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intendent, Mr. J. H. Stevens, who is a very zealous worker for the success of his teachers. The following subjects were very ably discussed : “ Square and Cube Roots,” by Prof. J. H. Ru

General R. E. Lee's Birthday. trough ; “History,” by Mr. C. B. Bowry; “Ge.

If teac!iers bave filed their JOURNALS, they will ography,” by Prof. W. G. Welburn; “ Summer Normals,” by Miss Daisy Conway.

find in the January number of 1899 very full

exercises suitable for Lee's birthday. We suggest The teachers seemed very enthusiastic and the

that every teacher in the State hold exercises commeeting was pronounced quite a success. ELIZABETH GALLOWAY,

memorative of the day. There is no better way

to inculcate virtue in children than to point them Sec. Montgomery Co. League.

to the “lives of great men,” and no life of man Botetourt Teachers' League.

not divine can be more worthy of imitation than The Teachers' Co-operative League met in Fin- that of General R. E. Lee. castle December 1st, 1899, and the following offi. We give some selections that may be useful to cers were elected :

teachers in carrying out a program : H. L. Hammond, President; Vice-Presidents,

“ Thou wert the courtliest knight that ever bare S. A. Shaver, Amsterdam district; C. W. Coft- shield.

and thou wert the kindest man man, Buchanan district; J. L. Burks, Fincastle that ever strake with sword; and thou wert the district; Miss Mary Godwin, corporation of Fin- goodliest person that ever came among press of castle; Miss Mary F. Brugh, Secretary; Miss knights; and thou wert the meekest man and the Allie Lemon, Treasurer.

gentliest that ever ate in hall among ladies; and We have thirty-two members.

thou wert the stervest knight to thy mortal foe Respectfully,

that ever put spear in rest.” (Quoted by the MARY F. BRUGH,

Halifax, Nova Scotia, Morning Chronicle from The

Secretary. Mort d'Arthur," of Sir Thomas Mallory, in a One Normal School for Virginia Teachers.

notice of the death of General Lee.) The communication from Mr. S. B. Ashby, in Posterity will rank General Lee above Wellingthe October number of the School JOURNAL, ex

ton or Napoleon, before Saxe or Turenne; above presses, I believe, the views of many. It is nec- Marlborough or Frederick, before Alexander or essary, if we would educate our teachers thorough- Cæsar. Careful of the lives of his men, fertile ly, that they have better opportunities for normal

in resource, a profound tactician, gifted with the training. The Summer Normals can be attended swift intuition which enables a commander to disby only a few, compared with the whole number

cern the purpose of his enemy, and the power of of teachers in the State. Distance, traveling ex- rapid combination which enables him to oppose penses, etc., prevent the great majority of teach- to it a prompt resistance; modest, frugal, self

a ers from attending these Normals oftener than denying, void of arrogance or self assertion, trustonce in a great while, as a rule. Would it not be ing nothing to chance; among men noble as the better to abolish the two Normals, as held at noblest, in the lofty dignity of the Christian yenPulaski and Fredericksburg, and retain only the tleman; among patriots less self-seeking, and as School of Methods, as recommended by the

pure as Washington; and among soldiers comShenandoah“ League.” Increase the term to ten weeks as suggested by Mr. Ashby. Then, in bining the religious simplicity of Havelock with order to give every teacher in the State the ad- the genius of Napoleon, the heroism of Bayard vantages of a Normal School, let the Super- and Sidney, and the untiring, never-faltering duty intendent of Schools in each county be re- of Wellington ; in fact, Robert E. Lee, of Virgnia, quired to teach a six., ten-,



is the greatest general of this or any other age. week Normal as part of his official duty. For conducting such an Institute he should, however,

He has made his own name and the Confederacy receive no additional salary. Let there be a deti- he served immortal. - Montreal (Can.) Telegraph. nite course of study pursued in the County Nor

