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7. State the principles of M. Quesnay and his followers (commonly called the French Economists), and shew in what their chief errors consisted.
8. State Ricardo's account of the origin and increase of the rent of land; and shew what may retard such increase. Are there any exceptive cases to his principle in which Adam Smith's view is correct?
9. Explain the effect of (1) Banks of Deposit only upon National Wealth; (2) of Banks also issuing paper money, payable on demand in gold or silver.
10. Explain the effects upon National Wealth of providing for the whole of any extraordinary expenditure, by taxation levied within the period of expenditure; or by loans of which the interest only is levied by taxation.
THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION IN THE REIGN OF KING
CHARLES THE SECOND.
1. “IF I covenant with my Ward, that I will tender unto him no other marriage than the gentlewoman whose picture I delivered unto him; and that picture hath about it, ætatis suæ anno 16, and the gentlewoman is seventeen years old; yet, nevertheless, if it can be proved that the picture was made for that gentlewoman, I may, notwithstanding the mistaking, tender her well enough.”
LORD Bacon's Maxims. Explain the reference in this case to the ancient law of guardianship in chivalry. What alteration in this law was made by Barebones's Parliament? and what by a Parliament, and by which Parliament of Charles II ? At what date do the extant records of the Court of Wards terminate ? What effect had the abolition of tenures in chivalry on the constitution of the country? II.
The French reform'd from preaching you restrain,
DRYDEN's Hind and Panther. To what clause in the Act of Uniformity does Dryden, in the above passage, allude ? What is the substance of Lord Clarendon's remarks on that clause ? What enactments of the Act of Uniformity have been repealed or modified, and what are still in force ?
III. “Dr Lamplugh preached at St Martin's, the Holy Sacrament following, which I partook of, upon obligation of the late Act of Parliament, enjoining everybody in office, civil or military, under penalty of £500, to receive it within one month before two authentic witnesses; being engrossed on parchment, to be afterwards produced in some Court of Record, which I did at the Chancery-bar, as being one of the Council of Plantations and Trade."
What oaths would Evelyn have taken, and what declaration would he have made besides receiving the Sacrament, in compliance with the Test Act? When was the Sacramental Test abolished ? What was the occasion of passing the Test Act? What were its consequences ? How has it been modified by subsequent Acts of Parliament ? IV. Which, if any bold Commoner dare to oppose,
I'll order my bravoes to cut off his nose,
ANDREW MARVELL's Royal Resolutions. By what Acts of Parliament in the reign of Charles II, and in what cases, was the king divested of the prerogative of pardoning? For what offence was the pardon of the Earl of Danby granted ? To what legal proceedings, and to what legislative enactment did the pardon of the Earl of Danby give occasion ?
V. Chancellor Kent mentions that, by the Law of New York, a Judge is not confined to the face of the return of a writ of Habeas Corpus; but, whether the commitment be for any criminal matter, or not, may reexamine all the testiinong taken before the committing magistrate, and receive further proof on the subject. He observes that “this is a new power not to be found in the English statute, and is an improvement on the English Provisions."
What is your opinion concerning the expediency of this alleged American improvement on the English Habeas Corpus Act? Specify nine ways in which, prior to that Act, the writ of Habeas Corpus might have been evaded. What evidence is there of the Habeas Corpus Act having been carried through the House of Lords owing to a mistake arising from the mistelling of votes ?
VI. “One Fast-day it was upon me to go to the meeting at the Savoy; as I was speaking, suddenly the constables with the rude people came in like a sea. One of the constables said to me, 'Come down!' and was very fierce to pluck me down; and, at length, plucked me down, and bid another man with a staff take me and carry me to prison: I was in a great perspiration.”
Fox's Diary, A. D. 1683. What was the law relative to Conventicles in the year 1683 ? Under what statute was Bunyan, in the reign of Charles II, imprisoned for twelve years ? What was the tenor of the Five Mile Act? Give the history of Declarations of Indulgence. VII. When Kate a fruitful mother shall become, When Charles loves Parliaments, and James hates Rome.
ANDREW MARVELL. How many Parliaments were summoned by Charles II ? How many were held by him ? State the dates of their first meetings, and of their dissolu.
tions. What were the principal Statutes passed by them respectively? Are Sir William Blackstone and Mr Fox warranted in their commendations of the Triennial Act of Charles II ?
VIII. What was the condition, in point of law, of the English Press in the years 1661, 1671, 1681, 1691, 1701, respectively? What pictures were the grounds of prosecution in the reign of Charles II? Who were represented as Tantivies galloping to Rome, with the Duke of York as their trumpeter, in a picture produced at the trial of the Protestant Joiner? What was the song of the Raree-Show? What punishments were inflicted on its author and its publishers ? IX. Democracy. Our seeming friends, who join'd alone
To pull down one, and build another throne,
We brave republic souls remain.
