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Strangford. BARoNs. Carrington.
The degrees of nobility in the United King-
of Buckingham and Essex advanced to the
Abr. Records. 1 Hen. IV. p. 391, Duke of Cornwall, Lords' Journals, vol. 6, p. 9, confirmation in full parliament of the grant of the dignity of prince of Wales, and earl of Chester to the king's eldest son; and also of his right to the title of duke of Cornwall from his birth, pursuant to stat. 11 Edw. III., and livery of the duchy to him accord
ingly. fore, in Latin Dua, d ducendo, signifying the leader of an army, noblemen being anciently either generals and commanders of armies in time of war, or wardens of marches, and governors of provinces in peace. This is now the first rank of the nobility; but it was the 18th of Edward III. 1336, before this dignity was introduced into England, when his eldest son, Edward, commonly called the Black Prince, was created duke of Cornwall. The only ceremony at this investiture was girding him with the sword. . When John of Gaunt, son of king Edward III., was created duke of Lancaster by the same monarch, he had investiture, not only by the king's girding him with a sword, but by putting on him a cap of fur, under a coronet of gold set with precious stones. In the 21st of king Richard II., 1397, the duke of Hereford and several others were created by putting a cap of honour on their heads, and by delivering a rod into their hands; ther, the surcoat, mantle, hood, and patent, were introduced with much ceremony; all of which are at this day omitted. The mantle and surcoat which a duke wears at the coronation of a king or queen is of crimson velvet, lined with white taffeta, and a mantle is doubled from the neck to the elbow with ermine, having four rows of spots on each shoulder; his parliamentary robes are of fine scarlet cloth, lined with taffeta, and doubled with four *. of ermine at equal distances, with gold lace above each guard, and is tied up to the left shoulder by a white riband; his cap is of crimson velvet, lined with ermine, having a gold tassel on the top; and his coronet, which is also of old, is set round with golden strawberry eaves. He is styled His Grace; and by the king or queen in public instruments, Our right trusty and right entirely beloved Cousin; and if of the privy council, then with the addition of Counsellor. . His general style is the most Noble: all his sons are by courtesy styled Lords, and his daughters
MARQUEss (Marchio) was first styled so from the government of marches or frontier provinces, by the Saxons, Markin Reeve, and by the Germans, Markgrave. This title, which has the next place of honour to that of a duke, was introduced several years subsequent to the establishment of that dignity in England; and the first on whom that honour was conferred was the great favourite of King Richard II., Robert de Vere, earl of Oxford, who was created marquess of Dublin, and by him placed in parliament between the dukes and earls. The creation to this dignity was with nearly the same ceremony as that of a duke; but they are now created §4. under the great seal without an itional ceremony. His coromation robes are of crimson velvet lined with taffeta, and have four guards of ermine on the right side, and three on the left, set at equal distances, with gold lace above each guard, and tied up to the left shoulder by a white riband; his cap is of crimson velvet, lined with ermine, having a gold tassel at top; his coronet is of gold, and has pearls and golden strawberry leaves mixed
alternately round, of nearly equal height. His general style is, Most Honourable; and he is styled by the king or queen, Our right Trusty and entirely Beloved Cousin. is sons, by courtesy, are styled Lords, and his daughters, Ladies. EARL, anciently called Comes, being in the habit comitari regem, to wait on the king for counsel and advice. The Germans call them Graves, as Landgrave, Margrave, Palsgrave, and Rheingrave. This honour, which was derived from the Saxon, was of great dignity and i. and for many ages continued the highest rank in England, till king Edward III. created dukes and marquesses, both of whom had precedency assigned above earls. They had anciently, for the support of their state, the third penny out of the sheriff's court, issuing out of the pleas of the shire from whence they assumed their title; as in ancient times, there was no count or earl but had a county or shire for his earldom ; subsequently the number of earls increasing, they have frequently taken their titles from some eminent town or village, or even from their own seat or park, and some from illustrious families, as Powlet, Cholmondeley, Ferrars, Waldegrave, Stanhope, Ashburnham, &c.; nor were titles confined to England alone, as some were taken from the kingdom of France, as Albemarle and Tankerville. Upon the increase of earls their revenues ceased, and their powers were much abridged, and it became the custom of the monarchs of England to assign some stated pension to the person whom he ennobled, for the better support of his ...; and it was commonly done in the following