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AND TWIGS OF
into their faces for the reason why, and found that the coming in at recess; before visitors, too! But ther teacher was the one interesting person in their world, was never a word of blame; instead, came the quiet, just then. She was overseeing their seat work as if “Children, I was very glad to see that all through this it were the most interesting thing in the world to do. recess you remembered something I said to you last When I saw the fine quality of the work done, I ex- week.” The ashamed little people looked comforted. claimed to myself, "Can it be possible that all this was worked out by the rule of simple interest, found first and laat in the teacher!”
Memory Gems. IN THE RIGHT PLACE. In one room I visited I noted the full latitude given If you have occasion “to keep in” to have lost or the children in their placing of the sketched or of the
idled time made good, ask the boy to commit to clipped pictures which illustrated their written papers.
memory one or more of the following:Most of the work was in good taste, but some papers
E. P. Roe: The boy who resolves to do one thing looked odd; as when a small picture shied the corners,
honorably and thoroughly, and who sets about it at
once, will attain usefulness and eminence. and took its stand in the middle of the page, a lone
Charles Dickens: Do all the good you can and make island, surrounded by words; or when an amusing pic- as little fuss about it as possible. ture would be so away from its description, and so Macaulay: The world generally gives its admiration, near to words that suggested a sober opposite picture, not to the man who does what nobody else ever at-, that it seemed like a laugh in the wrong place. You tempts to do, but to the man who does best what mulcnter some houses where you long to make every titudes do well. article of furniture chang. place, until each piece is wheru it belongs. What better time
Outline for Nature Study." than school days to begin to
ARRANGED BY ANNETTA F. ARMES, BOSTON. learn home arrangement, thus applying the trite, "A place for
1. Review October bull work. 2. Comparisons.
2. Habits of buds. 3.
3. Position. Covering. Use? Pupil (in very indignant
Lessons taught by them.
4. Later find many trees with tone)—“Do you think it is fair,
same kind of buds. Miss Ray, for A- and E-
Review September plant lesnot to help us on the soprano?"
Study a house plant. Teacher (with kind severity) -“There circumstances in this case that you do not
Cow Family. 1. Review work done in Oct. understand; it is not your place
2. Position of buds. to criticise.”
2. Kindness to them.
3. Covering-its use.
4. Changes in the buds. Boy (in correcting a mis
4. Lessons iaught by them. 5. Marks on the twig. Causes. statement) — "Mary Brady
0. Preparations for spring. 6. Food.
1. By nature. said—” “But you should not
2. By man. call the name." "She said," “But isn't there a pleasanter
1 way than that?”
“Some one said, 'I seen it.” “That is
Canary, dove, or hen, Feathers, eggs, nest. much better, Johnny. Never
Simple outline. 1. Bluebird.
Robin. point out to others the person
Song sparrow. whom you criticise.”
3. Work they do for us.
4. Crow blackbird. A teacher told me that her
4. Lessons taught by them. Distinguishing marks of each, 5. Descriptions.
Follow January's outline. most troublesome boy could
6. Comparisons. always be quelled by reading or listening to a tender story. "The Little Match Girl" al
GROUPING OF KNOWN ANIMALS WITH A BACKBONE.
Through all the lessons consider adaptation of parts. ways brought the tears, and
Compare through pictures the foreign relations. more'than once the appeal had Fourth.
1. By covering. 2. By food. 3. By manner of moving about. 1. Scales.
1. Flesh-eaters. 1. Walking. come, “Please don't choose
2. Grass-eaters. 2. Swimming. that piece." Because some
3. Flying. thing had happened at recess,
4. Crawling. curiosity got the better of “Mv
cience.' *Portions adapted from “Outline Course in Nature Study and Elementa fifty little orderlies," as the
l'hysiology in all grades throughout the year. teacher justly called them, and
Literature, language, and drawing in connection with lesson. there was a very disorderly Natural phenomena in the four lowest grades throughout the year.
BEDS AND TWIGS.
RETURN OF THE BIRDS AND
OTHER SIGNS OF SPRING.
4. Black Dan. 5. The Sage of Monticello. 6. The Father of the Constitution. 7. The Nation's Elder Brother. 8. Old Tippecanoe. 9. The Poet of the Hearth and Fire. 10. The Nation's Guest.
-southwestern School Journal.
BY JIZZIE B. MORGAN, Senior Pupil Teacher of Adela du V. Finch, Lewiston (Me.)
A VICE-PRESIDENT WHO NEVER SERVED. William Rufus King, born April 6, 1786, died April 18, 1853, was a Vice-President of the United States who never served in that capacity, and one who took the oath of office on foreign soil-some thing which can be said of no other executive officer who has ever been elected by the people of the Uvited States.
