The Growth of English Industry and Commerce: Modern times

Front Cover
At the University Press, 1892 - England - 771 pages
 

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Contents

The importation of silver
12
The Elizabethan system
16
Our nearest DependencyIreland
17
Shipping 171 Navigation Acts
20
Fisheries and subsidiary employment
21
Merchant Companies
24
North America
29
Ireland
31
Industrial policy
33
The Statute of Apprentices
38
The influence of this enactment
42
The quality of wares
45
Rural Economy paoe
51
Tillage and grazing
54
Dairy farming
56
Compulsory rates
58
Vagrants and work
59
The recoinage
62
The revenue
66
Economic Opinion 188 The force of selfinterest Hales
67
The usury laws
74
Capital and changed circumstances
76
Puritanism and commercial morality
79
Politicians and practical men
83
Competition and wellordered trade
87
Freedom for internal trade
89
Bankruptcy
92
Insurance
93
Money and the foreign exchanges
95
THE STUARTS Chapter I Political Rivalries and Changes 198 Continued pursuit of power and conscious imitation of the Dutch
101
Constitutional changes Finance
104
Political doctrine
105
The influence of Puritanism
106
Navigation Acts
110
The pirates of Barbary
113
Fisheries
116
Commissions on trade
118
Regulated companies
124
Ulster and other parts of Ireland
132
The Cromwellian settlement and the Restoration
137
Virginia
143
New England
146
The West Indies
148
Objects and policy in colonisation
151
Industry 214 The regulation of industry and its objects
156
Different methods of regulation
159
Grievances of consumers and traders
162
Political objects under Charles 1
166
Temperance legislation
169
Bestraints on the growth of London
171
Industrial policy further illustrated
176
Enclosure and improvements
180
New products and better farming
182
The fens and Hatfield Chase
187
The corn trade
190
Rural employment
192
The assessment of wages
195
Vagrancy and want of employment
200
Squatters on the commons
204
The Act of Settlement
206
Bankruptcy and insolvent debtors
208
Bullionists and the balance of trade
210
The currency
213
Taxation under James
215
Expedients adopted by Charles 1
217
Parliamentary resources
218
Restoration finance
220
The Goldsmiths
223
Fire insurance
226
General character of pamphlet literature
227
Political philosophy and economics
233
Criteria of prosperity
234
Political arithmetic
248
The rate of interest
251
The circulating medium and forms of credit
254
THE STRUGGLE WITH FRANCE Chapter L The Fall of the Mercantile System paqe 246 Bivalry with France
256
The Mercantilists and the industrial interest
258
Adam Smith
260
Political Economy
261
16891776
263
The Peace of Utrecht
264
The East India Company
267
The contest renewed in 1730
272
The African Company
278
The Hudsons Bay Company
281
Commercial policy
284
Marine insurance
289
The Navigation Act
292
Ireland after the Revolution
297
Linen manufacture
300
General condition of the country
304
Political ambitions of English in India
308
Bivalry in the West Indies
311
The slave trade
314
Missionary efforts
318
French missions in North America
319
The attitude of the English
320
Selfdependence of Colonists
325
Economic policy of England towards these colonies
328
English and Dutch policies contrasted
330
Protection and progress
333
Providing raw materials
334
Prohibiting imported goods and encouraging consumption
337
The clothing and the iron trades
339
Other products and Draining
373
Internal communication
374
The Poor 287 The increase of rates and the workhouses
379
Alleged causes of pauperism
381
The peasantry and the soil
383
Day labourers and husbandmen
386
Finance 291 Public Borrowing
390
The Bank of England
394
The Goldsmiths and the Land Bank
396
Credit and speculation
398
The currency
401
The National Debt and taxation
403
The incidence of taxation
405
The Darien scheme and the Union
410
Walpole and Grenville
413
Economic Doctrine 300 Unique position of Adam Smith
416
Character of the study at the Bevolution
418
Current discussions
419
Change in the standpoint usually taken
422
Historical studies
423
Sir James Steuart
429
Adam Smith and the isolation of wealth
431
Importance of his work
434
17761815
436
General Survey 310 Bapid changes in every direction
442
Industrial changes and social life
443
Order of treatment
446
Cotton spinning machinery
447
The powerloom in the cotton trade
448
The woollen and worsted trades
449
Insufficient supply of wool
458
Blast furnaces and the iron trade
461
The coal trade and the Vend
462
Economic effects of these inventions
465
Social effects
467
The price of oorn and the agricultural revolution
475
Decay of byemployments
480
Enclosure
485
Progress of improvement
488
Corn laws and tithes
489
The Poor 826 The allowance system
491
Agricultural distress
496
Allotments
502
The growth of population
506
Shipping and Commerce 330 War and commerce
507
The War of Independence
509
Pitts commercial treaty with France
510
The Revolutionary War
512
Bapid expansion during the peace
513
The Napoleonio War
515
The Berlin Decrees and Orders in Council
518
Dependencies and Colonies 337 Restraints on Irish development
522
Bounties and encouragement to trade
526
The Act of Union
530
The government of India
532
Australia and sheep farming
537
Canada and Newfoundland
541
The West Indian trade
543
The slave trade
544
The increase of the debt
545
The influence of the Wealth of Nation
547
Pitt and the incidence of taxation
549
Banking and Currency PAGE 348 Position of the Bank of England
551
Commercial crises
552
Pitts demands on the Bank
553
The suspension of cash payments and the bullion committee
555
Economic Doctrine 352 The doctrine of population in the eighteenth century
557
Malthus Etiay
562
Anderson and the doctrine of rent
571
Bicardos method
575
18151846
578
Practical Influence of the New Ideas 357 Doctrinaire reaction
579
Selfsufficiency and the Corn Laws
582
Current political opinions
583
Social and moral influences
587
Commerce 361 The removal of restrictions
591
The opening of trade with China
593
The West Indies and the slave trade
597
The West Indies and the slaves
599
Canada and the Hudsons Bay Company
600
Wakefield and systematic colonisation
603
Industry 367 Bepeal of the Combination Laws
607
Artisan aim9
611
The Bradford strike
614
Reckless competition in framework knitting
616
The Factory Commission
621
The factory population
628
Parents and employers
631
Handloom weavers
635
Domestic and factory systems
642
Coal Mines
643
Trades Unions and Cooperation
644
Agricultural labour
651
Ireland and the potato famine
658
Civic economy of large towns
665
The resumption of cash payments
672
Recent history
678
Human welfare
684
A Prices and Wages in England 12001810
691
Revenue and National Debt with diagram
698
List of Authorities
704
Index
739
Wages and combinations 359
745