proportion: viscounts, a fee of 20 marks; earls, of 20l. ; marquesses, 40 marks; and dukes, of 40l., out of some particular part of the royal revenue. A creation fee to barons was not settled; but Charles I., when he created Mountjoy Blount, lord Mountjoy, of Thurodston, co., Derby, assigned to him and his issue male a creation fee of 20 marks per annum. Anciently an earl was created with nearly the same ceremony as a duke or marquess, but they now receive merely letters patent. His coronation robe is the same as a duke's or marquess's, except that he has only three guards of ermine and gold lace; his cap is the same as theirs. It is uncertain when the coronets of dukes, marquesses, and earls were settled. Sir Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury, viscount Cranbourne, was the first of that degree who wore a coronet. An earl's coronet has pearls raised upon points, and strawberry leaves low between them. His style is Right Honourable, and he is addressed by o or queen, Our oright trusty and right well Beloved Cousin. His sons, by courtesy, are styled Honourable, and his daughters, Ladies. VIscount (Vicecomes) was anciently the name of him who held the chief office under an earl, who, being oftentimes at court, was his deputy to look after the affairs of the country; but in the reign of Henry VI., 1439, it became a degree of honour, and was made hereditary. The first viscount in England, created by patent, was John, lord Beaumont, who was by the above monarch created viscount Beaumont, and he gave him precedence above all barons. His coronation robes are the same as an earl's, with the exception that he has only two rows of lain white fur on his parliamentary robes; is cap is the same, ...}the golden circle of his coronetis surmounted by fourteenpearls. His style is Right Honourable, and he is addressed by the king or queen, our right
Trusty and well Beloved Cousin. His sons and daughters, by courtesy, are styled Honourable. Bishops. The precedence of bishops was settled by stat. 3s. Henry VIII., 1539, chap. x., to be next to the viscounts. They have the style of Lords, and Right Reverend Fathers in God. Previous to the Saxons coming into England, there were in that kingdom three archbishoprics, viz. London, York, and Caerleon-upon-Usk, each of which had many suffragans; but soon after St. Augustine's arrival in England, he, from the great kindness, he received from the king of Kent, settled the metropolitan see at Canterbury, where it has continued to the present time. York continued archiepiscopal, but London and Caerleon lost that dignity. The latter was situated too near the Saxons to be much at ease; so that one of its bishops removed the see to St. David's, in South Wales. The archbishop of Canterbury is the first peer in Great Britain next to the blood royal ;the lord high chancellor is the next; and the archbishop of York is the third; they take precedence of all dukes, and have the title of Your Grace given them. The op of Canterbury styles himself, By Divine idence ; but the archbishop of York, and the other bishops, By Divine Permission. The bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester, have precedence of all the other bishops; the others ranking according to the seniority of their consecration. BA Ron. This dignity is either by writ or atent: in the former case descendible to eirs general; in the latter, according to the limitations of the patent. It is extremely ancient; and its original name in England was, Vavassour, which by the Saxons was changed into Thane, and by the Normans into Baron. Many of this rank are named in the history of England, and undoubtedly had assisted, or been summoned to parliament; but from the deficiency of public records, it has so happened that the first precept to be found bears no higher date than the 49th Henry III., 1264, which, although it was issued out in the king's name, yet was neither by his authority nor by his direction; for not only the king himself, but his son, prince Edward, and most of the nobility who continued loyal, to the mo: narch, were then prisoners in the hands of the rebellious barons; having been so made in the month of May preceding, at the battle of Lewes, and so continued until the memorable battle of Evesham, which took place in August, in, the subsequent year, when by the fortunate escape of prince Edward, he rescued the king and his adherents out of the hands of Simon Montfort, earl of Leicester. It cannot be doubted but that several parliaments were held by king Henry Tii., and by king Edward I., yet no record has been handed down to us by which we are enabled to ascertain this circumstance, (except the 5th Edward I. 1276,) until the