A country which has given birth to men like mal Institutes. After a teacher completes this course and attends a term at the School of him, and those who followed him, may look the Methods, if he holds a No.1 certificate, he should chivalry of Europe in the face without shame; for be exempt from further examinations, unless he the fatherland of Sidney and of Bayard never prodesires a professional certificate or lite diploma. ducid a nobler soldier, gentleman and Christian, We hope that the Legislature will enact some

than General Robert E. Lee.- London Standard. legislation for the improvement of our State Normal School system. Let this subject be agitated. He was a foe without hate; a friend without

J. LUTHER KIBLER. treachery; a private citizen without wrong; a


neighbor without reproach; a Christian without Emphasize the importance of sketch maps ; hypocracy, and a man without guilt. He was a and in drawing them, direct attention to special Cæsar without his ambition; a Frederick without features, proportions, comparisons, etc., taking his tyranny; a Napoleon without his selfishness, one coast at a time, before attempting to draw and a Washington without his reward. He was

the whole outline. obedient to authority as a servant, and loyal in Use outline maps, filling them in as different authority as a true king. He was gentle as a features are studied, and so building up from day woman in life; modest and pure as a virgin in to day. thought; watchful as Roman vestal in duty; sub- Do not locate on maps too many obscure missive to law as Socrates, and grand in battle as places, but emphasize a few, and try to have the Achilles.-From Speech of Hon. B. H. Hill. pupils know something about them aside from

General Lee is a phenomenon. He is the only the dots and the lines on the map. One city man whom I would be willing to follow blind studied carefully as a type, with its people, infold.–Stonewall Jackson.

dustries, exports, imports, buildings of note, etc., The very best soldier that I ever saw in the is worth more than twenty or a hundred located

as black dots on a map. field.—Gen. Winfield Scott.

Let the children take imaginary journeys, and Quotations from General R. E. Lee. “Private and public life are subject to the same

encourage the study of different peoples. For rules; and truth and manliness are two qualities this purpose “ Seven Little Sisters,” by Jane that will carry you through this world much better

Andrews, price fifty cents, is most useful. than policy, or tact, or expediency, or any other

Have map study summaries and drills, but do

not let this mechanical work be all that you word that was ever devised to conceal or mystify

teach. a deviation from a straight line.” “ The torbearing use of power does not only and pronounce them correctly.

Require children to spell geographical names form a touchstone, but the manner in which an


Use the pictures that are in the book in conindividual enjoys certain advantages over others

nection with the lessons, and make use as well of is a test of a true gentleman.

pictures and descriptions obtained from other My experience through life has convinced me that, while moderation and temperance in all

Teach children to recite topically. Let them things are commendable and beneficial, abstinence read a paragraph in class, and make topics, from from spirituous liquors is the best safeguard to

which you require them to recite the next day. morals and health."

Show them how to pick out the central thought, “I think it wisest not to keep open the sores of and let them have practice in expressing the facts war, but to follow the example of those nations given in the book in their own language. who endeavored to obliterate the marks of civil

Have a daily review of the previous lesson, and strife, and to commit to oblivion the feelings it require written work as often as possible. Regu. engendered.”

lar reviews at stated intervals are also important.

Combine history with geography. Suggestions for Teaching Geography. Begin with local and home geography, making field trips, and requiring plans of the school In studying occupations in home geography it room, district, village and county.

would add to the children's interest, and at the Go slowly and very carefully at first.

same time give them some industrial instruction, Require daily observations and records of the if they were asked to volunteer to find out at weather.

home how to do some one of the following things. Interest the children in plant and animal life, Let them explain to the class, using the objects and in the soils and products of their own region where possible:

Ask the pupils to bring in specimens of plants, Shoeing a horse. animals and minerals, and encourage them to Harnessing a horse. make collections.

Putting a tire on a wheel. Call every day for results of outside observa

Sawing a board. tion.

Driving a nail.
Study the occupations of the section in which Setting a pane of glass.

