Page images
[ocr errors]

for not coming to the Holy Commu- friends and correspondents, « The nion; 99 of an earnest Exhortation Prayer Book and Homily Society of to the frequent Reception of the Lord's London," a present of their last report, Supper; 57 of Grosvenor's Mourner, and several of the homilies of the or the Afflicted Relieved; 47 of a Ca- English church translated into different techism on Confirmation.*

languages. This fresh testimonial of In order to promote the use and cir- regard is highly appreciated by the culation of the Bible and Book of Com- board, and will be gratefully acknowmon Prayer, the board dispose of them ledged when this report shall be transat half the usual retail cost; as experi- mitted to theni. ence has shown, that many who have With respect to that part of the connot, and yet desire to possess those vo- stitution which provides for the educalumes, will neither accept them as gifts, tion of young men for the ministry, the nor pay the common prices for them. trustees have little to add to what has To invite such persons, among others, been heretofore stated. Two young to procure the Scriptures, and Prayer gentlemen still continue to receive the Book, the board adopted the above patronage of the society in the prosecupractice, and have found it useful.- tion of their academical studies at Yale Whilst it has promoted the circulation college. It is expected that they will of the principal works contemplated by graduate in September next. the founders of the society, it has been During the past year the trustees advantageous to us, as a small profit deemed it expedient to subscribe for the has accrued to the treasury. They Gospel Advocate and Christian Jourhave disposed of books and tracts on nal for the library. They directed also the above plan, from the commence that the numbers of the former, as they ment, to the amount of $ 548 89. appear, with a vindication of the Epis

The board cannot omit here to no- copal church, should be sent to the tice the gift of 20 Bibles and 120 Tes- country clergy for the express purpose taments by Mr. Jacob Rapelye. Such of being lent among their parishioners. an example they would gladly see imi The increase of the library, and the tated by many. Whilst the society re- inconvenience to which the librarian joice, and the objects of its bounty profit has been hitherto, subjected, induced thereby, the giver has the satisfaction of the board many months since to adopt knowing that he has contributed to a scheme which promised to be very make the poor acquainted with the advantageous. Circumstances, howgospel, and to afford comfort to the sick ever, entirely beyond their control, preand afflicted.

vented their success; and, as there is no During the past year an edition of the probability that they shall ever accomfollowing tracts has been published by plish the object then contemplated, it the society :--Archbishop Secker on is needless to give any detail or explathe Duties of the Sick; Archbishop nation of it now. As, however, the evil Synge's Answer to the Excuses for intended to be remedied still existed, not coming to the Holy Communion; and must increase with the growth of an earnest Exhortation to the fre- the library, they felt themselves called quent Reception of the Lord's Supper; upon to provide a suitable place and a Grosvenor's Mourner; and a Cate- librarian. An appropriation for these chism on Confirmation.

purposes has been accordingly made. During the past summer the society The library has received, during the received from their much esteemed year 1822, an addition of 101 volumes,

the present number being 784. Dona* The whole number of books and tracts dis tions have been received from the late tributed since the formation of the society is as follows:—265 Bibles : 1,442 of the Book of John Drayton, the Řev. M. H. Lance,

Mrs. Ann Wainwright, the late Hon. Common Prayer; 121 of Bishop Dehon on Confirmation ; 50 of Daleho's Evidences on the the Rev.A. A. Muller, and from Messrs. Divinity of Christ; 410 of Nelson's Christian John Ball, John Bay, Charles Kershaw, Sacrifice ; 300 of Bishop Porteus' Evidences; and A. Motte. and 10,144 tracts-making a total of books and tracts equal to 12,762.

Hitherto the library has been almost Vol. VII.


entirely confined to religious and theo In taking leave of the society for'anological works; but, during the past ther year, the trustees indulge the hope year, some volunies of miscellaneous is that the prosperity and usefulness of terature have been added. The trus- the institution will advance, and not retees deem it very desirable that this de- cede, during that period. May those, partment should be enlarged. Will not who have hitherto laboured in this porthe friends of the church and of the so tion of the vineyard of our common Lord ciety, of the clergy and of divinity stu- and Master, if permitted to continue dents, consider seriously whether much therein, be fellow workers' with more cannot be done by them? A very abundant zeal, diligence, and faith! small portion of our funds have been May they realize the privilege conferhitherto devoted to inerease the stock red, and the blessing provided for them even of necessary works; and our slen- by their appointment to the administrader appropriation will probably be here- tion of such a trust! May they derive after curtailed, as the charge for a room strength from the prayers, wisdom from and librarian must henceforth be added the counsels, and hope from the liberato our annual expense. There are in lity of many a pious friend and cheerful the private libraries of episcopalians giver ! within this diocess, and especially in Signed in behalf of the board, Charleston, thousands of volumes. It

