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the work it will be made to appear, from unquestionable and very orthodox authority, that, in some instances, the translators, not only mistranslated many words, but even added new words to the original text, to support a favorite doctrine. And then this version is not what it claims to be, viz., a translation of the original Greek and Hebrew texts, but only of the Vulgate Latin. It was made under the patronage of king James, who gave his translators strict orders to deviate as little as possible from the former translations of Tyndal, Coverdale, Matthew, the Calvanistic Geneva Bible, and especially the Bishop's Bible. And the most, if not all of these translations, were certainly made from the Vulgate Latin. The learned Macknight says that king James' Version, "Was not to be a new translation, but a correction only, or an amendment of the Bishop's Bible." And he adds that an objection had been made to our version that "the translators were a little too complaisant to the king, in favoring his notions of predestination, election, witchcraft, familiar spirits, etc. But these it is probable, were their own opinions as well as the king's." Dr. Macknight also says that this version "is not a little faulty, as it was not thoroughly and impartially corrected by the revisers. It is therefore, by no means, such a just representation of the inspired originals, as merits to be implicitly relied on, for determining the controverted articles of the Christian faith, and for quieting the dissentions which have rent the church."

In this review I have not followed the milk and water plan of softening my arguments in the least, to suit the softer heads of those who cannot bear plain talk. We

have been in the habit of treating our opposers with a respect and good manners that they have not known. how to appreciate. They have despised us for our very gentleness; attributing it to our weakness, or construing it to an admission, on our part, that they were to be respected for the popularity of their creed. But I confess, that I can see no reason, why the man whose creed is made of equal parts of fire and brimstone, and other barbarian follies, should be entitled to more respect, than the more refined and Christian man, who beholds in God, a father, and in the whole world, a brotherhood. I indeed, do highly respect the good and intelligent among our opposers-the generous man is always to be loved--but, for all social and spiritual purposes, I hold them not a whit the better for their barbarous creed.

In this review, every argument which the Rev. gentleman has brought forward to prove the doctrine of endless misery, will be stated in his own words, though not always in the same order that was observed by him. There was some repetition in his lectures, which has made it necessary for me, in some instances, to make a new arrangement of the passages, to avoid going over the same ground twice myself. All the matter which is his, is put in smaller type.

It may be well to state, for the satisfaction of readers abroad, that the gentleman whose lectures I have reviewed is a highly respectable Presbyterian clergyman.

The greater part of his lectures were reported by Mr. M. H. Fraser, a very respectable and candid gentleman of the Episcopal faith. There can be no doubt of the general accuracy of the report.

C. C. B.



Hades and Sheol-meaning of these words-Opinions of Dr. Fulk, Sir Edward Leigh, Dr. Usher, Clark, Cameron, Grotius, Ambrose, Verstegan, Bishop Horseley, Dr. Whitby, Dr. Campbell, Wakefield. Hades the place for good and bad men. Its figurative use. Dr. Allen's opinion. Long life promised the righteous. To be cut off, the punishment of the wicked.

"I propose first to prove future punishment, without reference to its duration or eternity.

"The wicked shall be turned into hell, with all the nations that forget God." Psalm ii. 17. But, perhaps we shall be told that the original word of hell, in this text, is sheol and means the grave.

Roy, a great Greek scholar, contends that the word corresponding to it in the Greek (hades) denotes a "place of punishment." It is ɔompounded of a not an idein to see, not seen. It denotes a place where the wicked cannot see the glory of God."

As this Greek word, hades, and its equivalent in the Hebrew, sheol, are the only words that are properly translated hell, in the Bible, it will be proper to explain these words fully in this place. It is not true, as the gentleman has tried to prove on the authority of Roy, that either sheol or hades involves, strictly, the least idea of misery.

Dr. Fulk says of the word sheol, "The king's translators of the Bible do render it in the Old Testament usually hell; and in sundry places the grave; and it cannot otherwise well be rendered. For all learned

Hebricians know, that sheol is more proper for the grave, than hell, and that the Hebrews have no word proper for hell, as we take hell.

This Hebrew word properly signifies, a receptacle of the bodies after death. It signifieth a place which is dark and obscure, where nothing can be seen, such as the grave, or pit in which the dead is laid." *

In this instance we have the highest authority, not only that sheol means, properly, the grave, but also that there is no word in the Hebrew language to signify a place of torment, in the future world. This was the language in which the Old Testament was written-in which God delivered his law, and in which all the prophets wrote; and yet, on the authority of one of the most learned advocates of endless misery, this language contains no word that properly signifies a place of infernal torments.

The learned Sir Edward Leigh of the seventeenth century, says of hades, "We in English call it hell, as some say, from the old Saxon or Germane word helle, in which tongues originally hell signifieth deep; and so it meaneth a low or deep place, and agrees with the Hebrew sheol, which is said to be low and deep. †

Dr. Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, nearly two hundred years ago, says, "Its derivation is most probable, from being helled over, that is to say hidden, or covered. For in the old Germane tongue (from whence our

* Fulk's defence of the English translation of the Bible, against Martin.

†Critica Sacra. in loc.

English was extracted) hell signifieth to hide and in this country, with them that retain the ancient language which their forefathers brought with them out of England, to hell the head, is as as much as to cover the head. So that, in the original propietite of the word, our hell doth exactly answer to the Greek hades, which denoteth a place unseen.” *

Too plainly, it would be a sorry business, this helling of the head, according to the meaning which the ignorant attach to this word hell!

Dr. Clark has made an honorable confession concerning this word which corresponds well with the above. "The word hell, used in the common translation, conveys now an improper meaning of the original word; because hell is used to signify only the place of the damned. But the word hell comes from the old AngloSaxon, helan, to cover, or hide, hence the tyling or slating of a house is called, in some parts of England, (particularly Cornwall) heling to this day; and the covers of books (in Lancashire) by the same name: so the literal meaning of the original word hades was formerly well expressed by it." †

Dr. Usher, already quoted, has said in another place, "Hades (or hell) properly signifieth the other world, the place or state of the dead, whether in respect to the soul or body; so that heaven itself may be comprehended in it." t

* Dr. Usher's Answ. to Jesuit. Challenge. quo. Cri. Sac. p. 6. + Clark's Com. on Matt. xi. 23

Cri. Sac. in loc.

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