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8. The spinal cord is the path of communication between the muscles and skin and the brain, for both voluntary motion and sensation; and it is the great seat of reflex action, as coughing and winking.

9. The temperature of the body (99.6°F.) is maintained in all climates by the heat set free by exercise being balanced in the healthy body by the loss of heat through perspiration and respiration. This balance is regulated by the nervous system.

10. Scented particles of matter in passing through the nostrils are brought in contact with the filament of the nerve of smell, and the impression made is carried by them to the brain.


1. Name some of the qualities (not less than 3) which a teacher must have in order to give the best instruction.

2. What physical conditions are necessary that the schoolroom may be best suited for comfortable and effective work?

3. Define school discipline.

4. [a] Would you use the same method of discipline with all pupils? [b] Give reasons for your opinion.

5. To what class of motives would you appeal in the case of any individual pupil?

6. Name some of the duties of the teachers to the patrons of the school.

7. Name some proper school incentives.

8. How would you develop in the mind of a little child geographical ideas?

9. To which of the mental faculties does [a] nature study chiefly appeal? [b] Spelling? [c] Arithmetic?

10. What relation does language teaching bear to grammar?


1. A clear comprehension of the subject matter; the ability to adapt instruction to the capacities of the children; the ability to secure the cheerful and interested attention of the pupils by the exhibition of sympathy, kindness, justice, helpfulness, and consideration of their feelings and wishes.

2. It should be properly heated; it should have

comfortable seats and desks; the light should so enter the room as to be pleasant, and not injurious to the eyes of the children; and there should be a plentiful supply of pure, fresh air, so admitted as not to produce unwholesome draughts.

3. School discipline consists in bringing the pupils into a condition of prompt, regular, and cheerful obedience to properly constituted authority.

4. (a) No. (b) All are not equally influenced by the same motives. The peculiarities of the individual child must be considered, and such punishments inflicted as will produce the best results.

5. To the highest which he is capable of appreciating.

6. Should become acquainted with them, treat them courteously, and seek to interest them in the work of the school; should keep them advised of the progress and conduct of their children; should frankly state defects and commend excellencies, and should seek to secure their cooperation.

7. The following are some. There are, of course, others, and answers will vary: Approbation of conscience, of the teacher, of parents and friends, and of the community; desire of gaining knowledge; pleasure of overcoming difficulties; gratification of curiosity; hope of success in the school, in life, &c.; duty of selfdevelopment; &c.

8. By calling attention to the geographical elements existing in the neighborhood, by good pictures, and by the molding board.

9. (a) Perceptive powers (observation). (b) Memory. (c) Reasoning powers.

10. The necessary basis of grammar and essential to a proper preparation for it.


1. Under how many constitutions do you live? Name them.

2. How is the President of the United States elected? and for how many years?

3. [a] Name the two branches of Congress. [6] How many members has Virginia in each branch? [c] How long is the term of the members of each branch?

4. [a] Name the present Governor of Virginia. [b] How is the Governor elected? and for how many years?

5. [a] What is the law-making body of Virginia called? [b] Of what branches is it composed? [c] How and for what term of years are the members of each branch elected?

6. [a] Name all the State Courts, beginning with the highest. [6] How are judges elected in Virginia?

7. [a] What are the duties of the Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia? [b] Under what circumstances would he become Governor?

8. What are the legal qualifications of a voter in this State?

9. [a] In what Congressional district do you reside? [b] Who represents that district at present?

10. Name the county officers chosen at the last election.


1. Two. The Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of Virginia.

2. (a) By electors chosen by the people of the several States. (b) Four years.

3. (a) The Senate and House of Representatives. (b) Two in the Senate and ten in the House of Representatives. (c) Senators for six years; members of the House of Representatives for two years.

4. (a) J Hoge Tyler. (b) By direct vote of the people, and for four years.

5. (a) The General Assembly.

(b) The Senate

and the House of Delegates. (c) By the direct vote of the people. (d) Senators for four years; members of the House of Delegates for two years.

6. (a) Court of Appeals, Circuit Courts, County Courts, Magistrates' Courts. (b) The judges of the first three courts are elected by the General Assembly; the magistrates or justices of the peace are elected by the people.

7. (a) To preside over the Senate of Virginia. (b) In case of the death, resignation, or removal from office, of the Governor.

8. Must be a man, twenty-one years old; a resident of the State for one year and of the city or district in which he offers to vote for three months; and must have not been convicted of any crime.

9. (Answers will vary according to the residence. of the person examined).

10. Commonwealth's Attorney, County and Circurt Court Clerks, Treasurer, Supervisors.



1. What are the limits of school age in this State? 2. What conditions are necessary that a school district may receive money from the general State school fund?