King was an invalid, but his friends urged him to take second place on the ticket with Pierce in 1852. Both were elected, but King's health failed so rapidly that he was forced to go to Cuba early in 1853, some two and a half months before inauguration day.
Not having returned to the United States by March 4, Cougress passed a special act authorizing the United States Consul at Matanzas. Cuba, to swear him in as Vice-President at about the hour when Pierce was taking the oath of office at Washington.
This arrangement was carried out to a dot; and on the day appointed, at a plantation on one of the highest hills in the vicinity of Matanzas, Mr. King was made Vice-President of the United States amid the solemn“ Vaya vol con Dios” (God will be with you) of the Creoles who bad ussenbled to witness the unique spectacle.
Vice-President King returned to bis home at Cahawka, Alabama, arriving at that place April 17, 1853, and died the following day. His remains were laid to rest on bis plantation, known as Pive Hills.- Home and School.
IRST a short and enthusiastic drill on
abstract and concrete work, as: Four beans and three beans are licw many beans? Six robins and how many
robins make nine robins? If you had seven cents and your brother gave you enough to make a dime, how many would he give you? If you spent two, how many would you have left? 9+?=10, 8+2=?, 7+?=10, 2+?=10, 7+3=? 1+?=10.
To-day we will see what other numbers put together will make ten.
Teacher.-How many blocks have I here?
After I do something, some one will tell me what I did.
Child.—You took a block from the seven blocks and put it with the three blocks.
Teacher.-Now how many are here?
Teacher.-Four sticks and six sticks are how many sticks? Four beans and six beans how many beans? Four horsechestnuts and how many make ten? Six flowers and how many make ten? $4 and $6 are how many?
If four sticks and six sticks are ten sticks, four beans and six beans are ten beans, $4 and $6 are $10, how many are four and six?
Child.- Four and six are ten. The same for six and four.
Children tell stories about six and four. Four and six. At board. Draw four and six pencils. Ilow many? Find six and four stars. IIow many? Six and four circles?
4 6 Teacher.- Write
Child +6 +4
Ten Maxims for the Reading Class. Sense is more important than sound.
A piece that is worth reading at all is worth reading well.
Don't try to “read like you talk" unless you talk right.
We read silently ten times where we read aloud once.
Read no book by an author who is without literary standing
Read nothing without a de inite purpose.
Rapid reading is as bad for the mind as rapid eating is for the stomach.
Labored articulation is distracting both to reader and listener.
No part of the physical organim responds more quickly to right training than. Io the organs of speech and voice.
A good imitator is not necessarily a good read. er.
:-Learnign by Doing.
For the History Lesson. Who was called : 1. Old Put. 2. Old Hickory. 3. Old Rough and Ready.
THE MORNING TALK.
must encounter in the present day
is overcrowded, and most teachers are bewildered by the demands which are made upon their time. These demands arise from a fuller perception of the needs of the children and the possibilities of helpful teaching which has come with increasing interest in questions of education. But just because the teacher knows so many ways in which she can interest and instruct the children with profit, there is a tendency to crowd the programme, and a corresponding lack in definiteness and thoroughness as a result.
The only way in which this difficulty can be remedied is through a definite plan which considers all the subjects of the programme, determining the relative importance of each and distributing time and attention in proportion to the needs of the children and the value of the subject. All teachers need to free themselves from the schoolroom bias, and to look at their work from the outside in order that they may judge without prejudice, as far as possible, what will best contribute to the welfare of the children.
Such a survey of the programme from the outside will lead us to separate the subjects in which a definite ground may be covered in instruction and a certain amount of skill obtained through practice, from those where our chief object is to develop an interest in the subject or to establish a tendency to study in the line of such interest. For example: The power to read the printed page at sight must be developed throigh careful and painstaking instruction and a constant practice. Facility in the use of numbers and knowledge of the fundamental processes must be secured in the same way. But the love for nature or for literature. and the tendency to turn to out-of-door pleasurez o" to good books for enjoyment and culture, are not acquired in proportion to the number of hours spent in cither instruction or drill. Neither is the teaching which results in such interest and such tendency confined to the ordinary instruction in nature study and literature. Much of the instruction in these branches may be given in connection with the studies of the curriculum which are ordinarily considered as "regular.”
It would seem, then, that it is wise for the teacher to so adjust her programme as to admit of constant. and regular instruction in the subjects, which demand much time for drill and practice and at the same time to allow a flexible arrangement of the suljects whose purpose is to create interest and develop taste.