Sharpening a knife. you are teaching

Mixing whitewash. Draw and mould the coast and surface features

Making bread. of each country studied.

Holding a needle.



Sowing corn and beans.
Planting potatoes.

Many other things peculiar to his own locality will occur to every teacher.-Southern Workman.

fiaments, forming a net, which, constantly moving, drew in the tiny creatures that fill the water of the ocean, and upon which these barnacles fed.

These goose barnacles in their young days llad been very fond of traveling, but after a while they had grown lazy, and stuck themselves, by their heads, to the rock, and as they did not then require the use of their eyes, Mother Nature closed them, and their six little legs that they no longer used to swim with, she kindly changed into the graceful filaments through which they strained the sea water, and drew' in food for these stupid little barnacles. Indeed, they seemed lazy and stupid, to have given up their

A Friday Afternoon Exercise. One Monday morning a teacher in one of the lower grades pinned up about the room twentyfive numbered cards, each containing a picture of some noted person, with whom the children should be familiar.

Columbus, Shakspere, Longfellow, Whittier, Cary Sisters, Robinson Crusoe, George and Martha Washington, etc., were used.

The names of the persons did not appear. Nothing was said about these pictures. If a child asked “ Who is this?” he was told who it was.

Friday afternoon, for a general exercise, the children were given paper and allowed to pass about the room to see the pictures and write the names of those they knew. If any child had been indifferent to the pictures, his interest was then aroused, and more attention was paid to the illustrations and pictures used from that time on. At another time the teacher selected pictures of animals and birds.- 7 eacher's World

Fig. 3. Ship's barnacle, or Acorn barnacle. (Balanæ.)

eyes and legs, preferring to fasten on the rocks and seaweed, and lead this monotonous existence! But they lived as their parents had done before them, and i:: the end furnished food for the sea fowl who preyed


upon them.

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HE Barnacles of Rock Ledge arrived in

Pleasant bay on the occasion of Mrs.
Scallop's garden party, and at the close
of that day had found themselves

swept by a wave against a ledge of rock, to which they immediately attached themselves.

Their parents had, long before, fastened themselves to the bottom of a large ship, so they were called "ship’s barnacles," and it was from one of these great ship's barnacles that the Barnacles of Rock: Lodge came as the vessel was passing our bay. These

The first to reach Rock Ledge and attach herself there was Mrs. Ship’s Barnacle, and she built for herself the largest and handsomest house on those rocks. There she lived and grew, and soon six little baby Barnacles were to be seen swimming near her door. These were her children, and she tried hard to persvade them that their only safety lay in staying at Come and fastening themselves to Rock Ledge. She

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Fig. 4. Mr. Sperm Whale. (Physeter macrocphalus.) told them of the dangers of the strange waters through which she had passed as a thoughtless swimming creature, looking then much like themselves no doubt, for though she was blind now and had never scen her children, she remembered her young days and how she had felt when, a graceful crab-like youngster, she had appeared in Pleasant bay

Mrs. Barnacle's children had not been carefully l'rought up, and would have been ignoranc creatures if Mother Nature had not been kind to them, and taught them to swim, and take care of themselves.

(uc morning three of these thoughtless young Barnacles started out for a swim, and a 3 each wave swept them further from the shore, they found it more and more difficult to keep together. They were not at all

fra d. cecause they were good swimmers, having each, at this time, six strong legs and two keen eyes,

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and they were determined to see as much of the world After wandering about for many months, the as they could before they returned home.

vessel came to a beautilul island; here slie was placed They had never before been so far from their in a dry-dock, and all this mass encrusting her botmother's house, and did not dream that they would tom was scraped off, and our friend Mr. Ship's Barnever see it again! Soon there came another great nacle, with many others, were eagerly sought by many wave that swept them into the trough of the sea, and poor people, who cooked and ate unfortunate Mr. whirled one of them away from his brothers, sweeping Ship’s Barnacle, and used his strong red house( it was him down against a rocky reef, where he gladly clung, now nearly three inches high) for a lamp. In it they having, in his fright, but one idea, to build a strong poured oil, and putting in a wick to burn, they used house to live in, and never again run the risk of such it to light up their home. an unpleasant experience!