NATHANIEL BOWEN, is a high satisfaction to behold such Ex officio President of the Society. proofs of the improvement of mind and January 6th, 1823. of the cultivation of taste. We cannot, however, but regret that of this host of Officers and Trustees for the year 1823. volumes so few have been dedicated to

The Right Rev. Nathaniel Bowen, the use of our library, Are we unrea- D. D. ex officio president; Keating sonable in believing that several hun. Simons, vice-president; Thomas S. dreds of them could be spared for our Grimke,corresponding secretary; James shelves; not only without injury, for Jervey, recording secretary. they would scarcely be missed, but even Trustees.-- The Rev. Christopher E. advantageonsly, since their places Gadsden, D. D. the Rev. Frederick would soon be supplied by new Dalcho, M. D. the Rev. Paul T. Gercomers? We feel ourselves at liberty vais, the Rev. Allston Gibbes, tlie Rev. to propose a plan, suggested by the ex

Christian Hanckel, Charles Kershaw, ample of a gentleman, who has com- Robert Hazlehurst, Henry Deas, Elias menced a collection of works on Ame- Horry, Thomas Lowndes, Robert J. rican history; and intends, it is believ- Turnbull

, Thomas W. Bacot.—Daniet ed, to add to the number as opportunity Ravenel, treasurer; librarian. shall offer. Why should not others go Book Committee.-The bishop, ex and do likewise? The divisions and officio,the librarian, ex officio, the Rev. subdivisons of human knowledge offer Dr. Gadsden, the Rev. P. T. Gervais, an endless variety of choice to the R. J. Turnbull, E. Horry. friends of the society. May not one select works on general history, either ancient or modern? Another the par

For the Christian Journal. ticular histories of a single nation ? And others, agian, writings on moral or A Critical Essay on the Doctrine of metaphysical philosophy, on philology,

Accommodation. literature, or divinity? We believe It is obvious on the most cursory that if several gentlemen could be in- perusual of the sacred volume, that duced to act upon this plan, it would be numerous passages of the Old Testamuch easier to procure the books than ment are cited by the writers of the they might at first suppose. Certainly New. In considering these passages they would derive more than ordinary we find essential difficulties in respect pleasure from the exercise of liberality, to their application. Some, indeed, are for such an object, and on such a sys- evidently adduced in proof of the doctcm.

trine, and as a completion of a pro

phecy; while others are as evidently But the latter part of the observaapplied to a purpose to which they ap- tion does not follow as a just conclupear to have no relation, judging from sion. For, as the Mosaic dispensation the context in the original books. This in its ordinances and general character, has been eagerly seized upon by the op was typical of the more pure and spiriponents of Christianity; who declare, tual dispensation of the gospel, so many

that the prophecies quoted in the passages of the Old Testament, which New Testament relate to such different in their original context have evidently matters from that which they are a reference to circumstances then transbrought to speak for, as shocks the acting, and persons then in existence, strongest Christian faith to consider, may be considered as having a secondand shows that the allegers of them, so ary and fuller completion in those of far from being inspired authors, do not the New. This may be instanced by understand even the common sense of the 72d Psalm. Where David is eviwords."* This is indeed a weighty dently addressing himself to Solomon, charge, and one which strikes at the as appears from the title of the opening very foundation of our faith; but we of the Psalm, “ Give the king thy judgtrust that these seeming discrepancies, ments, O God, and thy righteousness when brouglat to the touchstone of cri- unto the king's son ;and yet the ' ticism, will disappear, and the entire whole is undoubtedly a prophecy of harmony of the Bible become fully evi- Christ's kingdom, which should be from dent.

sea to sea, and from the river unto the Two theories have been advanced ends of the earth. Thus we must eifor the solution of these difficulties ther deny the least reference to king