3. During a term of school, who is the legal custodian of the school register and responsible for its safe keeping?

4. Mention three important duties of the Board of Education.

5. State fully the qualifications that a teacher must possess to obtain a first grade certificate under the uniform system of examinations.

6. What are the provisions of the law relative to the visitation of schools?

7. Under what circumstances may a legal contract to teach be made with two or three trustees? 8. (a) For what purpose was the State Female Normal School established? (b) By what authority is it governed?

9. Name two causes for which a district board may dismiss a teacher.

10. Under the law, what officer is charged with the duty of looking after the sanitary condition of schoolhouses, etc?


I. (VALUE, 50.)

1. What essentials would you look for in a series of Readers intended to be used in the public schools?

2. What are the qualities of good reading?

3. What are the requisites for correct expression in reading?

II. (VALUE, 50.)

Read Paul's Defence before Agrippa. Acts 26: 1-23.


1. (a) Describe a cell; and state what vital properties it possesses. (b) State what part the cells play in forming tissues, organs, systems.

2. Describe the simpliest form of animal life, and illustrate by the amoeba, as example.

3. (a) Explain the mutual dependence of plants and animals. (b) State what general conditions influence or determine the habitat of plants and terrestrial animals.

4. Name some representative animal and plants found in the several zones.

5. Describe, in outline, the respiration of (a) Birds, (b) Fishes.

6. Give the principal differences between Ruminants and Carnivera.

7. (a) Are Radiates terrestrial or marine? (b) For what general uses are the arms and the legs of the following animals adapted: man, monkey, dog, bird, fish?

8. (a) Give some of the marked characteristics which distinguish the Insects, as a class. (b)

Give the stages of life of a mosquito, defining lava, pupa, imago.

9. Give the life history of an oyster, and name some of its enemies.

10. Define a fossil, and give examples.


1. (a) What is a mental faculty? (b) State whether or not consciousness is one, and why? (c) What are its relations to the other mental faculties?

2. (a) What is perception? (b) What is a precept? (c) Distinguish the two elements recognized in perception?

3. (a) What is mental recognition? (b) The effect of the invention of printing on memory (c) How can it be judiciously trained? (d) State its uses and abuses in the schoolroom. 4. (a) The uses of the imagination. (b) Distinguish it and fancy. (c) State three vocations or arts in which the function of the imagination is the most conspicuous and elevating.

5. (a) What is abstraction? (b) Give an illustration. (c) Distinguish an abstract and a concrete idea.

6 (a) What is generalization? (b) Distinguish a particular and a general idea. (c) Illustrate the functions of comparison, analysis, and sythesis in generalization.

7. (a) Illustrate the difference between induction and deduction in mathematics. (b) Why is mathematical deduction so forcible? (c) What is the basis of inductive reasoning?

8. (a) What is intuition? (b) An intuitive truth? (c) State three tests of an intuitive truth. 9. (a) What is an emotion? (b) An affection? (c) A desire? (d) Illustrate.

10. (a) What is the motive? (b) What is the choice? (c) What is the volition? (d) Illustrate.


1. (a) Describe the structure of the spinal column. (b) What properties and powers does it possess? (c) Give the composition of the bones. 2. (a) State the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles? (b) Why cannot a muscle in life continue contracted a long time? (c) How can the constant beating of the heart be explained?

3. (a) Give the structure of the skin. (b) What office does it perform? (c) State the beneficial effects of sun bathing.

4. (a) What relative position does water hold as a food. (b) What is considered the most healthful diet? (c) Of what value is milk as a food?

5. (a) Describe the evil effects of rapid eating. (b) State properties and uses of the gastric juices. (c) What circumstances of emotions affect digestion?

6. (2) Why is the blood called "the vital fluid"? (b) Through what mediums is the blood provided with new material and relieved of the old? (c) State a remarkable property of the tissue of the heart.

7. (a) What is the object of respiration? (b) State general effects of breathing any impure atmosphere. (c) Prove that cleanliness, not disinfectants, is the sum total of hygiene.

8. (a) State fully what is meant by the term vegetative function. (b) State the special function of the cerebrum.

9. (a) State the effects of alcohol upon the brain. (b) How does it affect the mind? (c) Does tobacco affect the sense of sight?

10. (a) How would you treat a person in a faint? (b) What is the treatment for asphyxia from inhaling illuminating gas? (c) How would you relieve a person suffering from an overdose of opium?