The best plan for a programme which the writer knows admits such an arrangement. Its chief variation from the ordinary programme is simply this: It sets aside a period in the morning, varying, according to the age of the children, from fifteen minutes to half an hour, and devotes this period to an exercise which is sometimes called the “General Exercise." and sometimes "The Morning Talk." The object of this morning talk is twofold ett serves as an eroscise in oral language, giving the children something
in which they are interested to talk about, affording new material for thought, and occasioning helpful practice in speaking easily and correctly. Its second, and really greater value, lies in the selection of subjects for the conversations. Perhaps one-half of the morning talks are given to nature study, the subjects being chosen according to the season. The order of such teaching has now become familiar to nearly all common school teachers and need not be cited here. Of course such lessons, though nominally termed "conversations" or "talks," include observation of material, sketching, description, collateral reading in short, all that has entered into the ordinary lessons in nature study.
The other half of the exercises are given to lessons which tend to develop interest in books and to give the children some little knowledge of good literature. The study of poems, which are afterward copied or memorized, -the reading and telling of myths and fables,--stories from history, the studies of life in other lands,-these find a legitimate place and a fair proportion of attention in this morning exercise.
The order of selection is determined by the season, nature study having precedence, since in this subject the lessons must be given when material can be secured. Thanksgiving, Christmas, birthdays of the poets, and the national holidays also determine the time and choice for the stories from literature and history.
It will readily be seen that such an arrangement of the programme simplifies the daily work, the "morning talk” having presented a new subject of interest. The spelling and language and reading may sometimes be guided in the direction of this interest. Thus a natural correlation may be secured, resulting in a greater degree of unity in the work. It is needless to say that this correlation ceases to be helpful as soon as it becomes forced and mechanical; but drawing, composition, spelling, writing, are naturally demanded in connection with such teaching and easily find an excuse for being. It counts for much that the children recognize the naturalness of the programme-writing when they have something to say: spelling the words which they need to spell; and reading something in which they have become interested through their own investigations. Such natural choice of work is one of the great advantages of such a course of lessons.
If the "morning talk” were to take the place of the various subjects which have been added to the curriculum without corresponding subtraction, or rather if these subjects could be naturally grouped in the manner which has been suggested by this article, we should find immediate relief in the simplification of our programme, and the bugbears of the crowded curriculum would soon disappear.
Love your pupils and they will love you. Loving you, they will strive to please you; and your rules, which would seem to them intolerably irksome did they dislike you, will become to them a source of pleasure in the fulfillment.
Subscribe to the Viryima School Journal at the beginning of the year. $1 a year (10 numbers) in advance.
Wunted !— Wanted, men and women with a genius for work. It is well that they should have talent, it is well that they should have training,
it is well that they should have good character, Is Thiş Your Opinion ?
but if'they do not know how to work, and have
not an abiding zeal for work, their talent, train“ Examination” is a word that should be blot- ing, character, will count for little towards that ted out of the language of the schools. Teachers subduing of the earth which God had in view who are working with pupils the whole year
when he gave the world to man as the scene of know whether the work has been done or not.
his present activities. — Chicago Adrunce. Dr. A. F. Nightingale, Superintendent Chicago High A study of the face, the voice, the eye, the Schools.
language and the surroundings of the individual The talent of success is nothing more than do- pupil is the kind of child stuly most needed. ing what you can do, without a thought of fame. Not until the teacher's heart comes into close --Longfellow.
contact with the heart of each individual child
can the best results be obtained. You may group What the Editors Say.
and grade and classify children by every con
ceivable method, but if the teacher has not made Whither Are We Tending ?-Some of the reso- a study of the individual pupil, every method lutions passed by a committee of the national
will prove disappointing.-Elurational Forum. association cause to pause
and consider whither we are tending. These resolutions are
Let us all stand as a bulwark against salary rethe product of careful thought on the part of ductions anywhere, and let us all lend a hand to some of the most eminent educators of the land, carry salaries up everywhere. Teachers are the and, whether right or not, will have much weight poorest paid workers in the country in proporin moulding opinion. The committee recom
tion to their responsibility, ability and preparamends higher scholarship along all lines.
The tion).-Southern Educational Journal.
. resolutions would make the requirements for en- It is much regretted that the editor who wrote trance to technical schoo's as thorough as for ad- the following sentence is not known to 11s. It is mission to college. This would shut out a great well said: many applicants. Another resolution is to the
" It will be a glad day when the teacher who effect that all teachers of secondary schools should has not thumbed well his Page will be in as unbe college graduates. This standard is rapilly comfortable a situation as the lawyer who is not being set by the leading schools of the middle fimiliar with his Blackstone."— Aldon Methods.
— west, and will be followed by another advanced movement, viz., that all teachers of lower grades, dullarils when we get the correct idea of educa
School will not be a dull place nor a place for either country or town, shall have at least a bigh
tion, and apply that idea. Educated men will school evlucation or its equivalent. Some of the tion, and apply that idea.
not be an interior race when “education” has other resolutions favor changes so radical that they are likely to meet with strong opposition. its correct meaning. Culture will not mean reTake the following: “ We favor a unified six-year trogression when we know and obey the laws of
our being. There is no reason why the elicated high school course of study, beginning with the seventh grade.” At the present age and size of man should not live to be one hundred years old, seventh grade pupils this would involve many
if he would fall in love with knowledge instead difficulties. Again, an increase in the school day of books, with humanity instead of learning.