22d year of this last-mentioned sovereign, anno 1293. Some of the barons were summoned but once. When a baron is called up to the house of peers by writ of summons, the writ is in the king's name, and usually runs in these terms: “Whereas, b reason of certain arduous and urgent af. fairs concerning us, the state and defence of our kingdom of Great Britain and the church, we strictly enjoin you, under the faith and allegiance by which you are bound to us, that the weightiness of the said af. fairs, and eminent perils considered, (waivin all excuses,) ło be at the said da j place personally present with us, and with the said prelates, great men, and peers, personally present at our parliament, Westminster, (or elsewhere,) with us, and the prelates, nobles, and peers of our kingdom, to treat of the said affairs, and to give your advice; and this you may in no wise omit, as you tender us and our honour, and the safety and defence of our said kingdom and church, and the despatch of the said affairs.” The ceremony of the admission of a baron, as well of all other orders of the temporal peerage, into the house of peers, is thus: "He is brought into the house between two peers of his own rank, who conduct him up to the lord chancellor; his patent and writ of summons being carried by Garter king of arms, who presents it to the lord chancellor, who directs the same to be read; which being done, the oaths are administered, and the peer takes his seat, from which he again rises and returns to the chancellor, who congratulates him on becoming a member of the house of peers, or on his elevation, as the case may be. The first who was advanced to the dignity of baron, by patent, was John de Beauchamp, of Holt Castle, created baron of Kidderminster, co. Worcester, to him and the heirs male of his body, by Richard II. 1397. He invested him with a mantle and cap. The robes of a baron have but two guiards of white fur, with as many rows of gold lace; in other respects they are the same with those of other peers. King Charles II. ranted a coronet to the barons, who till is reign wore only a plain circle of gold; it has now four pearls set at equal distances on the circle. His style is Right Honourable, and he is styled by the king or queen, Right Trusty and well Beloved. His sons and daughters, by courtesy, are styled Honourable.
SCOTS AND IRISH PEERS.
Scots Peers take precedence of British Peers of the same rank, created since the Union with Scotland; and Irish Peers created before the Union with Ireland, in like manner, take place of British Peers created since. Irish Peers of later creation than the Union, rank, according to the dates of their
atent, among the Peers of the United
ingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
THE PRIVILEGES OF THE PEERS OF THE UNITED
THE nobility of England enjoy many great rivileges, the principal of which are as ollow:— 1. That they are free from all arrest for debts, as being the king's hereditary counsellors. Therefore a peer cannot i. Outlawed in any civil action, and no attachment lies against his person. This privilege extended also to their domestic servants, as well as to those of members of the lower house, till the year 1770, when their lord: ships joined the house of commons in a bill for abolishing it. For the same reason they are free from attending courts leet, or sheriff’s turns ; or, in cases of riot, attending the posse comitatus. 2. In criminal causes they are only tried by their peers, who give their verdict, not upon oath as other juries, but only upon their honour; and then a court is fitted up for the purpose in the middle of Westminster Hall, at the king's charge.
3. To secure the honour of, and prevent the spreading of any scandalupon peers, or any great officer of the realm, by reports, thero is an express law, called scandalun: jognatum, by which any man convicted of making a scandalous report against a peer of the realm (though true) is condemned to an arbitrary fine, and to remain in custody till the same be paid. -
4. Upon any great trial in a court of jus: tice, a peer may come into the court, and sit there uncovered.
No peer can be covered in the royal presence without permission for that purpose, except lord Kingsale. (See DE Cog RCY, Barom 'Kingsale, in the Peerage of Ireland.) in case of the poll-tar, the peers bear the greater share of the burden, they being taxed everyone according to his degree: Each peer can qualify a certain number of chaplains, as under.
NUMBER OF CHAPLAINS THE PEERS MAY QUALIFY.
Archbishop. ....... ‘. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Duke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 Marquess. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Earl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Wiscount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4
A TABLE OF PRECEDENCY OF MEN.
T H E K I N G.
* Being of the degree of Barons, by statute, 31 Henry VIII.
every of them shall sit and be placed above all other
personages being of the same estates
or dégrees, that they shall happen to be of ; the Great Chamberlain, first:
next; the Marshal, third ; the Lord Admiral, fourth ; the §.".o: ;g.
fifth ; and the King's Chamberlain, sixth; by statute, 31 Hen. VIII. s By this statute, the Lord Great Chamber ain had place next to the Lord Privy Seal;
but in the year 1714; upon the Marquess of Lindsey berlain) being created Duke of Ancaster, it was ordere
precedency only when he or they (his successors) shall be in th -
e House of Lords, which was confirmed by statute, 1 George I.
