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Eighteenth Century-of Watts and Wesley, Toplady and Doddridge, Cowper and John Newton ; but the deeper and broader spiritual life of our own age has produced contributions of equal and more diversified excellence. James Montgomery and Josiah Conder, Keble and Lyte, Newman and Faber, C. Elliott and Monsell, Bishop Wordsworth and Bishop Walsham How, George Rawson and Horatius Bonar, John Ellerton and Godfrey Thring, Ray Palmer and Bishop Bickersteth, Frances Havergal and Mrs. Alexander, with many others, have raised our Church Hymnody, to a very high level indeed, and have supplied congregations with exhaustless stores of worshipping inspiration. It is given to no one man or generation to furnish adequate and permanent expression for the manifold devotional life of the Christian Church. To this all ages, all Churches, all individualities, must contribute. The transitions in religious thought, experience, tone, circumstance, and work, which are continually going on, necessitate fresh modes of devotional expression

“The old order changeth, yielding place to new,
And God fulfils Himself in many ways,

Lest one good custom should corrupt the world.” There are Hymns, the glorious possession of all the Christian ages, which in their fitness and fulness as expressions of common Christian life, no changing forms can affect; and there are also individualities of religious inspiration and expression that are borri of each generation and address themselves to it. It is in the latter that the mutations of Hymnody are seen and felt. Old leaves drop from the Hymnological tree, and fresh and more atfluent foliage forms. The large proportion in this selection of Hymns by contemporary writers-nearly one half—will surprise many.

Transcendent, therefore, as were the excellencies of Watts and Wesley as Hymn writers, many of their compositions have necessarily become obsolete. The forms have changed in which theological idea embodied itself, and in which religious life was realized. New fields and modes of Christian work have become imperative; new embodiments of social, family, and church life, have been generated ; conceptions of Christian habit and relationship have been modified : even the suggestive metaphor of one generation becomes obsolete or ludicrous, in the generation following it. All these things, while they do not affect the radical elements of Christian life, necessarily change its modes of expression.

This Hymnal is an attempt to meet these changing circumstances. It reverently maintains the cardinal elements of Evangelical Christian life and worship. In the expression of scriptural idea and sentiment concerning the Divine Lord and His redeeming work, it does not shrink from New

Testament phrases and metaphors which rarely lead even the most ignorant into serious misccnceptions, and which are objected to chiefly by those who reject the doctrines that they embody. We need not emasculate metaphors which have the sanction even of the Divine Master himself in order to remove possibilities of misconception. There is a robust common sense of men that may safely be trusted. At the same time, the lyrical embodiment of the larger theological thought, and the broader, more humane, more diversified, and more enterprising religious life of our own day, is gladly recognized.

A Hymn is the inspiration of piety and poetry-both ; and the piety is more than the poetry. It is not too much to say that, were it an alternative, the devotional purposes of Hymnody would be better accomplished by the rudest forms of devotional fervour than by the most perfect embodiments of poetical genius. Few great poets have contributed to our Hymnody; while some of the Hymns that have taken an inflexible hold of the heart of the Church have been written by men concerning wbom almost all we know is that they wrote them.

It is to be remembered also that the Hymn Book of the Church is the manual not of the literary and the cultured only, but also of the uncultured and the ignorant. It must therefore address itself to their modes of apprehension, unless artistic and literary selfishness is to leave them uncared for. Not that either good taste or refined feeling need be violated in the compositions of such an appeal. We need not have recourse to what is vulgar in order to secure what is popular and inspiring: but this aim puts a limit upon over fastidiousness. If the common people are to be the care of the Church, its Hymnal must be an embodiment for their use. The Hymns of the Church, like the Ballads of the nation, are for popular lyrical use, and are to be tested not by mere literary Canons, but by their power of devotional inspiration. That is the best Hymn which has in it the most potent spiritual inspiration for the greatest number of worshipping men and women.

The same principles apply to Tunes. Many Tunes that tested solely by Canons of Musical Art would be pronounced inferior, have in them—like many ballad tunes—a power of popular inspiration that would cause their excision to be a devotional loss. While, therefore, ever seeking, both in the Hymns and in the Tunes, to avoid what is incongruous, and to elevate both poetical and musical taste, it has been felt that the admission of a Hymn, or of a Tune, was not to be determined by Art-Canons alone, but rather by its practical power of popular inspiration.

