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TRANSLATE, adding brief notes where illustration is necessary : Beginning

'Η ΚΟΥΣΑΤΕ μέν του νόμου, κ.τ.λ. Ending εξελέσθαι δύναιτ' άν υμών ουδέ εις.

DEMOSTH. Contra Timocratem. p. 711. What were the formal steps requisite for repealing a law, and where did the authority reside for this ? What is επιχειροτονία των νόμων, and what were its objects?


'ΈΣ φιλονεικίαν τε καθέστασαν τον χρόνον, κ.τ.λ. Ending βουλεύοιέν τι χρηστών, παρα σφίσι χείρους είναι.

Thucyd. Lib. VIII. C. 76. Explain the construction of the following sentences : ές τοιούτον καταστήσονται μη βουλομένων σφίσι πάλιν την πολιτείαν αποδούναι, and ουδέν απολωλεκέναι, οι γε.


"Έχει δ' απορίαν, τί δεί το κύριον είναι της πόλεως, κ.τ.λ.
συμβήσεται γαρ ομοίως τα λεχθέντα πρότερον.

ARISTOT, Pol. Lib. ΙΙΙ. c. x.
What are the opộai oleteial of Aristotle, and why so designated ?
What is the τέλος of a πόλις !
What are the limiting forms of βασίλεια, according to him ?


ΚΛ. ΟΥΚ οίδα ήμων, ώ ξένε, όπη πάλιν αυ τους, κ.τ.λ. Ending εί το μιμηθέν όσον τε και οίον ήν αποτελούτο.

Plato. Legg. L. 11. p. 667.

TRANSLATE: Beginning

'ΌY ρίψεθ' "Αιδου τάσδε περιβολάς κόμης, κ.τ.λ. Ending ο καλλίνικος, ως πάροιθε, λέξομαι.

Eurip. Herc. Fur. v. 562. Explain the construction of the sentence, ή τι φήσομεν...θάνατον, and illustrate it by similar examples.



Ταϊς δε τριηκόσιοι ταύροι συνάμ' έστιχόωντο
Μυων εξ υπάτοιο βραχίονος ορθός ανέστη.

THEOCR. Id. 25. v. 126.

HISTORICAL QUESTIONS. 1. Mention those passages in Homer which seem to bear on the Homeric controversy, and state briefly your own views on the subject.

2. What opinions are exprest by contemporary writers on the Spartan Constitution, and its effects on the national character? In what respects do you agree with them?

3. Give a short sketch of the charges brought against Athens by the Corinthians at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. How far were they sustained by facts, and how far were they the real motives which led to the war?

4. Narrate the causes which led to the intervention of the Athenians in the affairs of Sicily.

5. Give a short sketch of the life and character of Epaminondas.

6. Describe briefly the conquests of Alexander the Great, and the condition of Greece at the time of his death.

7. What events are connected with the name of Spurius Cassius ? Trace briefly the changes of relation in which the Latins stood to Rome, from the time of Servius Tullius, till the departure of the Gauls; and explain the latter term Latinitas.

8. Explain the effects of the Publilian Rogations, and of the Hortensian Law, on the political condition of the Plebes ; mention any other laws similar to the last named, and point out the origin and peculiarity of the practice in regard to elections, stated by Livy to have existed in his time, “in incertum comitiorum eventum patres auctores fieri.” (Lib. I.) 9. What causes first led the Romans to set foot in Greece ?

Give a short outline of their operations in that country from that time till the sacking of Corinth by Mummius.

10. Trace the gradual decline in the power of the Senate from the time of Sulla, pointing out especially the encroachments made upon it by Julius Cæsar, Augustus, and Diocletian.

11. Explain carefully the origin and import of the names or titles Imperator, Princeps, Cæsar, Augustus; and shew how their use and meaning varied at different periods.

12. Give a short account of the origin of the Gothic tribes, and of their invasions and settlements until the death of Honorius.



Moral Sciences Tripos.

February, 1857.

Examiners :
PROF. ABDÝ, LL.D. Trinity Hall.
PROF. PRYME, M.A. Trinity College.
PROF. Amos, M.A. Downing College.
PROF. GROTE, M.A. Trinity College.
Rev. H. R. LUARD, M.A. Trinity College.

SPECIAL SUBJECTS: Plato, Charmides, Republic, B. iv.

ARISTOTLE, Nicomuchean Ethics, B. III.
GROTIUS, de Jure Belli, B. III.
STEWART, Philosophy of the Active and Moral Powers.

MACKINTOSH, Dissertation on Ethical Philosophy. 1. Give a very short analysis of the dialogue of the Charmides, mentioning the different theories given of the particular virtue which is there discussed.