We must return to the third brother to learn his He had seen all of the world he cared for, and de- tragical end. Failing to fasten himself to the ship's cided that if his having eyes and legs led him into Lottom beside his brother, he was carried along by a such dangerous adventures, he would dwell content- strong ocean current that bore him further north. cdly in his own little house on the reef, and give us He felt lonely and anxious to find a place to rest. his eyes and legs like his old blind mother, and here To be surelie was seeing the world, and learning many we will leave him and follow the fortunes of his two lessons of life, for Mother Ocean was watching over brothers.

him as he tried to find rest on her quiet bosom. The big waves swept the two brothers along to- He saw many strange sights, for he had still his gether for some distance. They were not as timid as cres, but he felt his love of adventure dying out, as the one that had been swept away from them, down day after day passed and no rocks were in sight. One upor, the reef, and no Barnacle ever feared drowning, evening just as the sun was setting, little Mr. Barso no matter how high the wave rose, they could swim nacle thought he saw a great rock lying in the midst

of the golden water. As he swam rapidly towards it, he saw wreaths of seaweed, kelp, and grasses cling. ing to it and waving to and fro. He also saw barnacles growing on it that looked so much like his family in Pleasant bay that he siam quickly towards them and fastened himself beside them. You may imagine his consternation when he found the next morning that his rock, as he supposed it to be, was moving in the depths of the ocean. He cruld not see very well in his peculiar position, but he soon found that rock, barnacles, and seaweeds were moving through the water at a rapid rate.

Presently they all rose to the surface, and two jets

of water ascended in the air and fell back like rain on Fig. 5. Flying Fish. (Exocetus volicaps.)

the surface of the ocean. This moving island, my to the surface before the next wave swept them on. dear, was a great sperm-whale, who had strayed from

At lust, after traveling for several hours. L'he ocean the north, and was on his way back. grew calmer, and one of the Barnacles, feeling that he The water grew colder, day by day, and though Mr. had traveled quite far enough, suggested that they Barnacle was busily working to get his house in order, should swim over and fasten themselves to the bot- and be prepared for whatever might happen, he did tom of a ship, that was rapidly approaching them. not feel comfortable when the whale would rise to

This seemed a very easy thing to do, but it was the surface of the ocean, and rolling over on his other “easier said than done,” as one of our Barnacles side, let the hot rays of the sun at midday pour down shortly found out, for as the steamship swept along, upon our little friend; but alas! this was not the worst the foaming water tossed these poor brothers of it, for at this time, fierce seabirds would come and asunder, drawing one under the moving vessel, where perch on Mr. Whale, and quarrel and fight as to which he fastened himself, and clung breathles lv, as the should pick off and eat the creatures attached to Mr. ship pursued her course to distant seas. Here, like Whale's tough skin. his brother, he built himself a house on the bottom One day a flock of these birds, settling down on Mr. of this huge moving mass. He now became a ship's Whale's back, ate np poor Mr. Barnacle, and many of barnacle, giving up his eyes and legs, as his mother his neighbors. Our unfortunate friend must have and brother had done before him.

remembered with bitter regret the neglected advice The steamship had many months to travel, and of his poor blind mother! Mr. Ship's Barnacle, who had changed his form and The other three little baby Barnacles, who had renature, grew and grew, until he was no longer the mained with their mother in Pleasant bay, played little fellow looking like a small crab, but a fat old about in the safe shallow water until one day they fellow, living quietly in a large red house.

concluded to fasten themselves on Rock Ledge, ani? If he had now had his eyes, he might have seen build themselves nice little white houses near their many wonderful sights, but though he had started mother's. This little colony grew and grew, and they out to see the world he had lost this golden oppor- are often spoken of as the little Acorn Barnacles that tunity when in his fright he had fastened himself grow along the shore of the bay. There you may still bead first to the bottom of the ship, which was already find them on Rock Ledge looking white as snow in the deeply encrusted with barnacles and ocean vegetation. bright sunshine.