I. (VALUE, 10.)

1. What advance has been made up to this time by the advocates of Spelling Reform ?

2. Give three rules for spelling that have proved useful to you.


II. (VALUE, 40.)

As soon as my incommodities allowed me to think of past occurrences, I failed not to inquire what had become of the odd little guest whom Hollingsworth had been the medium of introducing among us. It now appeared that poor Priscilla had not so literally fallen out of the clouds as we were at first inclined to suppose. A letter, which should have introduced her, had since been received from one of the city missionaries, containing a certificate of character and an allusion to circumstances which, in the writer's judgment, made it especially desirable that she should find shelter in our community. There was a hint, not very intelligible, implying either that Priscilla had recently escaped from some particular peril or irksomeness of position, or else that she was still liable to this danger or difficulty, whatever it might

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1. (a) Name the three kingdoms of nature. Give illustrations of each. (b) What is the essential part of a seed? [c] Describe it.

2. [a] How do exogens differ from endogens? Give an example of each. [6] Illustrate the use of genus and species. [c] How is the red clover plant related to the common locust tree [Robinia] in classification.

3. [a] Name and describe the two parts of a stamen. [b] Describe the fruit of the morning glory. [c] Describe the roots, stem, and leaves of the onion.

4. [a] What are climbing plants? [b] How do they support themselves? [c] What are tendrils?

5. [a] Where is the nourishment stored in the sweet potato plant? [b] In the Irish potato? [c] In the white lily? [d] In the cabbage? [e] In the sugar maple?

6. [a] Define stipules. [b] Define inflorescence. Name and describe two kinds. [c] Define receptacle.

7. [a] Define a monoecious plant. [6] Why is the flower of larkspur unsymmetrical? [c] Why is it irregular?

8. [a] Why is the honeysuckle diadelphus? [b] What is an indehiscent fruit? Give an example. [c] Describe the fruit of the bean. 9. [a] Why do plants imbibe only fluids? [b] Where do they obtain their food? [c] How do air plants differ from parasites?

10. Draw a white oak leaf; an apple leaf; any maple leaf; a red clover leaf; a common locust leaf [Robinia].


1. Two triangles are equal when the three sides of one are equal respectively to the three sides. of the other.

2. Two angles whose sides are perpendicular, each to each, are either equal or supplementary.

3. The sum of the angles of any triangle is equal to two right angles.

4. A parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two sides proportionally.

5. Show how to inscribe a circle in a given triangle. 6. If through a fixed point without a circle a secant and a tangent be drawn, the product of the whole secant and its external segment is equal to the square of the tangent.

7. Two triangles, having an angle of one equal to an angle of the other, are to each other as the products of the sides, including the equal angles.

8. In any right triangle the square described upon the hypotenuse is equivalent to the sum of the squares described upon the legs.

9. [a] The area of a Rhombus is equal to one-half the product of its diagonals. [6] If the altitude of a Trapezoid is 1 ft. 4 in., and its bases are 1 ft. 1 in. and 2 ft. 5 in. respectively, what is its area?

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The best-informed men and women in the world use the AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS to keep well informed, and call it the "necessary" and "indispensable" magazine. In the busy rush of to-day ambitious men and women must know about the important questions of the month, and not only this, they want to know about them at the right time. When the whole country is puzzled over the gigantic combination of trusts, a well-informed article is printed in the AMERICAN MONTHLY, giving the facts, and its editor discusses the theory; when the Dreyfus affair is in everyone's mouth, the best story of Dreyfus and the great case comes out in this magazine.

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To be thoroughly well informed helps any man or woman in his or her work. A subscription to the AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS represents an investment for the best kind of profit, as well as entertainment. One subscriber has just written: "Count me a life subscriber, and when you send me a number beyond the limit of my subscription and secure no renewal from me, consider it a notice of my death."

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OUR COUNTRY IN POEM AND PROSE. Arranged for supplementary reading by Eleanor A. Persons, Teacher of History, Yonkers Public Schools. (50 cents.) American Book Company.

By means of such collections properly used in the schoolroom, an impulse is given to the study of the history and literature of the country. Is it too soon to have suggestions of Lee and Stonewall Jackson in collections of this sort?


E. Oram Lyte, A. M., Ph. D., Principal
First Pennsylvania State Normal School,
Millersville. (368 pages; 75 cents.) Amer-
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This is the third and last of the series prepared by the distinguished author. In a word, we may say that the series is practical, progressive and scientific; certainly the advanced grammar must claim the attention of every intelligent teacher.

In a late issue of The Western Teacher, and there is no educational journal of more solid worth, the editors say, in reference to sundry grammatical enigmas presented to them, "The editors of The Teacher are non-combatants; therefore, as a means of promoting peace and good digestion, they have unanimously agreed among themselves that they don't know any grammar to speak of."

Every new grammar that has come into our hands for notice has lessened our pulse beats; what wars are stirred up! The frank confession of Editor Gillian may well embolden others to play shy with grammar in public print.

But, as a parting shot, we will say that Dr. Lyte seems sound to the core in his discussions of the abstruse subject, and is perspicuous in his explanations. But we will not take up the cudgels in defense of our thesis. The grammar war is always active in Virginia.

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