Say, whom shall we employ
The tyrant to destroy ?
With one eye clear, and t'other blind.
Omnes. Shoot, holy Cyclop, shoot! (The one-eyed Archer advances, the rest follow. A fire arises between them and Albion.) Democracy. Lo! heaven and earth combine To blast our bold design!
DRYDEN'S Albion and Albanius. Explain the allusions to the Rye-house Plot in the al ve passage. Had the political meetings for which Lord William Russell and Algernon Sydney were prosecuted, any, and, if any, what connexion with the RyeHouse Plot ? What references were made to that Plot upon their respective trials ?
1. What was the main question controverted between the Emperor Joseph 2nd and the States General of Holland respecting the navigation of the river Scheldt, and of the port of Antwerp? On what terms, and by the intervention of what Potentate, was that question decided ? and on what principles of International Law did that decision proceed ?
2. On what grounds of International Law was the extradition of the Count de Soubise demanded by Louis 13th; and resisted by Charles 1st? and what was the result of the discussion ?
3. Under what circumstances was the right of Henry 4th of France to seize the person of Charles Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, brought into question?
How was the question decided ? and on what rules of International Law did the decision proceed ?
4. In what manner may the rules of the Law of Nations respecting the duties of Neutrals to Belligerents be illustrated by a remarkable incident in the life of the famous Dramatist Caron Beaumarchais ?
5. What was the nature of the intervention of the Government of France with the papal Government under Innocent X. in the case of the Barberini? and was that intervention consistent, or at variance with the Law of Nations?
6. What was the question on which Louis 9th of France acted as arbiter between Henry 3rd of England and the English Barons ? What was the decision ? To what extent, and for what reasons do you consider that decision to have been either right or wrong?
7. What is the difference between the later and the earlier practice, as to declarations of War between any of the States of modern Europe ? What is the precise distinction between the true causes and the justificatory causes of a War? Why is the study of the justificatory causes more easy, and, to a Jurist, more important than the study of the true causes ?
8. In the negotiations of the first William Pitt with France, certain maxims were maintained on the subject of reprisals or retaliatory War, which were abandoned by the second William Pitt, in his negotiations with the same power. What were those maxims? and what is the ex. planation of the difference of the views of those two statesmen upon this subject?
9. What is meant by precautionary War? Shew how the meaning of the term is illustrated by the case of the Duchy of Juliers in the reign of Henry 4th of France, and by the case of the seizure of Dresden in the reign of Louis 15th.
10. Between what Powers was formed the league of 1780 called the “ Armed Neutrality”? What was the object of that coalition, and when and how was it dissolved ?
11. What is the distinction between real treatises and personal treatises ? Mention one example of each ?
GENERAL PAPER. 1. What is the distinction between necessary and contingent truths ? Give examples of each. What are the grounds of proof of each of these classes of truths ?
2. Explain the term katnyopía. Enumerate the categories of Aristotle, and those of Kant, pointing out the essential distinction between the two.
3. Abelard considered that the struggle between Realism and Nominalism deserved to be called a battle concerning Universals. Explain this. What is meant by Conceptualism?
4. How does Dr Reid distinguish between Perception, Memory, and Imagination? Do you think his principle a true one? Illustrate by examples.
5. What is the theory of Morals advocated by Hume? In what respect does it differ from the Selfish System'? Shew that it is untenable.
6. Give a short account of the rise of the Franciscan Order, and compare its influence with that of the Dominicans.
7. What were the chief causes of the Thirty years' war? Mention the principal generals on either side, and very briefly, the leading events of the war.
When and by what means was it brought to a termination ? What effect had the treaty of Westphalia on the power of the house of Austria ?
8. What were the objects of Law's Mississippi scheme? What was the probable design of the regent in adopting it? Compare it with the contemporary scheme in England. Who was the originator of the latter?
9. Give an account of the rise of the English National Debt.
10. Give brief accounts with dates of Boethius, Albertus Magnus, S. Cyril of Alexandria, and Simon de Montfort.
11. Explain the term wages, pointing out the difference between the Amount of Wages and Price of Labour. Do you consider it correct to term wages high or low according to the amount of money earned in a given time?
Compare as regards wages the condition of a labourer in the reign of Henry VIII, and at the present time.
12. What effect has a strike in raising or diminishing wages? If a number of labourers of different degrees of ability, employed in reclaiming a bog, demand all to receive only the highest wages, what would be the best course to pursue ?
13. Point out the chief difference between the effects of taxation when imposed on new produce and on manufactured produce. Give examples.
14. What is a bank-note? Why is it incorrect to call it the representative of coin'? Mention the chief advantages arising from a paper currency.
15. On what does the value of money depend? Discuss briefly the circumstances which determine the rate of interest.