangles, having an angle of one equal to
an angle of the other, are to each other as the products of the sides, including the equal
angles. 8. In any right triangle the square described upon
the hypotenuse is equivalent to the sum of
the squares described upon the legs. 9. [a] The area of a Rhombus is equal to one-half the product of its diagonals.  If the alti
b tude of a Trapezoid is 1 ft. 4 in., and its bases are 1 ft. 1 in. and 2 ft. 5 in. respectively, what
is its area ? 10. If the radius of a circle is 100 ft., find [a] the
circumference of the circle;  the area of the sector whose angle is 60°; [c] the area of segment whose arc is 60°.
[TO BE CONTINUED.)
1. (a) Name the three kingdoms of nature. Give
illustrations of each. (b) What is the essen
tial part of a seed ? [c] Describe it. 2. [a] How do exogens differ from endogens ? Give
an example of each.  Illustrate the use of genus and species. [c] How is the red clover plant related to the common locust tree [Ro
binia] in classification. 3. [a] Name and describe the two parts of a sta
men.  Describe the fruit of the morning glory. [c] Describe the roots, stem, and leaves of the onion.
4. [a] What are climbing plants? [b] How do
they support themselves ? [c] What are tendrils?
ranged for supplementary reading by EleaTHE
nor A. Persons, Teacher of History, Yonkers Public Schools. (50 cents.) American Book Company
By means of such collections properly used in the schoolroom, an impulse is given to the study of the history and literature of the country. Is it too soon to have suggestions of Lee and Stonewall Jackson in collections of this sort ? ADVANCED GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION. By
E. Oram Lyte, A. M., Ph. D., Principal
First Pennsylvania State Normal School,
ican Book Company.
This is the third and last of the series preit the "necessary” and “ indispensable" magazine. In tho basy rush pared by the distinguished author. In a of to-day ambitious men and women must know about the important word, we may say that the series is practiquestions of the month, and not only this, they want to know about cal, progressive and scientific; certainly the them at the right time. When the whole country is puzzled over the gigantic combination of trusts, a well-informed article is printed in the
advanced grammar must claim the attention AMERICAN MONTHLY, giving the facts, and its editor discusses the of every intelligent teacher. theory; when the Dreyfus affair is in everyono's mouth, the best story In a late issue of The Western Teacher, and of Dreyfus and the great case comes out in this magasine.
there is no educational journal of more solid Every month, in " The Progress of the World,” Dr. Albert Shaw gives a comprehensive picture of the world's history during the pre
worth, the editors say, in reference to sundry vious thirty days. In the departments, the valuable articles and books grammatical enigmas presented to them, that have been published during the past month are reviewed and “The editors of The Teacher are non-combatquoted from, so that the readers of the AMERICAN MONTHLY can get the gist of them. In every issue nearly a hundred pictures are printed,
ants; therefore, as a means of promoting including the portraits of the men and women who are making the
peace and good digestion, they have unanhistory of the month.
imously agreed among themselves that they To be thoroughly well informed helps any man or woman in his or don't know any grammar to speak of.” her work. A subscription to the AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS represents an investment for the best kind of profit, as
Every new grammar that has come into well as entertainment. One subscriber has just written:
" Count me
our hands for notice has lessened our pulse a life subscriber, and when you send mo a numbor beyond the limit of beats ; what wars are stirred up! The frank my subscription and secure no renewal from me, consider it a notice of
confession of Editor Gillian may well emmy death." Price 25 cents per number, $2.50 a year.
bolden others to play shy with grammar in A sample copy will be sent on receipt of ten cents in stamps.
But, as a parting shot, we will say that Dr. Lyte seems sound to the core in his dis
cussions of the abstruse subject, and is perTHE REVIEW OF REVIEWS COMPANY
spicuous in his explanations. But we will 13 Astor Placc
not take up the cudgels in defense of our thesis. The grammar war is always active
in Virginia. LESSONS IN LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR. By Horace S. Tar
bell, LL. D., and Martha Tarbell, Ph. D. Ginn & Co.
The Tarbells need no introduction. Their work has the approval of a broad constituency. Many teachers throughout the country have adopted their books and follow their
In the treatment of language work they are conspicuously Richmond, Norfolk, Lynchburg, Cin
excellent. Many school teachers are not ready to break
away from old authorities, but certainly all teachers should cinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, Louis- be willing to know what progressive teachers think is best. ville, and all points West.
THE AT-ONE-MENT BETWEEN GOD AND MAN is a recent issue,
Vol. V., of the Millennial Dawn Series, published at AlSUPERB TRAIN SERVICE
leghany, Pa. (25 cents ; 500 pages.) With Electric-Lighted, Steam-Heated Vestibuled Coaches and Pullman's Newest and Finest Sleeping-Cars.
18 valuable in proportion to
its influence. If it merely hears of vacancies and
is something, MEALS SERVED IN DINING CAR
tells you about them but
THAT if it is asked
to recommend a teacher and recommends you, that
C. W. BARDEEN, THE FAMOUS F. F. V. AND :
Syracuse, N. Y. CINCINNATI AND ST. LOUIS SPECIAL are unsurpassed for Speed, Comfort and Equipment. la The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, with its hun
STAUNTON, VA. dreds of miles of Mountain and Valley Scenery, splendid roadway, careful
management, prompt movement of trains, the latest improved systems for speed and safety, Recommends teachers to schools and families. Informs is the favorite route for the Teacher and Student as well
parents and guardians of good schools. Experienced as the public gedrally. The rates are as low as the lowest.
teachers wanted for vacancies. Able educators in any RCFor in, irmation of Routes, Connections, Rates,
department of learning furnished on short notice. &c., address JOHN D. POTTS,
Write for information. Ass't Gen'l Pass, Agent, C. &0. R'y, Richmond, Va.
J. R. WEAVER, Manager.
& ) CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO
Virginia Educational Bureau,