2. In what condition or action of his supposed state, or of members of it, does Socrates make out each one of his four cardinal virtues to consist, and by what process does he trace them ?

3. How does he answer the question, that those members of his state whose education and formation is what he chiefly wishes to provide for, will not be the best off or the happiest ?

4. Explain as well as you can, and give your opinion of, Aristotle's attempt at a triple division of human feeling on each particular subject, and the association of each virtue with two vices. Illustrate more especially with reference to the virtue of fortitude, and analyze the different sorts of this.

5. Define accurately the different English words expressing states of feeling as to will, purpose, and wish, and expressing the absence or contrary of these. Do the English and the Greek correspond? What is the nature of the guilt attaching to actions done (1) in a state of drunkenness, and (2) in conformity with overpowering vicious habit?

6. “It follows that we consider what is lawful in war, and to what extent.” (Grot. de J. B. 3. 1. Tr. Whewell.) 1. What is the test of lawfulness in the details of war, and in what

form do the rules of it exist ? 2. What is the modern usage, and its principles, as to (a) injury to

private property, (®) prisoners ? 7. Explain the terms which Grotius uses when speaking of neutrals (c. 17) and of treaties (c. 20). Mention, with what illustrations you like from modern history, the changes which have been brought about by the course of events in Europe, as to international law, on both these subjects. What is meant by the term positive in reference to it?

8. Explain the division of human principles of Action into instinctive, and rational or governing. Give an account (1) of the idea of Beauty and Deformity, as applied to virtue and vice, and (2) of the feeling of Merit and Demerit.

9. Describe the virtue of justice, and explain the origin of the right of property.

10. Give Mackintosh's account of the nature of conscience, and of the reason why it may be properly described as having a supremacy over other parts of human nature.

GENERAL JURISPRUDENCE. 1. CONTRAST the terms “ Jus naturæ" and “Jus gentium,” as ex. plained by the Roman lawyers, with the modern expressions “Law of nature and Law of nations," and shew how far they resemble or differ from each other respectively.

2. Point out accurately the limits of Ethics and Jurisprudence in the domain of “ Human actions,” and mention any leading principles, that, in your opinion, may serve to characterize each.

3. To what extent has the science of Jurisprudence been influenced by the Roman Law?

4. Three schools of law were founded by the Italian civilians after the 12th century; mention the names of the leaders of each, and the influence their labours exercised on this science.

5. What is meant by the terms Necessary and Positive Laws? If you have any objection to the applicability of one or other of these expressions, give your reasons for it.

6. State briefly some of the theories that have been advanced on the subject of “the right of private property," and examine accurately Locke's theory thereon.

7. Bacon mentions five methods of interpreting the law. State them, explain their utility, and point out the similarity or difference in this matter between the Jurisprudence of Rome and England respectively.

8. What was the condition of the “Law of Nations as a separate and distinct branch of Jurisprudence in ancient Greece and Rome?

9. Sketch briefly the state of this science as it was found by Grotius when he first thought of discussing it, mentioning the names of some of the writers who had preceded him.

10. What objections have been made to Grotius' great work on International Law? How would you reply to them?

11. What are the “Rights of War" against an enemy, and what the limits to such Rights ?

12. Give the dates, objects, and results, of the treaties of Westphalia, the Pyrenees, Ryswick, and Utrecht.

POLITICAL ECONOMY. 1. Give a definition of Political Economy. Explain your reasons for adopting it, and distinguish it from such branches of Physical Science “ as are concerned in the production of objects demanded by the wants of mankind.”

2. Explain precisely Malthus's principles of Population; and illustrate them by the effects or disturbing causes of the English Poor Laws, previously and subsequently to the change therein in the year 1834.

3. Suppose that in France a commodity can be produced by the price of 20 days' labour, which in England can be produced only by the price of 40 days' labour; and suppose another commodity to be produced in Eng. land by the price of 20 days' labour, which in France would require the price of 30 days' labour to produce; shew how the relative advantages of interchange would be adjusted and apportioned between the two countries.

4. Explain why in the 16th century it was profitable for England to export raw materials, and to import finished commodities; and why in the 18th century it was profitable for the American United States to export raw materials--cotton-wool, for instance—and to receive it back from England when made into cotton-cloth.

5. Shew in what cases a tax on the exportation of a commodity produced in the exporting country will fall on such country-in what cases upon the country to which it is exported—and in what cases partly upon each.

6. Shew how the effects of exportation of the precious metals in any derangement of foreign exchanges between two countries, naturally create a check upon such exportation; and ultimately create a tendency to the re-importation of them.

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