1st. When a wider or more spiritual Solomon, or confess that it has a double sense is given to them, than what might sense; and that although it primarily be inferred from the original scope, or refers to him, yet received its full comperhaps even greater than the writer pletion in the spiritual Solomon, or himself was aware of, although designed Shiloh, the Prince of Peace. But why by the Holy Spirit. This is generally need s instance a single Psalm, the called the allegoric sense, and the whole book abounds with examples of Scripture is said to be fulfilled” when this mode of interpretation.* that is accomplished in the antitype Although, unfortunately, the system which is written concerning the type. of turning every thing into allegory and Thus we read,“ these things were done, types, has been too prevalent, yet the that the Scripture might be fulfilled, a abuse of a thing is 'no just argument bone of hiin shall not be broken.”+ againstít, and proves not why we should These words, which were originally indiscriminately reject all construcwritten of the Paschal Lamb; are said tions of the same kind; and though, says to be fulfilled in Christ, who is the antie Granville Sharpe,t I contend for double type of that Lamb.

senses in some cases, yet I am as 2d. When the thing is done, neither averse to an unnecessary multiplication in a literal nor a spiritual sense, accord- of them as any one can be, and thereing to the fact referred to in the Scrip- fore reject and protest against the protures, but is similar to that fact, or in position—that if“ a prophecy has iwo other words where the citation is ac senses,

it may have two hundred, and commodated.

all of them equally just.” The difficulI. As regards the first, many eminent writers have rejected it altogether, al Ergo arrige aures, Christiane Lector, et leging that it will make all prophecy ubi talia in Davide legeris, ta milıi fac cogites

, perfectly useless, and that it is impos- contectum pellibus; non urbem lapidibus comsible to know when it is fulfilled, if it positam; non Templum divinæ Majestati anhas more than one sense; if it has two, sed vivos lapides, Christo angulari lapidi coaptii

gustum: sed Christi et Ecclesize Sacramenta, it may have two hundred, and all of tos; sed ipsam Eucharistiam presentis Dei testhem equally just.--(Sharpe, 202.) tem; denique caeleste regnum et æternam feli

citatem. (Bossuet, Dissertat. de Psal. cap. . * Nicholl's Conf. with a Theist, p. 333. ad fin.) | Jolin six. 36.

+ Examination of Proph. p. 217.

ties attending that important quotation may be fulfilled when it can be pertis from Isaiah, in the first chapter of St. nently applied. This method of exMatthew, are most satisfactorily cleared plaining Scripture by accommodation, up by this hypothesis Now all this will enable us to solve some of the was done, that it might be fulfilled greatest difficulties relating to the cited which was spoken by the prophet, sayo passages. That the apostles and evange. ing, Behold, a virgin shall be with child, lists should use this mode, will not be so and shall bring forth a Son, and they much wondered at, when we consider shall call his name Emmanuel, which the veneration in which the Jews held being interpreted, is God with us.”— the writings of the Old Testament.-Now, the opponents of Christianity Abounding with fine descriptions, poeurge, that this promise, applied by us tical language, and sublime imagery, to the birth of the Messias, and con- the subject of their daily reading, and sidered as a clear prediction of that glo- containing those promises upon which rious event, refers to the birth of a child

were built their expectation of deliverin the reign of Ahaz, the time in which

ance from a foreign yoke, and the rethe promise was given, and not to a cir- storation of the house of Judah to its cumstance which was to happen seven former splendour, can we wonder that hundred years afterwards. And true it the ideas, nay, even the very phrases, is, that from the general scope of the should occur to their minds in writing? passage in the prophecy, we might infer Thus, says an eminent author,* " the this to be the case, were it not for some lawyer quotes the maxims of the law, attending expressions which could have the scholar his favourite classics, the a reference but to One-Emmanuel

divine the precepts of the gospel. It is born of a pure virgin. Thus, in the no wonder, then, if the very same thing prophecy we have two distinct pro- has happened to the writers of the New mises, distinguished at the time of de- Testament, who, being (as we before livery by the action of the speaker. said) daily occupied in the study of the

The one made to the house of David, Old, unavoidably adopted its mode of of the wonderful birth of that extra- expression, which they have borrowed ordinary personage, who, according to and applied to their own use, in various God's covenant with David, had been ways, and for various purposes.". This expected as their Messiah, but was now would tend to do away the objection despaired of. The other to Ahaz, con which has been started, that the writers cerning the defeat of the confederate of the New Testament were too illikings, and the time of the defeat, de- terate, generally speaking, to use this signed in the age of Isaiah's child, one of the ornaments of style, and one Shear-jashub, then present, and to which only a cultivated mind, and an whom the things said of the child Em- improved taste, would be likely to manuel, hereafter to be born, could not adopt. All this would hold good, did well he adapted.” It were easy to we find these writers quoting from the multiply passages where this soulution philosophical works of the age, from adds both dignity and force; but as I the Greek or Roman classics; of these, intend to enlarge more upon the next indeed, they were ignorant; but their head, I will omit them and any further allusions and citations are from a book, argument in support of the proposition, the contents of which were known to

