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has sometimes been confounded with Osogbar), was the immediate successor of Sesonchis. A variety of other legends confirm this conclusion. 7. M. Champollion next proceeds to decipher the name of the Pharaoh, chief of the 19th Dynasty, (one of the Diospolitan), which, occurring on almost every monument of the ancient style, he finds written Remses, Ramses, Amon-maiRamses, Amon-Ramses-mai, &c.; and determines, by a conclusive historical investigation into which we cannot enter), to be that of Rhamoses the Great, the same sovereign who is called Sethosis by Manetho, Sesoosis by Diodorus Siculus, and Sesostris by Herodotus and Strabo. The proof of this identity is quite ir. resistible, and well deserving the attention of every scholar. 8. Lastly, Of the 18th Dynasty, also Diospolitan, he deciphers the names of Meiamoun-Ramses, of Ramses I., of Amenophis II., (whom the Greeks mistaking the title Meiamoun, Beloved of Ammon, for the name, called Memnon), of Amenophis I., and, finally, that of Thouthmosis, the founder.*

These results have received a remarkable confirmation from the Genealogical Table of Abydos, of which an engraving is prefixed to Mr Salt's Essay, and which, among other things, contains the names of the Egyptian kings of the 18th dynasty, arranged in the same order as in the Canon of Manetho. This interesting monument was disinterred by Mr W.J. Bankes while excavating for the purpose of obtaining an accurate ground-plan of the extensive ruins at Abydos : and soon after his return to England a lithographic engraving of it was executed, and copies distributed to different individuals both in this country and in France. M. Champollion could not be ignorant of the fact here stated. In his Letter to the Duc de Blacas, published in the same year with the Précis, be expressly describes the monument in question as tableau precieux, dont une copie

est depuis plusieurs années dars les portefeuilles de M. W. Bankes, ' en Angleterre ; ' but he cautiously avoids dropping so much as a hint which might lead his readers to suspect that the discovery was due to the exertions of Mr Bankes ; and, in his Précis, he certiorates his readers that it is a hieroglyphic text of the highest interest, et · dont le dessin a été apporté par notre courageux voyageur M. Cailliaud,' thus leaving them to infer that the discovery was due to that traveller. This literary dishonesty, in every case where the pretensions of Englishmen are concerned, is the beseiting sin of M. Champollion, and cannot fail to injure his reputation among liberal and enlightened men of all countries. We have already had occasion to notice his gross injustice to Dr Young, who was, in every sense of the word, his master; and we cannot but be of opinion that he has behaved with equal impropriety to Mr Bankes, to whose spirited exertions Hieroglyphic Literature is so deeply indebted. The first discovery of the name Cleopatra, and the removal of the obelisk of Philae were Thus, by a series of readings among the most remarkable in the history of scholarship (but of which we regret to say that our limits have permitted us to give only a faint outline), has M. Champollion traced the use of hieroglyphicc-phonetic signs, first, from the age of Antoninus upwards to that of Alexander, secondly, from that of Alexander to the Persian Conquest, and lastly, through the different dynasties up to the commencement of the 181h, about the year 1874 before ihe Christian era :-exemplifying, at every stage of his progress, the accuracy of the royal chronological Canon of Manetho, as preserved by Julius Africanus and Josephus, and which the majority of learned men þave hitherto treated with undeserved neglect. From the whole of these investigations, therefore, it follows, first, That the use of phonetic signs is capable of being traced upwards to a very remote antiquity; and, secondly, That the system of hieroglyphic writing, hitherto regarded as entirely consisting of symbols or emblems of ideas, is, on the contrary, composed of signs, a very considerable portion of which expresses merely the sounds of words in the spoken language of the Egyptians; that is to say, of phonetic characters.

So much, then, for the curious and singular results which have been obtained in exploring this new and interesting fieldofinquiry. It was our original intention to have followed up this abstract by an attempt at digesting these into something like a systematic shape; and, in particular, after explaining the nature, number, and arrangement of the signs, to have endeavoured to determine the principles upon which the three different orders of characters were combined in one and the same form of writing: But as this would necessarily require a much larger space than we can now afford, we shall conclude at present by giving a synoptical view of the elements of hieroglyphic writing, as these have been deduced from M. Champollion's researches.

The graphic system, then, of the ancient Egyptians was com. posed of three kinds of writing; I. The HIEROGLYPHIC, or sacred; II. The Hieratic, or sacerdotal ; and III. The Demotic, or popular, called also the Enchorial and EPISTOLOGRAPHIC.

1. The HIEROGLYPHIC or sacred writing consisted in the simultaneous employment of three distinct kinds of signs; viz. 1. figurative characters, which literally represented the object meant to be expressed; 2. symbulic, tropic, or ænigmatic characlers, which expressed an idea by the image of a physical ob

both achieved by Mr Bankes; yet M. Champollion has chosen to be silent in regard to the former, and to ascribe the latter to poor Belzoni, who had he been alive, would have rejected with indignation the credit here given him for the labours of another.

ject having an analogy true or false, direct or indirect, near or remote, with the idea to be expressed; and, 3. phonetic characters, which, by the images of physical objects, represented sounds merely.

The figurative and symbolic are employed in the hieroglyphic texts in a much smaller proportion than the phonelic characters, which are true alphabetical signs, expressing the sounds of words in the spoken language of ancient Egypt.