MARQUEsses, according to their Patents. Eldest SoNs of Dukes. FARLs, according to their Patents. YouNGER SoNs of Dukes of the Blood Royal. Eld Est SoNs of MARQUEsses. You Ng ER SoNs of Dukes. Viscounts, according to their Patents. Eld Est Sons of EA als. You NGER SoNs of MARQt Esses. Bishops of LoNDoN, De RHAM, WINch EstER, AND THEN All oth En Bishops, according to their Seniority of Consecration a. Bishops of MEATH, Ki LDARE, AND THEN All oth ER Bishops of IRELAND, according to their Seniority of Consecration. BA Roxs, according to their Patents b. SPEAKER of THE Hot's E of CoMoMo Ns. LoRDs Commission ERs of THE GREAT SEAL (when existing). TREASUR ER CoMPTRoll ER Moston of THE Honse r of the Household. Vic E-CHAMBER lai N SEcRETARIEs of STATE (being under the degree of Baron). Eld Est Sons of Wiscot: NTs. You N G E R Soxs of EAR Ls. Eld Est SoNs of BARoxs. KNights of th E GARTER. PRivy Cou'N's E L Lohs. CHANCEL on of the ORDER of the GARTER, CHANCEllor of the Exch EQUER. CHANCEL Lok of thr Duchy of LAN CASTER. Lord Chi EF JUstick of the KuNg's BENch. MAst ER of the Rolls. Vice-CHANCEllor. Lord Chief Justic E of the CoM Mon PLEAs. Lord Chief B.A.Ron of the Exchequk R. , JUDGEs of THE Ki NG's BENch. Judg Es of the Coxixion PLEAs. BARons of thr Exch EQUER, (if of the degree of the Coif). BANNERETs, MADE BY THE KiNg himself in person under the Royal Standard, displayed in an Army Royal in open war. You NG E R Sox's of Wisco to Nts. You NgER SoNs of B.A.Rons. BA box Ets. - BANNERETs, not made by the King in person. KNights of the Thist LE. KNights GRAND CRoss Es of the BATH. KNights of St. PAT Rick. KNIGHTs GRAND C Ross Es of St. Micha EL AND St. George. KNights CoMMANDERs of THE BATH. KNIGHTs CoMMANDERs of St. Michael ANd St. GEoRGE. KNIGHTS BACH E Lofts. CoMPAN ions of the Oh dk R of the BAth. CoMPANIONS of THE ORDER of St. Micha E L AND St. GEor GE. Esqui REs e, (those of the Bath and by Creation are allowed precedence of all others.) GENTLEMEN, (entitled to bear Arms) d.
a But if any Bishop be Principal Secretary of State, he shall be placed above all other Bishops, unless they have any of the great offices before mentioned, by statute 31 Hen. VIII. b But if any Peer be Principal Secretary of State, he shall be placed above all other Peers of his degree, not having any of the great offices before mentioned. By the 23d article of the Union of Scotland, which was confirmed by stat. 5th Anne, cap. 8, all Peers of Scotland shall be Peers of Great Britain, and have rank next after the Peers of the like degree in England at the time of the Union, which commenced the 1st of May 1707, and before all Peers of Great Britain of the same degree created after the Union. By the act for the Union of Ireland, 39 and 40, Geo. III., cap. 67, it is enacted, “The Lords of Parliament on the part of Ireland shall have the same privileges as the Lords on the part of Great Britain; and all the Lords Spiritual of Ireland shall have rank next after the Lords Spiritual of the same rank of Great Britain, and shall enjoy the same privileges, (except those depending upon sitting in the House of Lords:) and the Temporal Peers of Ireland shall have rank next after the Peers of the like rank in Great Britain at the time of the Union; and all Peerages of Ireland and of the United Kingdom, created after the Union, shall have rank according to creation; and all Peerages of Great Britain and Ireland shall in all other respects be considered as Peerages of the United Kingdom; and the Peers of Ireland shall enjoy the same privileges, except those depending upon sitting in the House of Lords.” The priority of signing any treaty or public instrument, by .#. ministers, is always taken by rank of place, and not by title: • Modern Tables of Precedency usually subdivide the degree of Esquire to a considerable extent; comprehending Flag and Field Officers, Eldest Sons of the younger sons of Peers, Baronets' eldest Sons, Eldest Sons of Knights of the Garter, Eldest Sons of Bannerets, of Knights of the Bath, and of Knights Bachelors, and the Younger Sons of the younger sons of Peers, of aronets, of Knights of the Bath, of Knights Bachelors, &c. --a Many printed tables, extend the Order of Precedency to Divines, Members of the Legal Profession, Officers of the Army and Navy, Citizens and Burgesses; in point of fact, how