II. We come now to our second di- the meanest Jew, and had been so from vision, where citations are said to be his earliest infancy. And why? as Dr. acconimodated. By this we mean pas- Nicholl forcibly asks, (in the work besages of the Old Testament, which are fore cited,) why may not St. Matthew, adapted by the writers of the New, to

or St. Paul, quote a passage from Isaiah occurrences which happened in their

or the Psalms, and apply it to another time on account of some correspon- sense, as well as we make a like use of dence and similitude. These are not

one from Virgil or Ovid? Sappose, prophecies, though they may be said sometimes to be fulfilled, for

* Michaelis, as quoted by Horne in letrod. * Chandler's Defence, p. 329.

vol. ij. p. 449.

any thing

[ocr errors]

now, we were to address the first pro for her children, and would not be compagators of our faith in the words of forted because they are not.* Virgil's invocation to the Sun and In the same chapter of St. Matthew, Moon

we have a verse quoted from Hosea,

which runs thus--Out of Egypt have I Vos. O clarissima mundi

called my son. Now the passage in the Lumina.

prophet is thisWhen Israel was a illustrious lights of the world. child, I loved him, and called my son

out of Egypt—and then goes on to say would this be considered as any thing that he is gone astray, has sacrificed improper or far-fetched? Why not to Baalim, worshipped graven images, then permit St. Paul to do the same &c.t What of all this is applicable to when he quotes a part of the 19th

our Saviour ?

None--but that very Psalm, which is understood of the celes- part cited by the evangelist; and the tial bodies, and applies it to the preach words,“ out of Egypt have I called mỹ ing of the apostles ---But I say, have son;" are merely instead of saying in they not heard? Yea, verily, their plain language, God's Son came up sound is gone out unto all lands, and from Egypt. their words unto the ends of the world.

Ingenious are the remarks of Bishop Ye hypocrites, saith our Saviour, Chandler upon this text-proving from well did Esaias prophecy of you, say- Scripture and Jewish authorities, that ing, This people draweth nigh unto me the passage had passed into a proverb, with their mouths, and honoureth me and that Ægypt denoted great affliction with their lips, but their heart is far and danger; from that which the from met Of whom did Isaiah pro- Israelites underwent in that land, he phecy this? Of the Jews in our Sa. would thus paraphrase the verse, in the viour's age? Certainly not. The sense here used by the evangelist: I words were uttered by him without re

have delivered my son from danger, and ference to any other persons than those from the persecuting hand of Herod, he addressed. Yet how pertinently are which was stretched out against him. they applied to that hypocritical and

Again-The sacred historian, after hard-hearted generation to which the remarking that Jesus Christ chose to Messias preached.

convey his moral and religious instrucNow, if these passages be so palpa- tion to the Jews in parables, saysbly accommodated, and no other mode «That it might be true which was of explanation so well reconciles the spoken by the prophet, I will open my difficulties, why not extend the princi- mouth in parables; I will utter things ple a little farther, and include those which have been kept secret from the quotations which cannot be referred to beginning of the world.” This is part the first head, that of double sense with- of a Psalm written by Asaph, a prophet, out considerable forcing. And how not in the strict sense of the word, but strikingly elegant are the applications of merely one who has explained or dethem by the evangelists! For instance, clared the will of God.” In the Psalm, the prophet Jeremiah bewailing the mi- he is speaking of such things as we series of captivity, by a beautiful figure have heard and known, and our fathers introduces Rachellamenting the wretch- fiave told us ;” and then recounts the ed condition of her sons. When He wonders done by Moses in Egypt and rod, imbruing his hands in the blood in the wilderness, and comes down to of the innocents of Bethlehem, gave the times when “ David was taken from cause for the same lamentation, how the sheepfolds to feed Jacob and his peoforcibly does St. Matthew apply the ple," and proceeds no farther. What words of the prophet. In Rama was a is there in this that can relate to Jesus voice heard, lamentation and weeping, intentionally, and by way of foretelling and great mourning; Rachel weeping a future event? And, as Dr. Sykes re

. Rom. x. 18.

Jer. sxxi. 15.

† Matt. sv. 7, 8.

• Matt. ii. 18.

Valt. vij. 35.

† Hosea xi. 1.

« PreviousContinue »