The phonetic characters combine to form words, like those of any other alphabet, but they are susceptible of a different arrangement. When placed in horizontal lines, they read either from the right to the left, or conversely, according to the direction of the principal figures; when placed in perpendicular columns, they generally read from the front to the rear. In words written phonetically ihe medial vowels are very often suppressed, as in the Hebrew, Phoenician, Arabic, and most other written Oriental languages. Each sound or articulation may be represented by several homophonous signs; but the employment of one in preference to another seems to have been regulated by considerations derived from the material form of the sign, and the nature of the idea to be expressed by the phonetic characters. The hieroglyphic texts also exhibit frequent abbreviations of phonetic groups.

In the same hieroglyphic text, certain ideas are represented, sometimes by a figurative, sometimes by a symbolic character, and sometimes, also, by a group of phonetic signs, expressing the word which is the sign of the same idea in the spoken lana guage. Other ideas, again, are always expressed either by a group formed of a figurative and symbolic sign, or by the union of a figurative or symbolic sign with phonetic characters.

II. The HIERATic, or sacerdotal writing, is immediately derived from the hieroglyphic, of which it is merely a tachygraphy. The form of the signs is considerably abridged; but they nevertheless comprise figurative, symbolic, and phonetic characters, though the place of the two first is often supplied either by phonetic characters, or such as are purely arbitrary, or at least have no corresponding hieroglyphs from which we can now trace their derivation.

All the hieratic manuscripts extant, whether they belong to the Pharaonic, Greek, or Roman epochs, exhibit merely a tachygraphy of the hieroglyphic writing, however widely some of the characters may, at first view, appear to differ from it. This method seems to have been confined to the transcription of texts or inscriptions connected with matters of religion. III. The Demotic, EPISTOLOGRAPHic, or ENCHORIAL writVOL. XLV. NO, 89.

K

ries of ages.

ing, is a method distinct from the Hieroglyphic, and even from the Hieratic, of which, however, it is an immediate derivative. The signs employed in the demotic are only simple characters borrowed from the hieratic. The demotic nearly excludes figurative, but admits symbolic signs, to express ideas connected with the system of religion. The characters it employs are much less numerous than those of the other methods, -and a much larger proportion of them are phonetic. The medial vowels of words, whether Egyptian or foreign, are often suppressed, as in the hieroglyphic and hieratic texts; but it can express each consonant or vowel by means of several signs, different in form, yet entirely similar in sound. The number of demotic is, however, much smaller than that of hieroglyphic or hieratic homophones.

The Demotic, Hieratic, and Hieroglyphic methods, were simultaneously in use among the Egyptians during a long se

Such is a tolerably complete view of the series of interesting discoveries in Hieroglyphic Literature, recently achieved by the united ingenuity and perseverance of Dr Young and M. Champollion; with incidental notices of the results, which have been obtained in the course of their laborious and successful researches. The historical importance of these results, independent of their connection with the system of writing, it would, in our opinion, be difficult to exaggerate. The names of the most renowned of the Egyptian princes, Misphrathouthmosis, Thouthmosis, Amenophis, Rameses-Maiamoun, Rameses the Great, Sesonchis, &c. have been deciphered from monuments erected during their respective reigns; and, after having been long abandoned as fabulous, have once more been brought within the pale of history. The Canon of Manetho, which the learned, in their ignorance, had so long contemned, has been verified in every point, first, by the general investigations of M. Champollion; and, secondly, by the discovery of that very remarkable monument, the Chronological Table of Abydos. Lastly, the errors so long prevalent as to the supposed contents of the Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, and the comparative antiquity of the

* Most of the papyri which have been examined are written in this manner; and it is in deciphering them that Dr Young has principally distinguished himself. His Enchorial alphabet, indeed, may be regarded as nearly complete; and by the help of it he has entirely translated at least two of these MSS. By a singular chance, a Greek translation of one of them was afterwards discovered in the same mummy chest with the original ; and the version of our learned countryman stood the test of this formidable comparison.

Egyptian monuments, have not merely been exposed, but the possibility of their recurrence for ever prevented; while we have every reason to hope that the progress of the discovery will daily bring to light new and important facts in the early history of the most remarkable nation of the ancient world. If, in the face of all this, it should still be suggested that little has yet been done, we would suggest, in return, that the discovery is still in its infancy, and that that little has been achieved where nothing was previously known. Undoubtedly the great obstacle to further discovery, is the composite nature of the graphic system of ancient Egypt, and, particularly, the difficulty of interpreting the ideographic symbols, which constitute one of its elements. But, fortunately, these, compared with the sum-total of the hieroglyphic signs, are but few in number; and there is every reason to hope, that, by the method of exhaustion hitherto so successfully employed, and, above all, by the discovery of new inscriptions, accompanied by translations, a sufficient number of these symbols may be determined to enable us to decipher, not merely proper names, titles, legends, words of frequent occurrence, and a few grammatical forms, but whole inscriptions, and thus to obtain the full knowledge of all that these sacred sculptures have so long concealed.

Art. V. Modern Infidelity considered with respect to its influ

ence on Society, in a Sermon preached at the Baptist Meeting, Cambridge. By Robert Hall, M. A. Tenth Edition. 8vo.

pp. 88. London. Hamilton, 1822. IT T is one of the most trite remarks of rhetorical criticism, that

the eloquence of the Pulpit, generally speaking, turns very peculiar advantages to a very moderate account. If any one were, for the first time, informed what Preaching was--if, for example, one of the ancient critics had been told that the time would come when vast multitudes of persons should assemble regularly to be addressed, in the midst of their devotions, upon the most sacred truths of a religion sublime beyond all the speculations of philosophers, yet in all its most important points simple, and of the easiest apprehension; that with those truths were to be mingled discussions of the whole circle of human duties, according to a system of morality singularly pure and attractive; and that the more dignified and the more interesting parts of national affairs were not to be excluded from the

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