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an effort to relieve one's-self by a long breath, which sometimes takes the shape of a long, low whistle. Now I have read as many descriptions of groves as any person I know, and supposed I had as good an idea of the original Gothic arch as could be obtained from trees planted by nature or art; but I confess I never imagined any thing which approached in beauty and impressiveness the avenues of oaks at Bonaventure. It will be impossible for any description that I can make to affect you as the sight must affect any one, who is at all impressible, when on the spot. After riding about for near an hour, I discovered that they had been planted by the hand of man, and were intended to surround á house, of which the ruins still remain. Standing in front of the house, you perceive that the rows before you, at the right hand and the left, and behind you, once formed the enclosure of a large square ; beyond these, on every side except in the rear of the house, there are three other rows, quite perfect, forming three complete avenues, affording cool and shady walks at all times of the day. The centre rows are continued down to the river on one side, and toward the city on the other. A slight sketch will make this plain :
Behind the house there must have been a beautiful garden. The borders of the beds are made of tabby,' I think it is called, being a composition of lime, sand and shells, and they remain perfect to this hour. This beautiful place has not been inhabited for many years, and other trees have grown up among the live-oaks, producing an appearance of irregularity, which makes it difficult for a stranger to find out at once the details of the plan. These grounds have recently been purchased by the proprietor of the hotel, with the intention of laying them out for a cemetery. The surface of the earth is not so diversified as at Mount Auburn; but its solemn oaks, heavily draped with moss, give it a peculiar fitness for funereal purposes, which cannot elsewbere be obtained.
The LIFE OF WILLIAM ALEXANDER, EARL OF STIRLING, a Major-General in the Army of the United States during the Revolution. By his grandson, WILLIAM ALEXANDER Duer, LL. D.
Such is the title of a work recently published by the Historical Society of NewJersey, as the second volume of its Collections,' and which is now for sale in this city, by Messrs. WILEY AND PUTNAM. To say nothing of the literary execution of this book, we seldom see, in these days of cheap publications, one more attractive in its appearance. The typography is admirable, and it is embellished by a portrait of Lord STIRLING, and other well-executed engravings. Until we had read this volume, we must confess we had no adequate conception of the character and services of Lord STIRLING, important as we believed the latter to have been ; and we fully agree with his biographer in considering it ‘ not less consonant to justice than duty that one of his descendants should attempt to compensate for the neglect of those historians of the American Revolution, and compilers of American biography, who have so imperfectly appreciated the character and commemorated the services
of an officer who was surpassed by few of his contemporaries in military experience and enterprise ; by one only in disinterested and zealous devotion to his country; by none in the sacrifices he made for it.'
The subject of this memoir was born in the city of New York, in 1726. His father, James ALEXANDER, came from Scotland to this country in the year 1716; and from his mathematical acquirements, soon astorward obtained the appointment of Surveyor-General for the two provinces of New York and New-Jersey. In the latter he was succeeded by his son, who seems to have inherited his father's fondness for the mathematics. The father had served in the rebellion of 1715 as an officer of engineers; and from him the son may also have inherited his military tastes. Though bred a merchant, young Alexander at an early age joined the British army under General Shirley, and became his private secretary and aid-de-camp. When ShirLEY was recalled, he accompanied him to England; and upon an inquiry into the conduct of the general during his command in America, the secretary and aid-decamp was examined as a witness on his behalf, at the bar of the House of Commons. It was not so much the general as the ministry that was attacked on this occasion ; and as Mr. ALEXANDER's testimony tended materially to their exculpation, he subsequently received the most flattering attentions from the premier, the elder WILLIAM Pirt, afterward the great Lord CHATHAM, as well as from other leading members of the administration. Among them was the celebrated Charles TowNSHEND, by whose encouragement and the persuasions of more intimate friends he was induced to lay
claim to the vacant earldom of STIRLING, to which he was believed to be entitled, as the next heir-male of its last possessor. The proper legal proceedings were accordingly commenced and prosecuted, and they resulted in the establishment of his claim. He now contemplated establishing himself permanently in Great Britain ; took a house' in London, and resided there some years, when the death of his mother rendered it necessary for him to return to America.
The difficulties which shortly afterward arose between Great Britain and her colonies on occasion of the stamp-act, and the part taken in that controversy by Lord Stirling, in favor of bis native country, led him to postpone his removal; and the troubles which speedily followed from the renewal of another attempt to tax the colonists without their consent, and by the authority of the British Parliament, determined him to abandou the project.
He was, as his biographer expresses it, ' a whig, not merely from education and early political associations, but from the convictions of his maturer judgment.' He accordingly espoused the American cause with great ardor, and was among the first to take up arms against the oppressions of the mother country. The service he had seen under General Shirley recommended him to military employment; and he was drawn from his retirement at Baskenridge by the unanimous voice of his immediate neighbors, who chose him to command a regiment of militia. From this he was soon transferred to the command of the first regiment raised in New Jersey for the continental service. He repaired at once to Elizabethtown, to recruit; and before he had completed his ranks, he planned and conducted the first military enterprise against the enemy in the middle statos, and was rewarded for the success that attended it by one of the first votes of approbation passed by the Continental Congress. This led to his promotion as a Brigadier-General, and to his being ordered to the command at New-York; where it became his daty to prepare for the defence of that important place against the British force advancing to its attack. He lost 20 time in the execution of the orders of his superiors to that effect, and immediately set about constructing works in Manhattan, Long and Staten Islands, and on the opposite shore of New-Jersey. When superseded in this command by the arrival of General WASHINGTON with the main body of the army from Boston, Lord STIRLING was ordered to take post on Long-Island ; and the conspicuous part he took in the battle fought there on the arrival of the British, confirmed his reputation for bravery and good conduct, though the issue was unfortunate. Overpowered by numbers, he was made prisoner, but speedily exchanged by WASHINGTON, who required his sera vices in the field. He rejoined the army in its memorable retreat through NewJersey, and before the opening of the succeeding campaign he was promoted to the rank of Major-General. In that capacity he led his division at the battles of Brandywine and Germantown, in both of which he distinguished himself.