“normal” education includes a normal life. in secondary schools is recommended, in order to
South restern School Journal. permit a larger amount of study in school under supervision. This may be needed according to Courtesy.--Someone has said that courtesy the prevailing course of study, but it is an open costs but little. In one sense this may be true, question if there is not too much strain bronght but in a larger sense courtesy costs the subjection upon pupils now. There seems to be a growing of self; that is not a little thing by any means. opinion that children are being educated at the The very essence of courtesy is giving to others expense of health and happiness, and that over- instinctively the first place in one's thoughts, supervision aud over-stimulating to mental exer- words and actions. The attainment of this costs tion are causing a multitude of nervous wrecks.- a great deal, and it is worth more than it costs.Nebraska Teacher.
Indiana School Journal.
A Restful Voice.
P. D. Armour to Armour Institute, 750,000
Maxwell Somerville to University of
600,000 Great stress should be attached to the intona
Edward Austin to Harvard College, 500,000 tions of the voice-whether it means what it says,
Polyand says what it means, as well as the manner of Lydia Bradley to Bradley
560,000 expression, are very important determining fac
Samuel Cupples to Washington Unitors. The little boy who said, at the close of the
400,600 first week of school, “ that his teacher had a rest
Jacob Schift to Harvard College, 350,000 ful voice, because she had not made him want to
Marshall Field and J. D. Rockefight yet,” expressed a deep educational truth.
feller to University of Chicago, 335,000 Besides this, the teacher must have a good eye ;
Edward Tuck to Dartmouth College, 300,000 not a gimlet eye. That sort of an eye is annoy.
J. D. Rockefeller to Brown Univering, and its boring qualities geuerate counter
256,000 movements in the pupils from head to foot.
Caroline L. May to New York TeachLike a high, thin voice, the children want to pull
200,000 it down and out all the time. There is a strong,
Edwin Austin to Massachusetts Inlively eye that sees into and through the motives
stitute of Technology,
200,000 of pupils; it can approve or reprove, but in its
R. C. Billings to Massachusetts Instibeams will always be found strength, dignity and
tute of Technology,
150,000 sympathy. A pleasant voice and a quick, loving,
0. C. Marsh to Yale College,
150,000 gracious eye are prime physical qualities of all
Andrew Carnegie to University of first-class teachers.- Educational Reviewo.
Unknown donor to Wesleyan UniOf all places to try one's temper the school room is the best. Here the teacher of nerves
100,000 finds them all alive. The weather affects him, George R. Berry to Baltimore Fe
100,000 and he forgets that it also affects his pupils. He soon gives way to his feelings, and is surprised J. D. Rockefeller to Denison Unithat pupils give way to theirs. Things grow
W.K. Vanderbilt to Vanderbilt Uniworse instead of better. A change in the weather at last brings relief. Cheerfulness can be culti
Unknown donor to Princeton Colvated. There is need of it; the teacher who can
100,000 laugh is better than the one who cannot or does
100,000 not. Cheerful face and voice makes life pleas- B. C. Billings to Harvard College, anter. By all means be cheerful.- The School
The list may be incomplete, and there may be additions to it before the close of the year which
may greatly swell the total. It is as it stands a Items of Interest.
very gratifying list, and indicates that the cause
of education is not being forgotten, at least by Princely Gifts to Education.
some of those who can afford to make generous Not in any previous year in our history have donations. The Educational Forum. educational institutions in the United States been
At a meeting of the Daughters of the Confed80 enriched by donations and bequests as in 1899. eracy in Athens, Georgia, it was decided to locate Though the year is not yet ended, the iustitutions the Winnie Davis Memorial Hall at the Normal of learning have received nearly $30,000,000, received nearly $30,000,000, School. The Hall is intended to be used as a dor
. which is about $16,000,000 more than they re- mitory for the daughters of Confederate veterans ceived from such sources during all of last year. while they are pursuing their studies in the NorThe following is a list of the principal benefac- mal School.
mal School. It is hoped that twenty-five thou
sand dollars will be raised for this purpose. The Mrs. Leland Stanford to Leland Stan
citizens of Athens, and the faculty and students of
- $15,000,000 the Normal School have already subscribed twenEstate of John Simmons for Female
five hundred dollars. College, Boston,
2,000,000 Efforts are making through a special committee Henry C. Warren to Harvard College, 1,090,000 appointed by Governor Roosevelt to unify the G. W. Clayton for a university at
State direction of public instruction in New York 1,000,000 State.