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Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 668 - The school-boy whips his taxed top — the beardless youth manages his taxed horse, with a taxed bridle on a taxed road ; — and the dying Englishman pouring his medicine, which has paid seven per cent. into a spoon that has paid fifteen per cent.
Page 270 - The increase of our revenue is the subject of our care, as much as our trade : — 'tis that must maintain our force, when twenty accidents may interrupt our trade: 'tis that must make us a nation in India...
Page 583 - THAT THERE CAN BE NO TRADE UNPROFITABLE TO THE PUBLIC ; FOR IF ANY PROVE SO, MEN LEAVE IT OFF; AND WHEREVER THE TRADERS THRIVE, THE PUBLIC, OF WHICH THEY ARE A PART, THRIVE ALSO.
Page 237 - To which let me add, that he, who appropriates land to himself by his labour, does not lessen, but increase the common stock of mankind...
Page 521 - But without reference to accidents of the one kind or other, the general rule is, that the neutral has a right to carry on, in time of war, his accustomed trade to the utmost extent of which that accustomed trade is capable. "Very different is the case of a trade which the neutral has never possessed, which he holds by no title of use and habit in times of peace, and which, in fact, can obtain in war by no other title, than by the success of the one belligerent against the other, and at the expense...
Page 560 - Were the face of the earth, he says, vacant of other plants, it might be gradually sowed and overspread with one kind only, as for instance with fennel; and were it empty of other inhabitants, it might in a few ages be replenished from one nation only, as for instance with Englishmen.
Page 668 - His whole property is then immediately taxed from 2 to 10 per cent. Besides the probate, large fees are demanded for burying him in the chancel ; his virtues are handed down to posterity on taxed marble; and he is then gathered to his fathers, — to be taxed no more.
Page 231 - The Wants of the Mind are infinite, Man naturally Aspires, and as his Mind is elevated, his Senses grow more refined, and more capable of Delight; his Desires are inlarged, and his Wants increase with his Wishes, which is for every thing that is rare, can gratifie his Senses, adorn his Body, and promote the Ease, Pleasure and Pomp of Life.
Page 584 - A nation that would enrich itself by foreign trade is certainly most likely to do so when its neighbours are all rich, industrious, and commercial nations. A great nation surrounded on all sides by wandering savages and poor barbarians might, no doubt, acquire riches by the cultivation of its own lands, and by its own interior commerce, but not by foreign trade.
Page 431 - The principal object of this science is to secure a certain fund of subsistence for all the inhabitants, to obviate every circumstance which may render it precarious, to provide everything necessary for supplying the wants of the society, and to employ the inhabitants (supposing them to be freemen) in such a manner as naturally to create reciprocal relations and dependencies between them, so as to make their several interests lead them to supply one another with their reciprocal wants.

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