But it was at the battle of Monmouth that he gained his brightest laurels, in contributing to retrieve the fortunes of the day, when jeoparded by the retreat of General Lee. He was next detached to the northern frontier of New Jersey, upon the Hudson river, and advanced his posts to the neighborhood of Hackensack. While in this command he directed the gallant exploit of Colonel Henry LEE against Pow. les-Hook, and covered his retreat; and for his conduct on the occasion received the thanks of Congress. He was then ordered to the command of a military district comprising the states of New-Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware ; and established his head-quarters at Philadelphia. The next year, upon the alarm of an invasion
from Canada, he was transferred to the command of the northeru department, and removed his head-quarters to Albany. A formidable British force under General St. Leger was advancing from Canada with the design of drawing attention from Lord Cornwallis's operations, and eventually forming a junction with him, similar to that projected between Sir Henry CLINTON and BURGOYNE. To meet this attempt, Lord STIRLING detached a strong force, under Colonel MarinUS WILLET, to the westward, and proceeded with the remainder of his troops to the support of the force under General Stark, at Saratoga. He called in the neighboring militia, and concentrated his force upon the Hudson, near the ferry at Fort Miller, where he bad resolved to dispute the passage of the river. But the enemy, receiving intelligence of the surrender of CORNWALLIS, was fain to make good his retreat, after advancing as far as the head of Lake George. Upon his return to Albany, Lord StirLING proposed a winter expedition to Canada, and an attack upon New-York; both of which were prevented by the signing of the preliminary treaty of peace. He still continued in the command at Albany, where, in consequence of the fatigue, anxiety and exposure he had lately undergone, he suffered a severe attack of gout, which terminated his life, in the fifty-seventh year of his age, and a few weeks before the proclamation of peace.
Although we coincide in the opinion of his biographer, that the man spoken of by WASHINGTON in the terms of his well-known letter of condolence to the widow of Lord STIRLING, upon being informed of his death, could scarcely need other enco. mium, yet we cannot resist the inclination to transfer to our pages a portion of the concluding summary of his life and character, as given by his descendant:
To stroug dative powers of mind he added industry and perseverance, with early-acquired habits of method and attention. His oatural abilities were more solid than brilliant; his acquirements more useful thao uncommon. His education was such only as the state of the country afforded, but he received from his father instruction in his favorite studies of mathematics and astronomy, which rendered him no ordinary proficient in those sciences. He was bred, as we bave seen, a merchant, and was successfully pursuing his business, when he was induced to join the army under General SHIRLEY, first as a commissary, and afterward as aid-de-camp and private secretary to the commander-in-chief. In these stations he served several campaigns in the war which commenced on this continent in 1747; and the result of his military experience was especially evinced in the baules of Long Island, Brandywine, Germantown and Moumouth, in all of which he sustained a conspicuous and efficient part. In an evil hour he accompanied General Shirley to Englaud, from motives more consistent with the generosity of his temper than with prudence and forethought; and when there, he was persuaded by SHIRLEY and others of his friends to prefer a claim to what proved to be a barren title. The prosecution of this claim was attended with heavy pecuniary expenses, which, together with those incident to his prolooged residence in England, of which it was the cause, laid the foundation of subsequent embarrassmedis. Remarkable for ihe cheerfulness and hilarity of his disposition, he was there confirmed in those convivial babits that increased upon him in alter life; though never to such a degree as to interfere with the performance of his public duties, or deprive him of the esteem and confidence of his official superiors or private friends. They contribuced, nevertheless, to deepen the shade cast over his latier years by the perplexity of his affairs, and rendered more striking the contrast between the opening and close of his career Almost from his first entrance upon the active duties of life, he was engaged in the service of his country. Although possessed of an easy fortune, he devoted a large portion of his time, with his peculiar talents and acquirements, to the public in that department of the colonial government in which they were calculated to be most userul. Early imbued with sound principles of constitutional liberty, we find him, when the rights of the colonists were assailed, among the first to take up arms in their defence; and notwithstanding his social and personal relations with Great Britaiu, coltivated as they had recently been during his residence in the metropolis of the empire, and brightened by the attentions he had received from the most powerful and distinguished of her sops, he did not for a moment hesitate to protest against her usurpations, and declare in favor of his native land. From that moment he literally devoted his life and fortune to her cause, and literally lost them both.'
After this extract, it cannot be necessary for us to add any thing in commendation of the style or literary execution of the work. It is sufficient, both for the discharge of our duty and for the author's fame, to invite our readers to judge for themselves. Notwithstanding the interest of thọ narrative parts of the book, the most attractive portion to us is the correspondence contained in it. The letters of Lord STIRLING