Such Hymns have been selected as seemed best calculated to bring men directly into spiritual communion with God in Christ, not so much through Theologies, or Sacraments, or Churches, as through the deep sense of spiritual realities—the affinities and necessities of their spiritual nature. This is helped by the spiritual as distinguished from the ecclesiastical and ritual traditions of past ages. The problem of a devotional manual is neither unduly to relax nor to overstrain the associations of the religious life, but to make all things, past and present, minister to its highest development.

in its use.

The classification of Hymns for the convenient use of Congregations has necessitated a rearrangement of the Tunes, and occasion has been taken to embody in a revision of the music the result of twenty-eight years' experience

The first book of three hundred and thirty Tunes was edited by the late Dr. Gauntlett, whose contributions to the music of the Church were of a very high order : additions to the work were subsequently made. The whole has now been revised by Professor W. H. Monk, Mus. Doc., whose high qualifications as a writer and harmonizer of music for Congregational use are universally acknowledged. Occasion has also been taken to remove from the collection such Tunes as were practically found to be ineffective, and to substitute for them such as have come to be popularly associated with individual Hymns, or such as commend themselves by special fitness and excellence. The nomenclature of the Tunes has also been revised, and, as far as possible, brought into accord with popular use.

I have sought to provide a Hymnal distinctively for Church use. The Hymn Book is the liturgy of Nonconfornuist worship, and must therefore supply a large and diversified worship-song. To attempt to comprise in one took a manual for Private Devotion, a selection for the Home Sanctuary, and a Hymnal for the Sunday School, together with a Hymnal for the Church, is simply impracticable : each demands a much larger and more diversified provision than is possible in such combination.

After careful observation of attempts to combine in one volume an adequate number and diversity of Hymns, with an adequate number and diversity of Chants and Anthems, I have come to the conclusion that this also is impracticable. In almost every instance where it has been attempted, Supplements have had to be speedily provided. Churches using in their regular services, say nine or ten Hymns every week, soon become conscious of lack, not only of many excluded Hymns familiar and excellent in themselves, but also of general sufficiency and variety. While if two or three Chants, and two or three Anthems are used every week (and where used at all few Churches use less)

a larger and more varied supply than can be provided in a combined volume soon becomes imperative.

The truest economy, therefore, seems to be to provide adequately for each section of worship-forms. The present Hymnal has sought to include all Hymns that, from old associations or intrinsic excellence, churches may reasonably desire to use, so as permanently to satisfy the necessities and the feeling of worshippers. Chants and Anthems are left for separate provision.

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My grateful acknowledgments for contributions of original compositions, and for permission to use copyright Hymns and Tunes, must include contributors to former editions of the work. With scarcely an exception, men the most diverse in theological thought and ecclesiastical position, have generously and heartily permitted the use of their Hymns. Beneath all differences of form, lie the common life and heart of religious men. This has enabled a Catholic devotional feeling and use which to me is a great joy, and which, in the perhaps inevitable conflicts of creeds and churches, must be an inestimable benefit. It is much to have, in common worship, religious feeling inspired and sanctified and made more tender by common Hymns. Asperities are subdued towards those who have helped us in drawing near to God.

It is almost startling to think, how many who thus generously contributed to the earlier work have “fallen asleep." Their memory is blessed in the worship they still inspire.

For permission to use copyright Hymns, as seen in the Index, I am indebted to the late Very Rev. Dr. Henry Alford, Dean of Canterbury ; Mrs. C. F. Alexander ; the late Rev. Dr. William Lindsay Alexander ; Rev. Canon Robert Hall Baynes ; Messrs. George Bell and Sons, for Hymns of the late Miss Adelaide A. Procter; the Right Rev. Dr. Edward Henry Bickersteth, Bishop of Exeter; the late Mr. Henry Bateman ; representatives of the late Rev. Dr. Thomas Binney ; Rev. William John Blew, for Hymns from the “Church Hymn and Tune Book ;" Rev. Abel Gerald W. Blunt; Rev. Dr. Horatius Bonar, and Messrs. Nisbet & Co.; Miss Jane Borthwick; the late Sir John Bowring; the late Rev. James Baldwin Brown; the late Rev. George B. Bubier; the late Rev. James Drummond Burns, and Messrs. Nisbet & Co. ; Mrs. Elizabeth Rundle Charles ; Rev. S. Childs Clarke; Mrs. Codner; the late Rev. George William Conder; Rev. Dr. Eustace Conder, for the Hymns of the late Mr. Josiah Conder; Mrs. Cousins, and Messrs. Nisbet & Co.; the representatives of the late Rev. H. J. Cummins ; Rev. Prebendary Edward Arthur Dayman ; the late Sir Edward Denny, and Messrs. Nisbet & Co. ; Mr. W. Chatterton Dix; Mrs. Douglas ;