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spelling lesson to be studied; the teacher siowly pru

nounces five words; the class "eye” them for a ARITHMETIC.

moment, some with only the two outer, and others N easy disposal of the decimal point: Find with all their eyes. “Choir,” a boy slowly names the the number of decimal places in the

word, reads the letters, and names again "Of what divisor; find, or make, an equal num

must we be careful in this word?” “Of ch; it sounds ber in the dividend; before beginning like k; the word sounds as if it had w; oi sounds like i.”

the division, place the decimal point for “Flute; careful of what, in this word?” “We must the quotient above and at the right of this equal num

remember that the word ends in e, because u has the ber in the dividend: 2.5)836. The decimal in the

yoo sound.” “Now, eyes away, and spell both words. divisor is tenths, so I place the point above and at the

What about duet??" "There is but one t.” “Read right of tenths in the dividend for the quotient deci

'trio,' and notice what?" "That the first vowel is i not y.” “Ballad?” “There are two l's; if one 1, the first a would be long,-bā lad". The teacher calls a

. pupil forward, who names or points to the words while others spell. He, in turn, chooses another; one, perhaps, who has tripped on the name or the spelling. In this way the five words are reviewed many times. The last five are taken in a little different way; the ten are then reviewed. The board is turned, and slips of paper are passed for writing the lesson. Nearly all the papers have "100" and a "star.” Why not? Only fifteen alive, attention-ful minutes, and ten trying common words have been conquered.

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One room was bright with a charming bouquet of little children; I often see bunches of children thrown together without regard to harmony; but this was a bouquet, and when I tell you that, you can fancy the way they were seated, showing that delicate mother touch which places each child where it will show to its and to the others' best advantage. Bits of brightness, too, were the blue ribbons floating out from the wall

registers. Besides, the spectrum flung its colors FOR THE BLACKBOARD.

around; and so did the winsome teacher fling hers. (Drawn by Gail Calmerton.)

MINING CHARACTER. mal; divide as in division of whole numbers.


In one room a getting at character seemed to be .25).35.8%. As the divisor decimal is hundredths, I

the aim. The children were reading the story of write two decimal ciphers for hundredths in the Lincoln. A Lincoln chart, prepared by the children, dividend, and place the decimal point above, and at

gave importance and interest to facts that otherwise the right of these ciphers, for the quotient decimal, might have seemed prosy; a reading or a telling of

anything that the boy or the man Lincoln said or did In doing any decimal work, children cannot forget

was followed by the teacher's question: "And what the decimal point if they have never been allowed to

does that show about his character?” The apt adjecwrite whole numbers without it. Finding the trial

tives and verbs of the answers showed not only a divisor:

study of motives and their consequent acts, but of mång it: 26 is nearer to 30 than it is to 20, so I

exact expression by words. The same questioning Pat place 3 over 26 as the trial divisor: 3 in ran through the drawing lesson, and had its place with

104 6 two times; I write 2 as the first quotient figure :

the blackboard examples about buying and selling. 2x 26=52; The remainder is 10; I bring down 4

The bright little teacher plainly believed that every and have 104; 3 in 10, three times and more, so 3 or

act of a person told something aloud, and she was 4 will be the next quotient figure ; I try 4; 4X26= training her children to hear and to pass judgment 104. A SPELLING LESSON.

SIMPLE INTEREST. The blackboard is reversed, and ten related words In one primary room my presence was quite ignored in large and very white script are seen; they are the by the children for fully twenty minutes. I looked

if any.

upon it.

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