representatives of the late Rev. Henry Downton ; Rev. John Ellerton ; Miss Emily E. S. Elliott; Mr. Thomas Hornblower Gill; the late Rev. Fred. W. Goadby; Mrs. Godwin ; Rev. Sabine Baring-Gould; the late Mr. Benjamin Gough ; Miss Kate Hankey; Rev. Dr. Edwin Hatch; the late Miss Frances Ridley Havergal, and her sister; Mr. J. T. Hayes for Hymns of the late Rev. Dr. J. M. Neale ; the Right Rev. Dr. William Walsham How, Bishop of Bedford ; “Hymns Ancient and Modern,” proprietors of, through the late Rev. Sir H. W. Baker, and after his death the Rev. W. Pulling ; the late Rev. Dr. William Josiah Irons; Rev. Dr. Richard Frederick Littledale; Mrs. T. T. Lynch, for Hymns of the late Rev. Thomas Toke Lynch ; Dr. George Macdonald ; Rev. Dr. John Robert Macduff; Right Rev. Dr. William D. Maclagan, Bishop of Lichfield; Mr. Richard Massie ; Rev. William Tidd Matson ; Mr. Albert Midlane ; the late very Rev. Henry Hart Milman, Dean of St. Paul's; the late Rev. Dr. John Samuel Bewley Monsell, and Rev. Canon Furse ; Messrs. Morgan and Scott, for Hymns of Miss Campbell and Miss E. C. Clephane ; Mr. Charles Edward Mudie; His Eminence Cardinal Newman ; Mr. Francis Turner Palgrave; Miss Harriett Parr; Messrs. Parker & Co., for Hymns of the late Rev. John Keble ; the very Rev. Dr. Edward Hayes Plumptre, Dean of Salisbury ; Rev. George Rundle Prynne; Mr. George Rawson ; the “Religious Tract Society," for Hymns of the late Charlotte Elliott; Rev. Andrew Reed, for Hymns by the late Rev. Dr. Andrew Reed and Mrs. Reed ; Messrs. Richardson & Co., for Hymns of the late Rev. Dr. Frederick William Faber; Messrs. Rivington & Co., for Hymns of the late Rev. Henry Francis Lyte; Rev. Richard Hayes Robinson ; the late Rev. George Wade Robinson; the late Rev. Dr. Gilbert Rorison ; the late Rev. Arthur Tozer Russell ; Mrs. Saxby ; Rev. Charles Haddon Spurgeon; the late very Rev. Dr. Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Dean of Westminster ; Rev. Samuel John Stone ; Rev. Dr. David Thomas ; Rev. Godfrey Thring; the Rev. Nicholas R. Toke, for Hymns of the late Mrs. Toke; Rev. Lawrence Tuttiett; Rev. Henry Twells ; Miss Anna Letitia Waring; Rev. Fred. Whitfield ; the late Miss Catherine Winkworth, and Messrs. Longmans & Co.; Rev. Henry Herbert Wyatt; the late Right Rev, Dr. Christopher Wordsworth, Bishop of Lincoln, and the Right Rev. Dr. John Wordsworth, Bishop of Salisbury.

For permission to use Tunes and arrangements in the previous and present editions of the “ Congregational Psalmist,” my warmest acknowledgments are due both to those by whom the permission has been freely given, and to those of whom it has been purchased. First to the contributors of Tunes written for this work:—Mr. Henry Erskine Allon, B.A.; Mr. Joseph Barnby; Mr. Gerard F. Cobb, M.A.; the late Rev. J. B. Dykes, Mus. Doc. ; Mr. W. C. Filby ; the late Henry

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